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    359 results match your criteria American journal of disaster medicine[Journal]

    1 OF 8

    Using a novel technology for disaster staff notification.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 Winter;12(1):63-65
    Interim Medical Director, Emergency Services, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington; Assistant Professor, Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.
    Notification of backup staff and determining their ability to augment frontline staff is a major component of any disaster plan. However, the communication and organization of this effort has many challenges. These include communication system overload, the disaster setting, disrupted transportation, and staffing impacts on normal operations. Read More

    Women's status in disasters: A gap between experts' desk and affected fields of Iran.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 Winter;12(1):59-62
    Assistant Professor, Department of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, School of Health, Safety and Environ-ment, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Although international agreements have achieved significant milestones in the improvement of women's status, experiences from the fields show a discrepancy between words and actions. The aim of this brief communication was to identify the gap between experts' perceptions and the findings of a large qualitative field survey on women's status in the recent natural disasters of Iran. A total of 10 experts were asked to fill a checklist, which consisted of the concepts extracted from field data. Read More

    Family emergency plan and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria, Nigeria.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 Winter;12(1):51-58
    Department of Nursing Services, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria.
    Background: There has been an increase in the incidence of disasters in many parts of the world. Similarly, Nigeria has witnessed a recent increase of man-made disaster events such as plane crash, fire incidents, flood, and building collapse, including bomb blast orchestrated by terrorists that often create emergency situations. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate family emergency plan and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria. Read More

    Risk perception and perceived self-efficacy of deaf and hard-of-hearing seniors and young adults in emergencies.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 Winter;12(1):43-60
    Health Research for Action, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California.
    Objectives: The authors explored the factors influencing risk perception and perceived self-efficacy before and during an emergency for deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) seniors and young adults.

    Methods: The authors collected demographic survey data and conducted four focus groups with 38 Deaf/HH residents of the San Francisco Bay Area; two groups were with young adults (ages 18-35), including one group of college students and one group of young professionals, and two were with older adults (ages 50-90).

    Results: Significant differences were found between Deaf/HH young adults and seniors in both the sources of self-efficacy and risk perception and their attitudes toward preparedness. Read More

    Liberia national disaster preparedness coordination exercise: Implementing lessons learned from the West African disaster preparedness initiative.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 Winter;12(1):35-41
    Center for Global Health Engagement, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Objective: In light of the recent Ebola outbreak, there is a critical need for effective disaster management systems in Liberia and other West African nations. To this end, the West Africa Disaster Preparedness Initiative held a disaster management exercise in conjunction with the Liberian national government on November 24-25, 2015.

    Design: During this tabletop exercise (TTX), interactions within and between the 15 counties and the Liberian national government were conducted and observed to refine and validate the county and national standard operating procedures (SOPs). Read More

    Comparison of START and SALT triage methodologies to reference standard definitions and to a field mass casualty simulation.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 Winter;12(1):27-33
    Director of Academic Clinical Research, Attending Emergency Physician, Orlando Regional Medical Center, Orlando, Florida; Professor, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Florida; Associate Professor, Florida State University College of Medicine, Orlando, Florida.
    Objectives: We compared Sort, Assess, Lifesaving Intervention, Treatment/Transport (SALT) and Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) triage methodologies to a published reference standard, and evaluated the accuracy of the START method applied by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel in a field simulation.

    Design: Simulated mass casualty incident (MCI). Paramedics trained in START triage assigned each victim to green (minimal), yellow (delayed), red (immediate), or black (dead) categories. Read More

    Healthcare students interprofessional critical event/disaster response course.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 Winter;12(1):11-26
    Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California; Vice Dean, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California.
    Objective: Numerous disasters confirm the need for critical event training in healthcare professions. However, no single discipline works in isolation and interprofessional learning is recognized as a necessary component. An interprofessional faculty group designed a learning curriculum crossing professional schools. Read More

    Evaluation of the association between disaster training and confidence in disaster response among graduate medical trainees: A cross-sectional study.
    Am J Disaster Med 2017 Winter;12(1):5-9
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Division of Disaster, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.
    Objective: Disasters by definition overwhelm the resources of a hospital and may require a response from a range of practitioners. Disaster training is part of emergency medicine (EM) resident curricula, but less emphasized in other training programs. This study aimed to compare disaster educational training and confidence levels among resident trainees from multiple specialties. Read More

    Onset and duration of intravenous and intraosseous rocuronium in hypovolemic swine.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):279-282
    Department of Anesthesia and Operative Services, Madigan Army Medical Center, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington.
    Objective: Compare the onset and duration of rocuronium administered via the intravenous (IV), and intraosseous (IO) routes in a hypovolemic swine model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, experimental study.

