147 results match your criteria American journal of clinical and experimental urology[Journal]


Novel discoveries in urology: big data to microbiome - highlights of the society for basic urologic research 2019 annual meeting.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2020 15;8(2):73-75. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Tulane University and Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System New Orleans, LA, USA.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218686PMC

and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo--dioxin (TCDD) exposure exacerbates urinary dysfunction in hormone-treated C57BL/6J mice through a non-malignant mechanism involving proteomic changes in the prostate that differ from those elicited by testosterone and estradiol.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2020 25;8(1):59-72. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA.

A recent study directed new focus on the fetal and neonatal environment as a risk factor for urinary dysfunction in aging males. Male mice were exposed and via lactation (IUL) to the persistent environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo--dioxin (TCDD) and then administered slow-release, subcutaneous implants of testosterone and estradiol (T+E2) as adults to mimic the hormonal environment of aging men. IUL TCDD exposure worsened T+E2-induced voiding dysfunction. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076297PMC
February 2020

Transcriptional profiling of tumor associated macrophages in human renal cell carcinoma reveals significant heterogeneity and opportunity for immunomodulation.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2020 25;8(1):48-58. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.

Among the more notable immunotherapies are checkpoint inhibitors, which prevent suppressive signaling on T cells, thereby (re)activating them to kill tumor cells. Despite remarkable treatment responses to immune checkpoint blockade, with a subset of patients achieving complete responses, a large population have little-to-no response, dictating the necessity of further research in this field. Myeloid derived cells heavily infiltrate the tumor microenvironment (TME) of many cancers and are believed to have a number of potent anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076295PMC
February 2020

Serum levels of total and urine level of PCA3 in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2020 25;8(1):43-47. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Orology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Urine test with the PSA result will provide a good prognosis of the prostate cancer. Therefore, considering the importance of PCA3 in this study, we aimed to compare the serum total and urinary PCA3 levels in patients with benign hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 90 patients referring to Noor and Hazrat-e-Ali Asghar Hospital in Isfahan from October 2017 to October 2018 for prostate biopsy. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076296PMC
February 2020

Frequencies of accessory renal arteries in 129 Iranian patients.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2020 25;8(1):38-42. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Anatomical variation of accessory renal artery has a great clinical importance especially in surgical operations. This issue might bring different complications during surgeries. The prevalence of these variations have been reported differently among populations. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076290PMC
February 2020

Trends in epidural anesthesia use at the time of radical cystectomy and its association with perioperative and survival outcomes: a population-based analysis.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2020 25;8(1):28-37. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin Madison, WI 53792.

Epidural anesthesia is used to improve pain control after major surgeries. Few data describe the impact of epidural use for bladder cancer patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC). Here, we evaluate epidural use on perioperative and long-term outcomes for patients treated with radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076291PMC
February 2020

EAF2 loss induces prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia from luminal epithelial cells in mice.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2020 25;8(1):18-27. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Defining the cell of origin for prostatic carcinogenesis is fundamentally important for understanding the mechanisms leading to prostate cancer. Lineage tracing studies have demonstrated that luminal epithelial cells are capable of self-replication in multiple organs, including the adult murine prostate, and cell of prostate cancer origin studies have shown that while both the luminal and basal murine prostate epithelial cells are capable of neoplastic transformation, luminal cells are more efficient as the origin of prostate cancer. ELL-associated factor 2 (EAF2) is an androgen responsive tumor suppressive protein expressed by prostate luminal epithelial cells that is frequently down-regulated in primary prostate tumors. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076293PMC
February 2020

Transforming growth factor beta 1 impairs benign prostatic luminal epithelial cell monolayer barrier function.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2020 25;8(1):9-17. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Our recent studies identifying the presence of luminal secretory protein PSA in the stroma, decreased E-cadherin expression, and reduced number of tight junction kiss points in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues suggest that epithelial barrier permeability is increased in BPH. However, the cause of increased epithelial permeability in BPH is unclear. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been reported to be up-regulated in clinical BPH specimens and TGF-β1 overexpression induced fibrosis and inflammation in a murine model. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076294PMC
February 2020

Protein tyrosine kinase 6 signaling in prostate cancer.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2020 25;8(1):1-8. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago, IL, The United States.

