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    376 results match your criteria American journal of disaster medicine[Journal]

    1 OF 8

    Emergency operations program is an excellent platform to deal with in-hospital operation disaster.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(4):267-273
    Lancaster General Health/Penn Medicine, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
    Described herein is the utilization of the hospital's Emergency Operations Plan and incident command structure to mitigate damage caused by the sudden loss of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system within the entire operating room suite. The ability to ameliorate a devastating situation that occurred during working hours at a busy Level II trauma center can be ascribed to the dedication of the leadership and clinical teams working seamlessly together. Their concerted efforts were augmented by adherence to an established protocol that had been thoroughly substantiated and practiced during numerous training simulations. Read More

    Acceptability and perceived utility of drone technology among emergency medical service responders and incident commanders for mass casualty incident management.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(4):261-265
    Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, North Worcester, Massachusetts.
    Objective: This study seeks to understand the acceptability and perceived utility of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology to Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) scene management.

    Design: Qualitative questionnaires regarding the ease of operation, perceived usefulness, and training time to operate UAVs were administered to Emergency Medical Technicians (n = 15).

    Setting: A Single Urban New England Academic Tertiary Care Medical Center. Read More

    Terrorism reports: The tip of the iceberg.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(4):257-260
    Chief Medical Officer, Bureau of Medical Affairs, National Insurance Institute of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Importance: Medical impact of terror is a public health issue as the threat is growing all over the world.

    Objective: Our objective was to compare the number of injured and incidents in the three different databases and reports [Global Terrorism Database (GTD), Israeli Security Agency (ISA) and National Insurance Institute (NII)] in Israel.

    Design: Retrospective study. Read More

    Deployment of field hospitals to disaster regions: Insights from ten medical relief operations spanning three decades.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(4):243-256
    Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps Field Hospital, Trauma unit, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel (affiliated with the Hebrew University).
    Objective: The Israeli Defense Force (IDF) Medical Corps developed a model of airborne field hospital. This model was structured to deal with disaster settings, requiring self-sufficiency, innovation and flexible operative mode in the setup of large margins of uncertainty regarding the disaster environment. The current study is aimed to critically analyze the experience, gathered in ten such missions worldwide. Read More

    Analysis of the antidote requirements and outcomes of different radionuclide decorporation strategies for a scenario of a "dirty bomb" attack.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(4):227-241
    Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology, Munich, Germany.
    Objective: In radiological emergencies, there is a risk of radionuclide incorporation. The radiological doses absorbed can be reduced by decorporation treatment. Antidote requirements depend on the scenario and treatment strategy ("urgent approach": immediate treatment of all patients with possible incorporation; "precautionary approach": treatment only after confirmation of incorporation). Read More

    Factors associated with preparedness of the US healthcare system to respond to a pediatric surge during an infectious disease pandemic: Is our nation prepared?
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(4):203-226
    Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
    Objective: Recent incidents have demonstrated that the US health system is unprepared for infectious pandemics resulting in a pediatric surge. Development of efficient plans and a structured and coordinated regional response to pediatric pandemic surge remains an opportunity. To address this gap, we conducted a literature review to assess current efforts, propose a response plan structure, and recommend policy actions. Read More

    A hospital mass casualty exercise using city buses and a tent as a hybrid system for patient decontamination.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(3):189-196
    Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Quebec, Canada; Emergency Physician, McGill University Health Center, Quebec, Canada.
    Objective: A hospital mass casualty simulation exercise testing feasibility of two city buses and a tent as a hybrid system for patient decontamination.

    Design: Observational study of a single mass casualty simulation exercise involving patient decontamination SETTING: Held on May 26, 2016 at the Montreal General Hospital, a Level 1 Trauma center without a garage.