    Setting: Vivarium. Read More

    The effects of sternal intraosseous and intravenous administration of amiodarone in a hypovolemic swine cardiac arrest model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):271-277
    Faculty Member and Co-Director of Research, US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: This study compared the effects of amiodarone via sternal intraosseous (SIO) and intravenous (IV) routes on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to ROSC, concentration maximum (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and mean concentrations over time in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

    Setting: TriService Research Facility. Read More

    Effects of humerus intraosseous versus intravenous amiodarone administration in a hypovolemic porcine model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):261-269
    US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, JBSA-FSH, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: To compare the effects of amiodarone administration by humerus intraosseous (HIO) and intravenous (IV) routes on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax), time to ROSC, and mean concentrations over time in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

    Setting: TriService Research Facility. Read More

    The effects of tibial intraosseous versus intravenous amiodarone administration in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest procine model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):253-260
    Faculty Member and Director of Research, US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: This study compared the effects of amiodarone via tibial intraosseous (TIO) and intravenous (IV) routes on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to ROSC, maximum drug concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and mean concentrations over time in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

    Setting: TriService Research Facility. Read More

    Effects of tibial and humerus intraosseous administration of epinephrine in a cardiac arrest swine model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):243-251
    US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, JBSA-FSH, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: Compare maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), mean serum concentration of epinephrine, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to ROSC, and odds of survival relative to epinephrine administration by humerus intraosseous (HIO), tibial intraosseous (TIO), and intravenous (IV) routes in a swine cardiac arrest model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

    Setting: TriService Research Facility. Read More

    The comparison of humeral intraosseous and intravenous administration of vasopressin on return of spontaneous circulation and pharmacokinetics in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest swine model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):237-242
    Director of Research, US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, Fort Sam Houston, JBSA-FSH, San Antonio, Texas.
    Introduction: The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends intravenous (IV) or intraosseous (IO) vasopressin in Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS). Obtaining IV access in hypovolemic cardiac arrest patients can be difficult, and IO access is often obtained in these life threatening situations. No studies have been conducted to determine the effects of humeral IO (HIO) access with vasopressin in the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Read More

    Pharmacokinetics of sternal intraossesous atropine administration in normovolemic and hypovolemic swine.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):233-236
    Department of Anesthesia and Operative Services, Madigan Army Medical Center, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Fort Lewis, Washington.
    Objective: Characterize and compare the pharmacokinetics of atropine administered via the sternal intraosseous (IO) route in a normovolemic and hypovolemic swine model.

    Design: Prospective, experimental study.

    Setting: Vivarium. Read More

    En route intraosseous access performed in the combat setting.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(4):225-231
    United States Air Force En Route Care Research Center/59th MDW/ST-United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Ft. Sam Houston, Texas; Department of Emergency Medicine, San Antonio Military Medical Center, JBSA Ft. Sam Houston, Texas.
    Objective: To describe and compare vascular access practices used by en route care providers during medical evacuation (MEDEVAC).