More than 25 years have passed since the discovery of protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase distantly related to SRC family kinases. Since then, a variety of data suggest that PTK6 promotes oncogenic signaling and tumorigenesis, generally dependent on its kinase activity. Increased PTK6 expression, activation at the plasma membrane and altered intracellular localization have been discovered in prostate cancers. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076292PMC
February 2020

Comparison of the effect of antibiotic-lock and ethanol-lock methods on infection rate in children with hemodialysis catheter.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(6):384-390. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Contagious Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Hemodialysis catheter-related infection has a high incidence and complications. Antibiotic-lock or ethanol-lock can be used to prevent such infections. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of antibiotic-lock and ethanol-lock methods in children undergoing hemodialysis and to evaluate the optimality of these methods. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6971476PMC
December 2019

Feasibility, complication and long-term follow-up of the newly nelaton based urethral dilation method, retrospective study.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(6):378-383. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Isfahan, Iran.

Current methods for Urethral dilatation include filiforms and followers, metal sounds, balloon dilators, catheters of increasing size, introduction of a Council catheter over a guidewire, and coaxial dilators of increasing size. These methods however are effective but expensive and use of them is limited in many third world countries. In this retrospective study, we report the feasibility, complication and long-term follow-up of the newly Nelaton based urethral dilation method following by self calibration plan as a single referral center experience. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6971477PMC
December 2019

Genetic alterations of interleukin-17 and related genes in human prostate cancer.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(6):352-377. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System New Orleans, LA, USA.

Interleukin-17 () has been shown to promote development of hormone-naïve prostate cancer (HNPC) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) as well as lymph node metastasis in mouse models. Gene alterations of family of cytokines and their downstream genes in human prostate cancer have not been investigated. We studied 7 datasets archived in cBioPortal and queried gene alterations in a total of 1303 cases of human prostate cancers. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6971475PMC
December 2019

Evaluation of several botulinum toxins-A delivering systems into the bladder in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS).

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 25;7(5):346-351. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Urology Research Center (URC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran, IRAN.

Botulinum toxins were primary suggested for the neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) treatment about thirty years ago. The application of BTX-A in LUTD have just developed and the approval of BTX-A injection confirmed in for patients with both overactive bladders (OAB) and neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). Actually the BTX-A medication in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is not licensed, but there is under consideration. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872472PMC
October 2019

Prostatic adenocarcinoma with novel gene fusion: a case report.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(5):341-345. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Science Center Shreveport, Louisiana, USA.

gene fusion occurs in approximately 50% of prostatic adenocarcinoma and their expression is associated with aggressive phenotype, higher tumor stage, and tumor metastasis. A case of prostatic adenocarcinoma with translocation was previously reported. We report a prostatic adenocarcinoma with novel gene fusion that occurs in a 71-year-old male patient with aggressive histologic phenotype and multiple bony metastases. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872470PMC
October 2019

Bioinformatics analyses of publicly available NEPCa datasets.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(5):327-340. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, LSU Health-Shreveport Shreveport, USA.

Gene expression profiles are valuable resources for the identification of key players that driver disease progression. However, neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPCa) specimens are rare, limiting research on this aggressive disease. In this study, we generated a 12-gene signature of NEPCa and used this signature to differentiate NEPCa from prostate adenocarcinoma (AdPCa) samples in publicly available datasets. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872473PMC
October 2019

Renal cell carcinoma with leiomyomatous stroma: a review of an emerging entity distinct from clear cell conventional renal cell carcinoma.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(5):321-326. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service, Louisiana State University Health Science Center Shreveport, Louisiana, USA.

Clear cell renal cell carcinomas accounts for 65 to 75% of all malignant renal tumors. The International Society of Urological Pathology 2012 Vancouver Classification of renal neoplasia and the World Health Organization 2016 Classification of renal tumors have included renal cell carcinoma with leiomyomatous stroma in a category of emerging/provisional entities of renal cell carcinoma. Macroscopically, renal cell carcinomas with leiomyomatous stroma are well circumscribed tumors with a cut surface of gray-white fibrotic tissues. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872474PMC
October 2019

Humanized mice for immune checkpoint blockade in human solid tumors.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(5):313-320. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

UQ-Ochsner Clinical School, Institute for Translational Research, Ochsner Clinic Foundation New Orleans, LA, USA.