    Patients, Participants: Twenty-one medical staff including nurses, doctors, and patient attendants, and 30 volunteer-simulated patients. Read More

    The pulmonary consequences of sandstorms in Saudi Arabia: A comprehensive review and update.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(3):179-188
    Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Sandstorms represent a major natural hazard in the Arabian Peninsula. Their pulmonary consequences can be life-threatening, especially to those with a history of allergies, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Novel presentations of respiratory diseases caused by sandstorms can now be traced to specific chemical and organic components of sandstorms. Read More

    Invoking the "expectant" triage category: Can we make the paradigm shift?
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(3):167-172
    Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.
    Medical triage is the process of determining the priority of patients' treatments based on the severity of their condition. Triage provides the healthcare provider the ability to identify the most urgent cases first, with the goal of maximizing each individual patient's outcome. When resources are challenged, such as in a disaster, the healthcare provider's goal becomes to maximize overall population survival. Read More

    Planning for a medical surge incident: Is rehabilitation the missing link?
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(3):157-165
    Graduate Student, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.
    This mixed methods study explored surge planning for patients who will need rehabilitative care after a mass casualty incident. Planning for a patient surge incident typically considers only prehospital and hospital care. However, in many cases, disaster patients need rehabilitation for which planning is often overlooked. Read More

    Presence of undertriage and overtriage in simple triage and rapid treatment.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(3):147-154
    Cooper University Hospital, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, New Jersey.
    Objective: We evaluated the use of the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) method by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hypothesized that EMS can categorize patients using the START algorithm accurately.

    Design: Retrospective Chart Review.

    Setting: Inner-city Tertiary-Care Institutional Emergency Department (ED). Read More

    A study of the blood flow restriction pressure of a tourniquet system to facilitate development of a system that can prevent musculoskeletal complications.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(3):139-145
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: After an emergency or disaster, subsequent trauma can cause severe bleeding and this can often prove fatal, so promptly stopping that bleeding is crucial to preventing avoidable trauma deaths. A tourniquet is often used to restrict blood flow to an extremity. In operation and hospital, the tourniquet systems currently in use are pneumatically actuated by an air compressor, so they must have a steady power supply. Read More

    Are you ready? Crisis leadership in a hyper-VUCA environment.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(2):107-134
    Co-Director, National Preparedness Leadership Initiative, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Director, Program of Health Care Negotiation and Conflict Resolution, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
    The current hyper-volatile, -uncertain, -complex, and -ambiguous (VUCA) threat environment demands a more cohesive support structure for crisis leaders who may be faced with crises of increasing magnitude and frequency and, in some instances, multiple crisis events simultaneously. The project team investigates the perceptions of crisis leaders regarding establishing a crisis leader advisor position for crisis leaders to benefit from their experience while prosecuting crisis response activities. The team linked hyper-VUCA crises, crisis response frameworks, meta-leadership, crisis leader attributes, and advisor attributes. Read More

    Emergency preparedness training preferences and perceived barriers to training among various healthcare providers and public health practitioners in Massachusetts.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(2):85-106
    Harrington Healthcare, Southbridge, Massachusetts.
    Introduction: Emergency preparedness training is vital to a wide range of healthcare and public health disciplines. Although agencies may try to tailor their training efforts based on perceived need, the topics and methods of instruction may be misguided, resulting in wasted effort and poor participation in training events.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to understand in a rigorous way, the training preferences and barriers to training among practitioners in Massachusetts. Read More

    60 seconds to survival: A pilot study of a disaster triage video game for prehospital providers.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(2):75-83
    Departments of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
    Introduction: Disaster triage training for emergency medical service (EMS) providers is not standardized. Simulation training is costly and time-consuming. In contrast, educational video games enable low-cost and more time-efficient standardized training. Read More

    Using a novel technology for disaster staff notification.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(1):63-65
    Interim Medical Director, Emergency Services, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington; Assistant Professor, Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.
    Notification of backup staff and determining their ability to augment frontline staff is a major component of any disaster plan. However, the communication and organization of this effort has many challenges. These include communication system overload, the disaster setting, disrupted transportation, and staffing impacts on normal operations. Read More

