29 results match your criteria American economic journal. Applied economics[Journal]

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Do Low Levels of Blood Lead Reduce Children's Future Test Scores?

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2018 Jan;10(1):307-341

Department of Community Health, Brown University, Box G-S121 Providence, RI 02903.

We construct a unique individual-level dataset linking preschool blood lead levels with third grade test scores for Rhode Island children born 1997-2005. Using two identification strategies, we show for the first time that reductions of lead from even historically low levels have significant positive effects. A one-unit decrease in average blood lead levels reduces the probability of being substantially below proficient in reading (math) by 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.20160404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6411080PMC
January 2018

Immigrants Equilibrate Local Labor Markets: Evidence from the Great Recession.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2016 Jan;8(1):257-290

Carnegie Mellon University and NBER.

This paper demonstrates that low-skilled Mexican-born immigrants' location choices in the U.S. respond strongly to changes in local labor demand, and that this geographic elasticity helps equalize spatial differences in labor market outcomes for low-skilled native workers, who are much less responsive. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4991313PMC
January 2016
5 Reads

Beyond Statistics: The Economic Content of Risk Scores.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2016 Apr;8(2):195-224

Department of Economics, The University of British Columbia, 997-1873 East Mall, Vancouver B.C. Canada V6T 1Z1.

"Big data" and statistical techniques to score potential transactions have transformed insurance and credit markets. In this paper, we observe that these widely-used statistical scores summarize a much richer heterogeneity, and may be endogenous to the context in which they get applied. We demonstrate this point empirically using data from Medicare Part D, showing that risk scores confound underlying health and endogenous spending response to insurance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.20150131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4945120PMC
April 2016
1 Read

DO EMPLOYER PENSION CONTRIBUTIONS REFLECT EMPLOYEE PREFERENCES? EVIDENCE FROM A RETIREMENT SAVINGS REFORM IN DENMARK.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2015 Oct;8(3):196-216

Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5 DK 1353 Copenhagen K.

This paper studies how firms set contributions to employer-provided 401(k)-type pension plans. Using a reform that decreased the subsidy to contributions to capital pension accounts for Danish workers in the top income tax bracket, we provide strong evidence that employers' contributions are based on their employees' savings preferences. We find an immediate decrease in employer contributions to capital accounts, whose magnitude increased in the share of employees directly affected by the reform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3386/w21665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5130153PMC
October 2015
5 Reads

Channeling Remittances to Education: A Field Experiment Among Migrants from El Salvador.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2015 Apr;7(2):207-232

University of Michigan, NBER, and BREAD.

We implement a randomized experiment offering Salvadoran migrants matching funds for educational remittances, which are channeled directly to a beneficiary student in El Salvador chosen by the migrant. The matches lead to increased educational expenditures, higher private school attendance, and lower labor supply of youths in El Salvador households connected to migrant study participants. We find substantial "crowd-in" of educational investments: for each $1 received by beneficiaries, educational expenditures increase by $3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.20140010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4437739PMC

Should Aid Reward Performance?: Evidence from a Field Experiment on Health and Education in Indonesia.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2014 Oct;6(4):1-34

The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 ( ).

We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.6.4.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4254820PMC
October 2014
3 Reads

Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia's Health Insurance Program for the Poor.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2013 Oct;5(4):61-91

Department of Economics, University College London, Gordon street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK, and Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS).

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia's Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a "fuzzy" regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services - with measurable health gains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.5.4.61DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4208673PMC
October 2013

The Great Equalizer: Health Care Access and Infant Mortality in Thailand.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2014 Jan;6(1):91-107

MIT, Harvard and NBER, and MIT Department of Economics.

This paper analyzes Thailand's 2001 healthcare reform, "30 Baht". The program increased funding available to hospitals to care for the poor and reduced copays to 30 Baht (~$0.75). Read More

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http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/10.1257/app.6.1.91
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.6.1.91DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3998713PMC
January 2014
3 Reads

Young Adult Obesity and Household Income: Effects of Unconditional Cash Transfers.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2013 Apr;5(2):1-28

Center for Developmental Epidemiology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3454, Durham, NC 27710 ( ).

We investigate the effect of household cash transfers during childhood on young adult body mass indexes (BMI). The effects of extra income differ depending on the household's initial socioeconomic status (SES). Children from the initially poorest households have a larger increase in BMI relative to children from initially wealthier households. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.5.2.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3975822PMC

Child Gender and Parental Investments In India: Are Boys And Girls Treated Differently?

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2014 Jan;6(1):157-189

University of California Los Angeles, 9373 Bunche Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 ( ).

Previous research has not always found that boys and girls are treated differently in rural India. However estimates of the effect of gender on parental investments could be biased if girls end up in larger families due to son-biased stopping rules. Using a novel identification strategy that exploits that gender at conception is random, we document that boys receive more childcare time than girls, they are breastfed longer and they get more vitamin supplementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.6.1.157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933178PMC
January 2014

The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2013 ;5(2):232-260

Stanford Medical School and NBER, 117 Encina Commons, Stanford, CA 94305.

Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3818525PMC
January 2013
4 Reads

The Effect of Absenteeism and Clinic Protocol on Health Outcomes: The Case of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Kenya.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2013 ;5(2):58-85

The World Bank.

Absenteeism of health workers in developing countries is widespread with some estimates indicating rates of provider absence of nearly 40% (Chaudhury et. al. 2006). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.5.2.58DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3806719PMC
January 2013
4 Reads

The Opt-In Revolution? Contraception and the Gender Gap in Wages.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2012 Jul;4(3):225-254

Department of Economics, University of Michigan, 611 Tappan Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109.

Decades of research on the US gender gap in wages describes its correlates, but little is known about why women changed their career paths in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper explores the role of "the Pill" in altering women's human capital investments and its ultimate implications for life-cycle wages. Using state-by-birth-cohort variation in legal access, we show that younger access to the Pill conferred an 8 percent hourly wage premium by age 50. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.4.3.225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3684076PMC
July 2012
1 Read

Health, Height, Height Shrinkage, and SES at Older Ages: Evidence from China.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2013 Apr;5(2):86-121

China Center for Economic Research, National School of Development, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

In this paper, we build on the literature that examines associations between height and health outcomes of the elderly. We investigate the associations of height shrinkage at older ages with socioeconomic status, finding that height shrinkage for both men and women is negatively associated with better schooling, current urban residence, and household per capita expenditures. We then investigate the relationships between pre-shrinkage height, height shrinkage, and a rich set of health outcomes of older respondents, finding that height shrinkage is positively associated with poor health outcomes across a variety of outcomes, being especially strong for cognition outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.5.2.86DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4652843PMC
April 2013
2 Reads

Barriers to Household Risk Management: Evidence from India.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2013 Jan;5(1):104-135

Cole: Harvard Business School, J-PAL, and BREAD, ; Gine: World Bank and BREAD, ; Tobacman: Wharton and NBER, ; Townsend: MIT and NBER, ; Topalova: International Monetary Fund, ; Vickery: Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

Why do many households remain exposed to large exogenous sources of non-systematic income risk? We use a series of randomized field experiments in rural India to test the importance of price and non-price factors in the adoption of an innovative rainfall insurance product. Demand is significantly price sensitive, but widespread take-up would not be achieved even if the product offered a payout ratio comparable to U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.5.1.104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3995033PMC
January 2013
21 Reads

The Impact of Credit on Village Economies.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2012 Apr;4(2):98-133

This paper evaluates the short-term impact of Thailand's 'Million Baht Village Fund'program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniative in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and quasi-experimental cross-village variation in credit-per-household. We find that the village funds have increased total short-term credit, consumption, agricultural investment, income growth (from business and labor), but decreased overall asset growth. We also find a positive impact on wages, an important general equilibrium effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.4.2.98DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405909PMC
April 2012
3 Reads

Reexamining the Impact of Family Planning Programs on US Fertility: Evidence from the War on Poverty and the Early Years of Title X().

Authors:
Martha J Bailey

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2012 Apr;4(2):62-97

Department of Economics, University of Michigan, 611 Tappan Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.

Almost 50 years after domestic US family planning programs began, their effects on childbearing remain controversial. Using the county-level roll-out of these programs from 1964 to 1973, this paper reevaluates their shorter and longer term effects on US fertility rates. I find that the introduction of family planning is associated with significant and persistent reductions in fertility driven both by falling completed childbearing and childbearing delay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.4.2.62DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3348617PMC
April 2012
2 Reads

School Desegregation and Urban Change: Evidence from City Boundaries.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2012 Jan;4(1):85-108

Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles, 8283 Bunche Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90094-1477 ( ).

I examine changes in the city-suburban housing price gap in metropolitan areas with and without court-ordered desegregation plans over the 1970s, narrowing my comparison to housing units on opposite sides of district boundaries. Desegregation of public schools in central cities reduced the demand for urban residence, leading urban housing prices and rents to decline by 6 percent relative to neighboring suburbs. Aversion to integration was due both to changes in peer composition and to student reassignment to nonneighborhood schools. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.4.1.85DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3915511PMC
January 2012

Informal Taxation.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2011 Oct;3(4):1-28

MIT and NBER.

Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.3.4.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3243951PMC
October 2011
4 Reads

Why Have College Completion Rates Declined? An Analysis of Changing Student Preparation and Collegiate Resources.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2010 Jul;2(3):129-157

University of Michigan Department of Economics, 611 Tappan Street, 318 Lorch Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1220 and National Bureau of Economic Research.

Rising college enrollment over the last quarter century has not been met with a proportional increase in college completion. Comparing the high school classes of 1972 and 1992, we show declines in college completion rates have been most pronounced for men who first enroll in less selective public universities and community colleges. We decompose the decline into the components due to changes in preparedness of entering students and due to changes in collegiate characteristics, including type of institution and resources per student. Read More

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http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/10.1257/app.2.3.129
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.2.3.129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140225PMC
July 2010
3 Reads

Returns to Local-Area Healthcare Spending: Evidence from Health Shocks to Patients Far From Home.