Immunotherapy, specifically research involving immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs), has become a popular trend in anticancer research over the last three years. Due to the difficulties and often poor translation of results from models, models have become more relevant than ever. With the discovery of NOD, , and mutations, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models were developed, providing an ideal environment for ICBs testing. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872471PMC
October 2019

Hypoxia-induced PIM kinase and laminin-activated integrin α6 mediate resistance to PI3K inhibitors in bone-metastatic CRPC.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(4):297-312. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Prostate Cancer Group, University of Arizona Cancer Center Tucson, AZ, USA.

Bone-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is lethal due to inherent resistance to androgen deprivation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies. Despite the fact that a majority of CRPC patients (approximately 70%) harbor a constitutively active PI3K survival pathway, targeting the PI3K/mTOR pathway has failed to increase overall survival in clinical trials. Here, we identified two separate and independent survival pathways induced by the bone tumor microenvironment that are hyperactivated in CRPC and confer resistance to PI3K inhibitors. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734039PMC

Mass cytometry reveals species-specific differences and a new level of complexity for immune cells in the prostate.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(4):281-296. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Chronic inflammation in the benign prostate has been associated with a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. While a range of immune lineages is found in the prostate including T cells, B cells and myeloid cells, the specific subsets of immune cells with each major lineage have not been well described. In this study, we use mass cytometry (CyTOF) to comprehensively and reproducibly profile immune cells in mouse and human prostate. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734036PMC

The dysfunctional lipids in prostate cancer.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(4):273-280. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is well-recognized as a lipid-enriched tumor. Lipids represent a diverse array of molecules essential to the cellular structure, defense, energy, and communication. Lipid metabolism can often become dysregulated during tumor development. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734041PMC

Predictive value of pseudouridine in prostate cancer.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 25;7(4):262-272. Epub 2019 Aug 25.

Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY 10029, USA.

Background: Recent studies have shown that certain small nucleolar RNAs (H/ACA snoRNAs) and the protein dyskerin (DKC1) are upregulated in prostate cancer and are thought to contribute to progression of disease. These components convert uridine to pseudouridine (abbreviated ψ), a type of post-transcriptional modification of RNA. Given the increased abundance of H/ACA snoRNAs and expression of DKC1 in prostate carcinomas, and because whole-body turnover of RNA increases in support of rapidly-growing cancer cells, we examined the value of pseudouridine as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734038PMC
August 2019
2 Reads

Th17 cells promote tumor growth in an immunocompetent orthotopic mouse model of prostate cancer.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 25;7(4):249-261. Epub 2019 Aug 25.

Department of Structural & Cellular Biology, Tulane University New Orleans, LA, USA.

Interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been demonstrated to promote development of a variety of cancers including prostate cancer in genetically modified mouse models. IL-17 is the main product secreted by T helper 17 (Th17) cells. A recent study has shown that Th17 cells and related genes are upregulated in human prostate cancers. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734037PMC
August 2019
1 Read

Urinary metabolites for urological cancer detection: a review on the application of volatile organic compounds for cancers.

Authors:
Qin Gao Wen-Yee Lee

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 25;7(4):232-248. Epub 2019 Aug 25.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX, USA.

Cancer is one of the most devastating human diseases that causes a great number of mortalities each year worldwide. Thus, finding and treating cancers early is of increasing interest to the public and presents great opportunity for research. It is well known that the metabolism of cancer cells differs from that of normal tissues. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734043PMC

Anti-apoptotic factor Birc3 is up-regulated by ELL2 knockdown and stimulates proliferation in LNCaP cells.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(4):223-231. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

ELL2 is a potential tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. ELL2 knockout in mice induced mPIN, the putative precursor of prostate cancer and ELL2 knockdown enhanced proliferation in cultured prostate cancer cells. To explore the mechanism of ELL2 action in prostate cancer, we investigated the role of Birc3, an apoptosis inhibitor, in prostate cancer cells and the regulation of its expression by ELL2. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734035PMC

Mri-based cancer lesion analysis with 3d printed patient specific prostate cutting guides.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(4):215-222. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin Madison, WI, United States.