    Women's status in disasters: A gap between experts' desk and affected fields of Iran.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(1):59-62
    Assistant Professor, Department of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, School of Health, Safety and Environ-ment, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Although international agreements have achieved significant milestones in the improvement of women's status, experiences from the fields show a discrepancy between words and actions. The aim of this brief communication was to identify the gap between experts' perceptions and the findings of a large qualitative field survey on women's status in the recent natural disasters of Iran. A total of 10 experts were asked to fill a checklist, which consisted of the concepts extracted from field data. Read More

    Family emergency plan and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria, Nigeria.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(1):51-58
    Department of Nursing Services, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria.
    Background: There has been an increase in the incidence of disasters in many parts of the world. Similarly, Nigeria has witnessed a recent increase of man-made disaster events such as plane crash, fire incidents, flood, and building collapse, including bomb blast orchestrated by terrorists that often create emergency situations. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate family emergency plan and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria. Read More

    Risk perception and perceived self-efficacy of deaf and hard-of-hearing seniors and young adults in emergencies.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(1):43-60
    Health Research for Action, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California.
    Objectives: The authors explored the factors influencing risk perception and perceived self-efficacy before and during an emergency for deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) seniors and young adults.

    Methods: The authors collected demographic survey data and conducted four focus groups with 38 Deaf/HH residents of the San Francisco Bay Area; two groups were with young adults (ages 18-35), including one group of college students and one group of young professionals, and two were with older adults (ages 50-90).

    Results: Significant differences were found between Deaf/HH young adults and seniors in both the sources of self-efficacy and risk perception and their attitudes toward preparedness. Read More

    Liberia national disaster preparedness coordination exercise: Implementing lessons learned from the West African disaster preparedness initiative.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(1):35-41
    Center for Global Health Engagement, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Objective: In light of the recent Ebola outbreak, there is a critical need for effective disaster management systems in Liberia and other West African nations. To this end, the West Africa Disaster Preparedness Initiative held a disaster management exercise in conjunction with the Liberian national government on November 24-25, 2015.

    Design: During this tabletop exercise (TTX), interactions within and between the 15 counties and the Liberian national government were conducted and observed to refine and validate the county and national standard operating procedures (SOPs). Read More

    Comparison of START and SALT triage methodologies to reference standard definitions and to a field mass casualty simulation.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(1):27-33
    Director of Academic Clinical Research, Attending Emergency Physician, Orlando Regional Medical Center, Orlando, Florida; Professor, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Florida; Associate Professor, Florida State University College of Medicine, Orlando, Florida.
    Objectives: We compared Sort, Assess, Lifesaving Intervention, Treatment/Transport (SALT) and Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) triage methodologies to a published reference standard, and evaluated the accuracy of the START method applied by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel in a field simulation.

    Design: Simulated mass casualty incident (MCI). Paramedics trained in START triage assigned each victim to green (minimal), yellow (delayed), red (immediate), or black (dead) categories. Read More

    Healthcare students interprofessional critical event/disaster response course.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(1):11-26
    Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California; Vice Dean, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California.
    Objective: Numerous disasters confirm the need for critical event training in healthcare professions. However, no single discipline works in isolation and interprofessional learning is recognized as a necessary component. An interprofessional faculty group designed a learning curriculum crossing professional schools. Read More

    Evaluation of the association between disaster training and confidence in disaster response among graduate medical trainees: A cross-sectional study.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 ;12(1):5-9
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Division of Disaster, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.
    Objective: Disasters by definition overwhelm the resources of a hospital and may require a response from a range of practitioners. Disaster training is part of emergency medicine (EM) resident curricula, but less emphasized in other training programs. This study aimed to compare disaster educational training and confidence levels among resident trainees from multiple specialties. Read More

    Onset and duration of intravenous and intraosseous rocuronium in hypovolemic swine.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):279-282
    Department of Anesthesia and Operative Services, Madigan Army Medical Center, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington.
    Objective: Compare the onset and duration of rocuronium administered via the intravenous (IV), and intraosseous (IO) routes in a hypovolemic swine model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, experimental study.