    Design: This was a retrospective cohort study. Medical records of US military personnel injured in combat and transported by MEDEVAC teams were queried. Read More

    Effects of tibial and humerus intraosseous and intravenous vasopressin in porcine cardiac arrest model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):211-218
    US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, JBSA-FSH, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: Compare maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), mean serum concentration of vasopressin, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to ROSC, and odds of survival relative to vasopressin administration by tibial intraosseous (TIO), humerus intraosseous (HIO), and intravenous (IV) routes in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

    Setting: TriService Research Facility. Read More

    The effects of sternal and intravenous vasopressin administration on pharmacokinetics.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):203-209
    Professor and Director of Research, US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: Purposes of this study were to compare intravenous (IV) and sternal intraosseous (SIO) administration of vasopressin relative to concentration maximum (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and mean concentration in a cardiac arrest model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

    Setting: Vivarium. Read More

    Effects of tibial intraosseous and intravenous administration of Hextend on time of administration and hemodynamics in a hypovolemic swine model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):193-201
    Faculty Member, US Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: To determine if there were significant differences between the tibial intraosseous (TIO) and intravenous (IV) administration of Hextend relative to time and in hemodynamics in a hypovolemic model.

    Setting: Vivarium.

    Subjects: Yorkshire swine; sample size was based on a power of 80 percent, α of 0. Read More

    Effects of intravenous, sternal, and humerus intraosseous administration of Hextend on time of administration and hemodynamics in a hypovolemic swine model.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):183-192
    Texas Tech University Health Science Center at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.
    Objective: To determine if there were significant differences among humerus intraosseous (HIO), sternal intraosseous (SIO), and intravenous (IV) administration of 500 mL Hextend in hemodynamics or administration time in a hypovolemic swine model.

    Setting: Vivarium.

    Subjects: Yorkshire swine; sample size was based on a large effect size of 0. Read More

    Comparison of the effects of sternal and tibial intraosseous administered resuscitative drugs on return of spontaneous circulation in a swine model of cardiac arrest.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):175-182
    Research Scientist, The Geneva Foundation for Military Medical Research, Tacoma, Washington; Adjunct Associate Professor of Nurse Anesthesia, Doctoral Program in Nurse Anesthesia, Midwestern University, Glendale, Arizona.
    Objective: Compare vasopressin, amiodarone, and epinephrine administration by sternal intraosseous (SIO), tibial intraosseous (TIO), and intravenous (IV) routes in a swine model of cardiac arrest.

    Design: Prospective, randomized, between subjects, experimental design.

    Setting: Laboratory. Read More

    A primer on intraosseous access: History, clinical considerations, and current devices.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):167-173
    Research Scientist, The Geneva Foundation for Military Medical Research, Tacoma, Washington; Adjunct Associate Professor, Doctorate of Nurse Anesthesia Program, College of Health Sciences, Midwestern University, Glendale, Arizona.
    Objective: Intraosseous (IO) access is a method recommended by the American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council to administer resuscitative drugs and fluids when intravenous (IV) access cannot be rapidly or easily obtained. Many clinicians have limited knowledge or experience with the IO route. The purpose of this review was to provide the reader with a succinct review of the history, clinical considerations, and devices associated with IO access. Read More

    Intraosseous vascular access in disasters and mass casualty events: A review of the literature.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 Summber;11(3):149-166
    Research Scientist, The Geneva Foundation for Military Medical Research, Tacoma, Washington; Adjunct Associate Professor, Doctorate of Nurse Anesthesia Program, College of Health Sciences, Midwestern University, Glendale, Arizona.
    Objective: The intraosseous (IO) route of vascular access has been increasingly used to administer resuscitative fluids and drugs to patients in whom reliable intravenous (IV) access could not be rapidly or easily obtained. It is unknown that to what extent the IO route has been used to gain vascular access during disasters and mass casualty events. The purpose of this review was to examine the existing literature to answer the research question, "What is the utility of the IO route compared to other routes for establishing vascular access in patients resulting from disasters and mass casualty events?"

    Design: Keyword-based online database search of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Read More

    Circus disaster: Case report, response, and review of injuries.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(2):137-141
    Adjunct Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Emergency Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Emergency Medicine, Emerson Hospital, Concord, Massachusetts.
    Circus acts with human artists performing acrobatic feats are a popular spectator pastime in the United States and in international venues. There is little data in the literature regarding injuries sustained during circus acts. Some injuries are minor, but others can be serious, or even fatal. Read More

    Evacuation performance evaluation tool.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(2):131-136
    Clinical Director, Newborn Intensive Care Unit, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
    Objective: Hospitals conduct evacuation exercises to improve performance during emergency events. An essential aspect in this process is the creation of reliable and valid evaluation tools. The objective of this article is to describe the development and implications of a disaster evacuation performance tool that measures one portion of the very complex process of evacuation. Read More

    Hospital incident command: First responders or receiving centers?
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(2):125-130
    Emergency Management Division, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina; Pediatrics Department, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.
    Objectives: (1) Propose a conceptual model of an alternative hospital incident management system (HIMS) that integrates concepts used by emergency operations centers (EOCs). (2) Compare HIMS to the standard hospital incident command system (HICS) model.