MRI methods have improved diagnosis and treatment planning for prostate cancer. However, validation and standardization is needed to encourage widespread adoption of these methods. The purpose of this study was to improve validation methods by creating a prostate cutting guide and to develop a method for 3D comparison between MRI data and post-prostatectomy histological tissue slices. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734042PMC
August 2019
1 Read

Wntless promotes cellular viability and resistance to enzalutamide in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(4):203-214. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Department of Urologic Surgery, University of California Davis CA, USA.

Background: De-regulation of Wnt signaling pathways has been shown to be associated with progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer and more recently, studies indicate that both canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways may mediate resistance to anti-androgen therapies such as enzalutamide. However, the mechanisms by which Wnt signaling is altered in prostate cancer remain poorly understood. Wnt pathway function begins with Wnt biogenesis and secretion from Wnt signal sending cells. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734040PMC

Predictive and targeting value of IGFBP-3 in therapeutically resistant prostate cancer.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(3):188-202. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Urology, University of Kentucky Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: Our previous studies demonstrated that a novel quinazoline derivative, DZ-50, inhibited prostate cancer epithelial cell invasion and survival by targeting insulin-like-growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and mediating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) conversion to mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). This study investigated the therapeutic value of DZ-50 agent in and models of advanced prostate cancer and the ability of the compound to overcome resistance to antiandrogen (enzalutamide) in prostate tumors.

Approach: LNCaP and LNCaP-enzalutamide resistant human prostate cancer (LNCaP-ER) cells, as well as 22Rv1 and enzalutamide resistant, 22Rv1-ER were used as cell models. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627542PMC
June 2019
1 Read

Elastosonographic evaluation of the post-operative morpho-volumetric recovery of the gonad in the cryptorchid patient.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(3):182-187. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Pediatric Fertility Lab, Woman and Child Hospital, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, University of Verona Piazzale A.Stefani 1, Verona, Italy.

Background: Cryptorchidism is associated with alteration of fertility potential. The aim of this study is to evaluate mid/long-term morphology and volume of the operated testis for undescended testes by using elastosonography.

Materials And Methods: The medical records of consecutive patients who had received orchiopexy at the Authors' Institution between January 2014 and January 2017 were retrospectively considered. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627549PMC
June 2019
13 Reads

KIF3B protein expression loss correlates with metastatic ability of prostate cancer.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(3):178-181. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is a microtubule motor kinesin involved in mitotic progression and vasculotropism. A novel therapeutic target, it is overexpressed in several cancers [PMID 29904055]. Its significance in prostate cancer (PC) was uncertain. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627541PMC

Void sorcerer: an open source, open access framework for mouse uroflowmetry.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(3):170-177. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA.

Observational and experimental studies of rodent voiding behaviors have greatly contributed to our understanding of lower urinary tract function including the complex social, environmental, and internal stimuli that affect voiding in health and models of disease. Void spot assays (VSA), cystometry (awake or anesthetized), and uroflowmetry are techniques commonly used in rodent models to assess voiding. Uroflowmetry is non-invasive and can be performed multiple times in the same freely moving animals and can be used to generate synchronized video corresponding to each void to characterize micturition patterns (e. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627548PMC
June 2019
2 Reads

PD-L1 instead of PD-1 status is associated with the clinical features in human primary prostate tumors.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(3):159-169. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

Immunotherapy targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has shown efficacy in a variety of solid tumors. However, prostate cancer has often been a non-responder to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. The objective of this study was to determine PD-1 and PD-L1 expression status and its correlation with clinical features of the patients. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627547PMC
June 2019
2 Reads

MRI-based method for lower urinary tract dysfunction in adult male mice.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(3):153-158. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin Madison, WI, USA.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in the majority of men as they age. As a result, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) often develop, which significantly decrease quality of life. One model of studying BPH/LUTS in mice is to use a hormone-induced model of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD), but current methods for studying endpoints require multiple analysis techniques that contribute to an overall lengthy process. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627546PMC

Carcinogen-induced bladder cancer in the FVB mouse strain is associated with glandular differentiation and increased Cd274/Pdl-1 expression.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(3):139-152. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Pathology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine Hershey, PA, USA.

Background: Creation of genetically engineered mouse models of bladder cancer often involves the use of several background strains in conjunction with the carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). However, carcinogen susceptibility in commonly used strains, as well as phenotypic differences is not well characterized.