    Setting: Vivarium. Read More

    The effects of sternal intraosseous and intravenous administration of amiodarone in a hypovolemic swine cardiac arrest model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):271-277
    Faculty Member and Co-Director of Research, US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: This study compared the effects of amiodarone via sternal intraosseous (SIO) and intravenous (IV) routes on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to ROSC, concentration maximum (C), time to maximum concentration (T), and mean concentrations over time in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

    Setting: TriService Research Facility. Read More

    Effects of humerus intraosseous versus intravenous amiodarone administration in a hypovolemic porcine model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):261-269
    US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, JBSA-FSH, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: To compare the effects of amiodarone administration by humerus intraosseous (HIO) and intravenous (IV) routes on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax), time to ROSC, and mean concentrations over time in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

    Setting: TriService Research Facility. Read More

    The effects of tibial intraosseous versus intravenous amiodarone administration in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest procine model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):253-260
    Faculty Member and Director of Research, US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: This study compared the effects of amiodarone via tibial intraosseous (TIO) and intravenous (IV) routes on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to ROSC, maximum drug concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and mean concentrations over time in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

    Setting: TriService Research Facility. Read More

    Effects of tibial and humerus intraosseous administration of epinephrine in a cardiac arrest swine model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):243-251
    US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, JBSA-FSH, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: Compare maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), mean serum concentration of epinephrine, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to ROSC, and odds of survival relative to epinephrine administration by humerus intraosseous (HIO), tibial intraosseous (TIO), and intravenous (IV) routes in a swine cardiac arrest model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

    Setting: TriService Research Facility. Read More

    The comparison of humeral intraosseous and intravenous administration of vasopressin on return of spontaneous circulation and pharmacokinetics in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest swine model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):237-242
    Director of Research, US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, Fort Sam Houston, JBSA-FSH, San Antonio, Texas.
    Introduction: The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends intravenous (IV) or intraosseous (IO) vasopressin in Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS). Obtaining IV access in hypovolemic cardiac arrest patients can be difficult, and IO access is often obtained in these life threatening situations. No studies have been conducted to determine the effects of humeral IO (HIO) access with vasopressin in the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Read More

    Pharmacokinetics of sternal intraossesous atropine administration in normovolemic and hypovolemic swine.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):233-236
    Department of Anesthesia and Operative Services, Madigan Army Medical Center, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Fort Lewis, Washington.
    Objective: Characterize and compare the pharmacokinetics of atropine administered via the sternal intraosseous (IO) route in a normovolemic and hypovolemic swine model.

    Design: Prospective, experimental study.

    Setting: Vivarium. Read More

    En route intraosseous access performed in the combat setting.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):225-231
    United States Air Force En Route Care Research Center/59th MDW/ST-United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Ft. Sam Houston, Texas; Department of Emergency Medicine, San Antonio Military Medical Center, JBSA Ft. Sam Houston, Texas.
    Objective: To describe and compare vascular access practices used by en route care providers during medical evacuation (MEDEVAC).

    Design: This was a retrospective cohort study. Medical records of US military personnel injured in combat and transported by MEDEVAC teams were queried. Read More

    Effects of tibial and humerus intraosseous and intravenous vasopressin in porcine cardiac arrest model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):211-218
    US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, JBSA-FSH, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: Compare maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), mean serum concentration of vasopressin, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to ROSC, and odds of survival relative to vasopressin administration by tibial intraosseous (TIO), humerus intraosseous (HIO), and intravenous (IV) routes in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

    Setting: TriService Research Facility. Read More

    The effects of sternal and intravenous vasopressin administration on pharmacokinetics.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):203-209
    Professor and Director of Research, US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: Purposes of this study were to compare intravenous (IV) and sternal intraosseous (SIO) administration of vasopressin relative to concentration maximum (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and mean concentration in a cardiac arrest model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

    Setting: Vivarium. Read More

    Effects of tibial intraosseous and intravenous administration of Hextend on time of administration and hemodynamics in a hypovolemic swine model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):193-201
    Faculty Member, US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: To determine if there were significant differences between the tibial intraosseous (TIO) and intravenous (IV) administration of Hextend relative to time and in hemodynamics in a hypovolemic model.