    Design: A quasi-experimental study was performed. Read More

    Time to epinephrine in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A retrospective analysis of intraosseous versus intravenous access.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(2):119-123
    Medical Director, Office of the Medical Director, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.
    Introduction: The 2015 advanced cardiac life support update continues to advocate administering epinephrine during cardiac arrest. The goal of our study is to determine if prehospital intraosseous (IO) access results in shorter time to epinephrine than prehospital peripheral intravenous (PIV) access.

    Methods: The out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) database of a large, urban, fire-based emergency medical services system was searched for consecutive cases of OHCA between January 2013 and December 2015. Read More

    A systems dynamics approach to the efficacy of oxime therapy for mild exposure to sarin gas.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(2):89-118
    Associate Professor, Environmental Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio.
    The use of nerve agents such as sarin is as much a threat today as any other time in our history. The events in Syria in 2013 are proof of this. "The Obama administration asserted Sunday for the first time that the Syrian government used the nerve gas sarin to kill more than 1,400 people (August 21, 2013) in the world's gravest chemical weapons attack in 25 years. Read More

    Surgeon preparedness for mass casualty events: Adapting essential military surgical lessons for the home front.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(2):77-87
    Founding Chief (1987-2012), Division of Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care and Emergency Surgery, Penn Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Professor of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Military surgeons have gained familiarity and experience with mass casualty events (MCEs) as a matter of routine over the course of the last two conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Over the same period of time, civilian surgeons have increasingly faced complex MCEs on the home front. Our objective is to summarize and adapt these combat surgery lessons to enhance civilian surgeon preparedness for complex MCEs on the home front. Read More

    Social support for terror-related victims: The Israeli system.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(1):69-71
    Bureau of Medical Affairs, National Insurance Institute of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Since its foundation, the State of Israel has been affected by terror violence toward its civilian population. For more than 45 years, the Israeli legislation has built a legal insurance allowing citizens casualties of such violence to benefit from specific coverage and support. The objective of this article is to describe the history, legal framework, and organization of social support for terror victims in Israel. Read More

    Hajj stampede disaster, 2015: Reflections from the frontlines.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(1):59-68
    Professor and Senior Consultant, Emergency Medicine, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz Research Chair for Public Health Preparedness, King Saud University, Medical City and College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    The Hajj is an annual religious mass gathering that takes place in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The complexity of its system is multidimensional, with religious, political, cultural, security, economic, communication, operational, and logistic unique challenges. This year, yet another stampede tragedy that caused around a 1,000 deaths and severe injuries, capturing worldwide media attention and exacerbating existing political tensions across the Gulf coasts was faced. Read More

    Injury-related fatalities in selected governorates of Iraq from 2010 to 2013: Prospective surveillance.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(1):49-58
    Emergency Response and Recovery Branch, Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Objective: After several years of relative stability in Iraq, the emergence of the Islamic State militant group has spurred a resurgence of violence. This study explores the impact of the conflict on the overall injury profile to estimate the proportion of injury fatalities related to conflict and better understand how violence has affected nonconflict-related injuries.

    Design: Routine prospective injury surveillance operated by the Iraqi Ministry of Health. Read More

    Women's oral and dental health aspects in humanitarian missions and disasters: Jordanian experience.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(1):43-8
    Senior Consultant OBGYN, Royal Medical Services, Amman, Jordan.
    Objective: The study aimed to review oral and dental health aspects in female patients presented to Jordanian Royal Medical Services (RMS) international humanitarian missions over a 3-year period.