Objectives: To determine differences in susceptibility and phenotypic outcome following BBN exposure of C57BL/6 and FVB, two strains commonly used for model development. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627545PMC
June 2019
3 Reads

Single-cell RNA-Seq analysis identifies a putative epithelial stem cell population in human primary prostate cells in monolayer and organoid culture conditions.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(3):123-138. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago 60612, Illinois, USA.

Human primary prostate epithelial (PrE) cells represent patient-derived models and are traditionally grown as a monolayer in two-dimensional culture. It has been recently demonstrated that expansion of primary cells into three-dimensional prostatic organoids better mimics prostate epithelial glands by recapitulating epithelial differentiation and cell polarity. Here, we sought to identify cell populations present in monolayer PrE cells and organoid culture, grown from the same patient, using single-cell RNA-sequencing. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627543PMC
June 2019
2 Reads

Estrogen receptor alpha differentially modulates host immunity in the bladder and kidney in response to urinary tract infection.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(3):110-122. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences Tulsa, OK, USA.

The protective role of endogenous estrogen against Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is well recognized, but the involvement of estrogen receptors (ERs) in modulating immunity in the urinary tract during UTI pathogenesis has not been investigated. The current study investigates the role of ERα in modulating immune responses and UTI outcome. Mice were pre-treated with either ERα agonist, propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT), or ERα antagonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP), before experimental UTI. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627544PMC

Different roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoforms in prostate cancer.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 15;7(3):98-109. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Medical Oncology, City of Hope 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA, USA.

Due to the increasing occurrence of and high costs associated with prostate cancer (PC), there is an urgent need to develop novel PC treatment and chemoprevention strategies. Although androgen receptor (AR) signaling is significant in the development and progression of PC, other molecular pathways contribute as well. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) has recently been implicated as an oncogene in PC, which may influence both the development and metastatic progression of the cancer. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627550PMC
June 2019
1 Read

The role of radiotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 25;7(2):92-97. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

The current standard of care for patients with metastatic prostate cancer includes ADT with a palliative intent. Recent studies have investigated the role of local therapy in metastatic prostate cancer. While retrospective data has shown some benefit with regard to survival and delay in initiation of ADT, there has been limited prospective Randomized data. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526359PMC
April 2019
12 Reads

Immune modulatory functions of EZH2 in the tumor microenvironment: implications in cancer immunotherapy.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 25;7(2):85-91. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Chicago, IL, USA.

Polycomb group protein EZH2, a histone methyltransferase, is the enzymatic subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) that catalyzes histone H3 lysine 27 methylation. They are epigenetic modifiers that mediate gene repression, or epigenetic silencing. EZH2 controls developmental regulators in embryonic stem cells and is essential for cell fate determination and transition. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526357PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Cytoreductive prostatectomy in metastatic prostate cancer: current knowledge and future directions.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 25;7(2):80-84. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Section of Urologic Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Division of Urology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

The current standard of care for patients with metastatic prostate cancer is systemic androgen deprivation therapy, and addressing the primary tumor has been reserved for patients with localized disease. However, emerging data has called into question the universality of this paradigm. Recent studies have found treatment of the primary tumor in patients with metastatic disease not only can provide the patient with symptomatic relief but also may provide a survival benefit. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526356PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Immune reaction by cytoreductive prostatectomy.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 25;7(2):64-79. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Section of Urologic Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, and Division of Urology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-cutaneous cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths in the United States. With no effective cure for advanced disease, the survival rates of castration-resistant disease and metastatic disease remains poor. Treatment via hormonal manipulation, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy remain marginally effective, indicating the need for novel treatment strategies. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526355PMC
April 2019
11 Reads

Commentary on local therapy in men who present with a metastatic prostate cancer from special issue senior guest editor.

Authors:
Isaac Yi Kim

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 25;7(2):61-63. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Section of Urologic Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Division of Urology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526358PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Impact of α-adrenoceptor antagonists on prostate cancer development, progression and prevention.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 18;7(1):46-60. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Urology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA.