    Setting: Vivarium.

    Subjects: Yorkshire swine; sample size was based on a power of 80 percent, α of 0. Read More

    Effects of intravenous, sternal, and humerus intraosseous administration of Hextend on time of administration and hemodynamics in a hypovolemic swine model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):183-192
    Texas Tech University Health Science Center at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.
    Objective: To determine if there were significant differences among humerus intraosseous (HIO), sternal intraosseous (SIO), and intravenous (IV) administration of 500 mL Hextend in hemodynamics or administration time in a hypovolemic swine model.

    Setting: Vivarium.

    Subjects: Yorkshire swine; sample size was based on a large effect size of 0. Read More

    Comparison of the effects of sternal and tibial intraosseous administered resuscitative drugs on return of spontaneous circulation in a swine model of cardiac arrest.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):175-182
    Research Scientist, The Geneva Foundation for Military Medical Research, Tacoma, Washington; Adjunct Associate Professor of Nurse Anesthesia, Doctoral Program in Nurse Anesthesia, Midwestern University, Glendale, Arizona.
    Objective: Compare vasopressin, amiodarone, and epinephrine administration by sternal intraosseous (SIO), tibial intraosseous (TIO), and intravenous (IV) routes in a swine model of cardiac arrest.

    Design: Prospective, randomized, between subjects, experimental design.

    Setting: Laboratory. Read More

    A primer on intraosseous access: History, clinical considerations, and current devices.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):167-173
    Research Scientist, The Geneva Foundation for Military Medical Research, Tacoma, Washington; Adjunct Associate Professor, Doctorate of Nurse Anesthesia Program, College of Health Sciences, Midwestern University, Glendale, Arizona.
    Objective: Intraosseous (IO) access is a method recommended by the American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council to administer resuscitative drugs and fluids when intravenous (IV) access cannot be rapidly or easily obtained. Many clinicians have limited knowledge or experience with the IO route. The purpose of this review was to provide the reader with a succinct review of the history, clinical considerations, and devices associated with IO access. Read More

    Intraosseous vascular access in disasters and mass casualty events: A review of the literature.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):149-166
    Research Scientist, The Geneva Foundation for Military Medical Research, Tacoma, Washington; Adjunct Associate Professor, Doctorate of Nurse Anesthesia Program, College of Health Sciences, Midwestern University, Glendale, Arizona.
    Objective: The intraosseous (IO) route of vascular access has been increasingly used to administer resuscitative fluids and drugs to patients in whom reliable intravenous (IV) access could not be rapidly or easily obtained. It is unknown that to what extent the IO route has been used to gain vascular access during disasters and mass casualty events. The purpose of this review was to examine the existing literature to answer the research question, "What is the utility of the IO route compared to other routes for establishing vascular access in patients resulting from disasters and mass casualty events?"

    Design: Keyword-based online database search of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Read More

    Circus disaster: Case report, response, and review of injuries.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(2):137-141
    Adjunct Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Emergency Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Emergency Medicine, Emerson Hospital, Concord, Massachusetts.
    Circus acts with human artists performing acrobatic feats are a popular spectator pastime in the United States and in international venues. There is little data in the literature regarding injuries sustained during circus acts. Some injuries are minor, but others can be serious, or even fatal. Read More

    Evacuation performance evaluation tool.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(2):131-136
    Clinical Director, Newborn Intensive Care Unit, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
    Objective: Hospitals conduct evacuation exercises to improve performance during emergency events. An essential aspect in this process is the creation of reliable and valid evaluation tools. The objective of this article is to describe the development and implications of a disaster evacuation performance tool that measures one portion of the very complex process of evacuation. Read More

    Hospital incident command: First responders or receiving centers?
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(2):125-130
    Emergency Management Division, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina; Pediatrics Department, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.
    Objectives: (1) Propose a conceptual model of an alternative hospital incident management system (HIMS) that integrates concepts used by emergency operations centers (EOCs). (2) Compare HIMS to the standard hospital incident command system (HICS) model.