    Design And Method: Analysis of humanitarian missions of RMS data and records over a 3-year period (2011-2013) in regard to women's oral and dental health issues was done. The data were analyzed in regard to the number of women seen, the presenting conditions, and the prevalence of oral and dental diseases and procedures in these cases. Read More

    A comparison of command center activations versus disaster drills at three institutions from 2013 to 2015.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(1):33-42
    Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Vice Chair for Operations, Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Objective: Disaster exercises often simulate rare, worst-case scenario events that range from mass casualty incidents to severe weather events. In actuality, situations such as information system downtimes and physical plant failures may affect hospital continuity of operations far more significantly. The objective of this study is to evaluate disaster drills at two academic and one community hospital to compare the frequency of planned drills versus real-world events that led to emergency management command center activation. Read More

    Impact of Hurricane Sandy on community pharmacies in severely affected areas of New York City: A qualitative assessment.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(1):21-30
    Director, Countermeasures Response Unit, Emergency Preparedness and Response, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Queens, New York.
    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most severe natural disasters to hit the Mid-Atlantic States in recent history. Community pharmacies were among the businesses affected, with flooding and power outages significantly reducing services offered by many pharmacies. The objectives of our study were to assess the impact of Hurricane Sandy on community pharmacies, both independently owned and chain, in the severely affected areas of New York City (NYC), including Coney Island, Staten Island, and the Rockaways, using qualitative methods, and propose strategies to mitigate the impact of future storms and disasters. Read More

    Survey of Emergency Department staff on disaster preparedness and training for Ebola virus disease.
    Am J Disaster Med 2016 ;11(1):5-18
    Department of Emergency Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
    Introduction: In the domestic response to the outbreak of Ebola virus disease from 2013 to 2015, many US hospitals developed and implemented specialized training programs to care for patients with Ebola. This research reports on the effects of targeted training on Emergency Department (ED) staff's Ebola-related perceptions and attitudes.

    Methods: One hundred fifty-nine members of the UNC Health Care System ED staff participated in a voluntary cross-sectional, anonymous Web survey administered using a one-time "post then pre" design. Read More

    Public health incident management: Logistical and operational aspects of the 2009 initial outbreak of H1N1 influenza in Mexico.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(4):347-53
    Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Hosting an international outbreak response team can pose a challenge to jurisdictions not familiar with incident management frameworks. Basic principles of team forming, organizing, and executing mission critical activities require simple and flexible communication that can be easily understood by the host country's public health leadership and international support agencies. Familiarity with incident command system principles before a public health emergency could save time and effort during the initial phases of the response and aid in operationalizing and sustaining complex field activities throughout the response. Read More

    The impact of Hurricane Sandy on the mental health of New York area residents.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(4):339-46
    Professor, Department of Population Health Science and Policy and Institute for Translational Epidemiology, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
    Objective: To evaluate the long-term psychological impact of Hurricane Sandy on New York residents.

    Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study.

    Setting: Community-based study. Read More

    A scrutiny of tools used for assessment of hospital disaster preparedness in Iran.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(4):325-38
    Associate Professor, Department of Health in Emergency and Disaster, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Evin, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Introduction: In emergencies and disasters, hospitals are among the first and most vital organizations involved. To determine preparedness of a hospital to deal with crisis, health system requires tools compatible with the type of crisis. The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of tools used for assessment of hospitals preparedness for major emergencies and disasters in Iran. Read More

    Laboratory evaluation of airborne particulate control treatments for simulated aircraft crash recovery operations involving carbon fiber composite materials.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(4):316-24
    Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.
    Objective: This study compared four treatment protocols to reduce airborne composite fiber particulates during simulated aircraft crash recovery operations.

    Design: Four different treatments were applied to determine effectiveness in reducing airborne composite fiber particulates as compared to a "no treatment" protocol. Both "gold standard" gravimetric methods and real-time instruments were used to describe mass per volume concentration, particle size distribution, and surface area. Read More

    Description of blast injuries and predictors of admission to hospital in blast victims in an urban civilian setting.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(4):309-15
    Department of Emergency Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Introduction: Blast injuries characteristics and outcomes are not well described in urban civilian settings.

    Objectives: To describe blast injuries characteristics and to identify predictors of hospital admission after sustaining a blast injury.