Two decades following the discovery that α1-adrenoceptor antagonists suppress prostate tumor growth at the molecular and cellular level, the impact of α-blockade as re-purposed treatment strategy in the medical management of prostate cancer is gradually being recognized. Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths among males in the United States, yet the disease maintains inconsistent recommendations for prevention and screening. The functional relationship between α-adrenergic signaling and smooth muscle cells in the stroma of the prostate gland and the bladder neck empowered the use of α-adrenoceptor antagonists for the relief of urethral obstruction and clinical symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420703PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Interferon-induced IFIT5 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition leading to renal cancer invasion.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 18;7(1):31-45. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Interferon is known as a pleiotropic factor in innate immunity, cancer immunity and therapy. Despite an objective short-term response of interferon (IFN) therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients, the potential adverse effect of IFN on RCC cells is not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that IFNs can enhance RCC invasion via a new mechanism of IFIT5-mediated tumor suppressor microRNA (miRNA) degradation resulted in the elevation of Slug and ZEB1 and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420704PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Role of pre- ( and ) in regulation of gene expression and molecular pathogenesis in renal cell carcinoma.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 18;7(1):11-30. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Functional Genomics, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine Chiba, Japan.

Analyses of our previously determined microRNA (miRNA) expression signature of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database revealed that both strands of the pre- (the guide strand) and (the passenger strand)- are closely associated with poor prognosis of RCC patients ( = 0.0411 and = 0.022, respectively). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420701PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Association between oral pathogens and prostate cancer: building the relationship.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2019 18;7(1):1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Urology, Case Western Reserve University, School of Dental Medicine Cleveland 44106, Ohio.

Background: Chronic inflammation and infections are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer development. There is considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial/viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease triggered by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420702PMC
February 2019
6 Reads

Development of a murine intravesical orthotopic human bladder cancer (mio-hBC) model.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2018 20;6(6):245-259. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Vancouver Prostate Centre, Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC, Canada.

We have developed a murine intravesical orthotopic human bladder cancer (mio-hBC) model for the establishment of superficial urothelial cell carcinomas. In this model we catheterize female atyhmic nude mice and pre-treat the bladder with poly-L-lysine for 15 minutes, followed by intravesical instillation of luciferase-transfected human UM-UC-3 cells. Cancer cells are quantified by bioluminescent imaging which has been validated by small animal ultrasound. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334200PMC
December 2018
28 Reads

Concurrent EAF2 and ELL2 loss phenocopies individual EAF2 or ELL2 loss in prostate cancer cells and murine prostate.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2018 20;6(6):234-244. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Elongation factor for RNA polymerase II 2 (ELL2) and ELL-associated factor 2 (EAF2) are two functionally related androgen responsive gene-encoded proteins with prostate tumor suppressor characteristics. EAF2 and ELL2 have both been shown to be down-regulated in advanced prostate cancer, and mice with either or deficiency developed murine prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN), increased cellular proliferation and increased vascularity. Functional studies have revealed that EAF2 and ELL2 can bind to each other and have similar roles in regulating cell proliferation, angiogenesis and prostate homeostasis. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334201PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Concordant miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in humans and mice with bladder outlet obstruction.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2018 20;6(6):219-233. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Urology Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern Switzerland.

Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) leads to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urodynamic changes of the bladder function. Previously we identified microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression profiles associated with different states of BOO-induced LUTD in human patients. Bladder wall remodeling resulting from obstruction is widely studied in animal models of experimentally-induced partial BOO (pBOO). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334198PMC
December 2018
5 Reads

DNA methylation in development and disease: an overview for prostate researchers.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2018 20;6(6):197-218. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are critical regulators of organismal development and tissue homeostasis. DNA methylation is the transfer of methyl groups to cytosines, which adds an additional layer of complexity to the genome. DNA methylation marks are recognized by the cellular machinery to regulate transcription. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334199PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Voided volumes predict degree of partial bladder outlet obstruction in a murine model.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2018 20;6(5):189-196. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Pediatric Urology, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago 225 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

The partial bladder outlet obstruction animal model (pBOO) is commonly used as a model for obstructive uropathy. Unfortunately, pBOO demonstrates variable degrees of obstruction requiring bladder weight (BW) or urodynamic studies to determine true obstruction. Our objective is to identify extent of obstruction by correlating early post-operative Void Stains on Paper (VSOP) assays with ultimate BW in mice. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261872PMC
October 2018
54 Reads