    Design: A quasi-experimental study was performed. Read More

    Time to epinephrine in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A retrospective analysis of intraosseous versus intravenous access.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(2):119-123
    Medical Director, Office of the Medical Director, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.
    Introduction: The 2015 advanced cardiac life support update continues to advocate administering epinephrine during cardiac arrest. The goal of our study is to determine if prehospital intraosseous (IO) access results in shorter time to epinephrine than prehospital peripheral intravenous (PIV) access.

    Methods: The out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) database of a large, urban, fire-based emergency medical services system was searched for consecutive cases of OHCA between January 2013 and December 2015. Read More

    A systems dynamics approach to the efficacy of oxime therapy for mild exposure to sarin gas.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(2):89-118
    Associate Professor, Environmental Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio.
    The use of nerve agents such as sarin is as much a threat today as any other time in our history. The events in Syria in 2013 are proof of this. "The Obama administration asserted Sunday for the first time that the Syrian government used the nerve gas sarin to kill more than 1,400 people (August 21, 2013) in the world's gravest chemical weapons attack in 25 years. Read More

    Surgeon preparedness for mass casualty events: Adapting essential military surgical lessons for the home front.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(2):77-87
    Founding Chief (1987-2012), Division of Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care and Emergency Surgery, Penn Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Professor of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Military surgeons have gained familiarity and experience with mass casualty events (MCEs) as a matter of routine over the course of the last two conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Over the same period of time, civilian surgeons have increasingly faced complex MCEs on the home front. Our objective is to summarize and adapt these combat surgery lessons to enhance civilian surgeon preparedness for complex MCEs on the home front. Read More

    Social support for terror-related victims: The Israeli system.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(1):69-71
    Bureau of Medical Affairs, National Insurance Institute of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Since its foundation, the State of Israel has been affected by terror violence toward its civilian population. For more than 45 years, the Israeli legislation has built a legal insurance allowing citizens casualties of such violence to benefit from specific coverage and support. The objective of this article is to describe the history, legal framework, and organization of social support for terror victims in Israel. Read More

    Hajj stampede disaster, 2015: Reflections from the frontlines.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(1):59-68
    Professor and Senior Consultant, Emergency Medicine, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz Research Chair for Public Health Preparedness, King Saud University, Medical City and College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    The Hajj is an annual religious mass gathering that takes place in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The complexity of its system is multidimensional, with religious, political, cultural, security, economic, communication, operational, and logistic unique challenges. This year, yet another stampede tragedy that caused around a 1,000 deaths and severe injuries, capturing worldwide media attention and exacerbating existing political tensions across the Gulf coasts was faced. Read More

    Injury-related fatalities in selected governorates of Iraq from 2010 to 2013: Prospective surveillance.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(1):49-58
    Emergency Response and Recovery Branch, Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Objective: After several years of relative stability in Iraq, the emergence of the Islamic State militant group has spurred a resurgence of violence. This study explores the impact of the conflict on the overall injury profile to estimate the proportion of injury fatalities related to conflict and better understand how violence has affected nonconflict-related injuries.

    Design: Routine prospective injury surveillance operated by the Iraqi Ministry of Health. Read More

    Women's oral and dental health aspects in humanitarian missions and disasters: Jordanian experience.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(1):43-8
    Senior Consultant OBGYN, Royal Medical Services, Amman, Jordan.
    Objective: The study aimed to review oral and dental health aspects in female patients presented to Jordanian Royal Medical Services (RMS) international humanitarian missions over a 3-year period.

    Design And Method: Analysis of humanitarian missions of RMS data and records over a 3-year period (2011-2013) in regard to women's oral and dental health issues was done. The data were analyzed in regard to the number of women seen, the presenting conditions, and the prevalence of oral and dental diseases and procedures in these cases. Read More

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