Authors:
Joseph J Doyle

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2011 Jul;3(3):221-243

MIT Sloan School of Management & NBER.

Healthcare spending varies widely across markets, and previous empirical studies find little evidence that higher spending translates into better health outcomes. The main innovation in this paper exploits this cross-sectional variation in hospital spending in a new way by considering patients who are exposed to healthcare systems not designed for them: patients far from home when a health emergency strikes. Visitors to Florida who become ill in high-spending areas have significantly lower mortality rates compared to visitors in lower-spending areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.3.3.221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3707795PMC
July 2011
1 Read

Parents' Incomes and Children's Outcomes: A Quasi-Experiment.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2010 Jan;2(1):86-115

We examine the role that an exogenous increase in household income due to a government transfer unrelated to household characteristics plays in children's long run outcomes. Children in affected households have higher levels of education in their young adulthood and a lower incidence of criminality for minor offenses. Effects differ by initial household poverty status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.2.1.86DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2891175PMC
January 2010
2 Reads

Peer Effects in the Workplace: Evidence from Random Groupings in Professional Golf Tournaments.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2009 Oct;1(4):34-68

University of Chicago Booth School of Business, 5807 S. Woodlawn Ave., Chicago IL 60637 USA and NBER.

This paper uses random assignment in professional golf tournaments to test for peer effects in the workplace. We find no evidence that playing partners' ability affects performance, contrary to recent evidence on peer effects in the workplace from laboratory experiments, grocery scanners, and soft-fruit pickers. In our preferred specification we can rule out peer effects larger than 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.1.4.34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2865688PMC
October 2009

Malaria Eradication in the Americas: A Retrospective Analysis of Childhood Exposure.

Authors:
Hoyt Bleakley

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2010 Apr;2(2)

Associate Professor of Economics, Booth School of Business, University of Chicago, 5807 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637. Telephone: (773) 834-2192.

This study uses the malaria-eradication campaigns in the United States (circa 1920), and in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico (circa 1955) to measure how much childhood exposure to malaria depresses labor productivity. The campaigns began because of advances in health technology, which mitigates concerns about reverse causality. Malarious areas saw large drops in the disease thereafter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.2.2.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3810960PMC
April 2010
1 Read

Malaria Eradication and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Paraguay and Sri Lanka.

Authors:
Adrienne M Lucas

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2010 Apr;2(2):46-71

Wellesley College, Economics Department, 106 Central Street, Wellesley, MA 02481.

Mid-twentieth century malaria eradication campaigns largely eliminated malaria from Paraguay and Sri Lanka. Using these interventions as quasi-experiments, I estimate malaria's effect on lifetime female educational attainment through the combination of pre-existing geographic variation in malarial intensity and cohort exposure based on the timing of the national anti-malaria campaigns. The estimates from Sri Lanka and Paraguay are similar and indicate that malaria eradication increased years of educational attainment and literacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.2.2.46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3740749PMC

Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2010 Jan;2(1):165

Bleakley: Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago, 5807 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637, Center for Research and Analysis of Migration, and National Bureau of Economic Research (email: ); Chin: Department of Economics, University of Houston, 204 McElhinney Hall, Houston, TX 77204-5019, and National Bureau of Economic Research (email: ).

Are U.S. immigrants' English proficiency and social outcomes the result of their cultural preferences, or of more fundamental constraints? Using 2000 Census microdata, we relate immigrants' English proficiency, marriage, fertility and residential location variables to their age at arrival in the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.2.1.165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813069PMC
January 2010
3 Reads

Parental Education and Child Health: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Taiwan.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2010 Jan;2(1):63-91

Department of Economics and Finance, Baruch College, City University of New York and National Bureau of Economic Research, 365 Fifth Avenue, 5 floor, Suite 5318, New York, New York 10016.

In 1968, the Taiwanese government extended compulsory education from six to nine years and opened over 150 new junior high schools at a differential rate among regions. Within each region, we exploit variations across cohorts in new junior high school openings to construct an instrument for schooling and employ it to estimate the causal effects of mother's or father's schooling on infant birth outcomes in the years 1978-1999. Parents' schooling does indeed cause favorable infant health outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.2.1.33DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4170069PMC
January 2010
2 Reads

Labor supply responses to large social transfers: Longitudinal evidence from South Africa.

Am Econ J Appl Econ 2009 Jan;1(1):22-48

University of Cape Town.

In many parts of the developing world, rural areas exhibit high rates of unemployment and underemployment. Understanding what prevents people from migrating to find better jobs is central to the development process. In this paper, we examine whether binding credit constraints and childcare constraints limit the ability of households to send labor migrants, and whether the arrival of a large, stable source of income - here, the South African old-age pension - helps households to overcome these constraints. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.1.1.22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2742429PMC
January 2009
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