    Methods: Retrospective chart review study of blast victims who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) of a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon, over 8 years. Read More

    A cross-sectional survey of patient needs in hospital evacuation.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(4):301-7
    Division of Emergencies and Critical Care, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    To aid development of contingency plans, a cross-sectional survey of inpatient needs in the event of a total hospital evacuation within a few hours was undertaken. The hospital is a part of a tertiary care facility with a mixed surgical and medical population and a relatively large load of emergency medicine. A doctor or nurse on each ward registered patients' physical mobility, special needs complicating transportation (intensive care, labor, isolation, etc), and the lowest acceptable level of care after evacuation. Read More

    Evaluation of emergency drug releases from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Quarantine Stations.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(4):295-9
    Branch Chief, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Quarantine and Border Health Services Branch, Atlanta, Georgia.
    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Quarantine Stations distribute select lifesaving drug products that are not commercially available or are in limited supply in the United States for emergency treatment of certain health conditions. Following a retrospective analysis of shipment records, the authors estimated an average of 6.66 hours saved per shipment when drug products were distributed from quarantine stations compared to a hypothetical centralized site from CDC headquarters in Atlanta, GA. Read More

    Checklist use in evaluating pediatric disaster training.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(4):285-94
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, Connecticut.
    Objective: Disaster preparedness training has a small but growing part in medical education. Various strategies have been used to simulate disaster scenarios to safely provide such training. However, a modality to compare their effectiveness is lacking. Read More

    Assessing American Red Cross First Aid mobile app user trends: Implications for resilience.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(4):273-83
    Trauma Program, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
    Objective: Disasters have devastated communities, impacted the economy, and resulted in a significant increase in injuries. As the use of mobile technology increasingly becomes a common aspect of everyday life, it is important to understand how it can be used as a resource. The authors examined the use of American Red Cross mobile apps and aimed to characterize user trends to better understand how mobile apps can help bolster individual and community preparedness, resilience, and response efforts. Read More

    Rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks after flooding disasters: Epidemiology, management, and prevention.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(3):259-67
    Environmental/Occupational Health, LSU School of Public Health, New Orleans, Louisiana.
    Objective: To alert clinicians to the climatic conditions that can precipitate outbreaks of the rodent-borne infectious diseases most often associated with flooding disasters, leptospirosis (LS), and the Hantavirus-caused diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS); to describe the epidemiology and presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of these rodent-borne infectious diseases; and to recommend both prophylactic therapies and effective control and prevention strategies for rodent-borne infectious diseases.

    Design: Internet search engines, including Google®, Google Scholar®, Pub Med, Medline, and Ovid, were queried with the key words as search terms to examine the latest scientific articles on rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks in the United States and worldwide to describe the epidemiology and presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of LS and Hantavirus outbreaks.

    Setting: Not applicable. Read More

    A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(3):237-58
    Department of Environmental Health, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). Read More

    Examining the importance of incorporating emergency preparedness and disaster training core competencies into allied health curricula.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(3):223-36
    Associate Professor, School of Allied Health, Northwestern State University, Shreveport, Louisiana.
    Unlabelled: Preparation for responding to emergency events that does not warrant outside help beyond the local community resources or responding to disaster events that is beyond the capabilities of the local community both require first responders and healthcare professionals to have interdisciplinary skills needed to function as a team for saving lives. To date, there is no core emergency preparedness and disaster planning competencies that have been standardized at all levels across the various allied health curricula disciplines.

    Objective: To identify if emergency preparedness and disaster training content are currently being taught in allied health program courses, to identify possible gaps within allied health curricula, and to explore the perceptions of allied health college educators for implementing emergency preparedness and disaster training core competencies into their existing curricula, if not already included. Read More

    The pharmacokinetics of intraosseous atropine in hypovolemic swine.
    Am J Disaster Med 2015 ;10(3):217-22
    Department of Anesthesia and Operative Services, Madigan Army Medical Center, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington.
    Objective: Compare the pharmacokinetics of atropine administered via the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and intraosseous (IO) routes in a normovolemic and hypovolemic swine model.

    Design: Prospective, between subjects, experimental study.

    Setting: Vivarium. Read More

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