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    5597 results match your criteria American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology[Journal]

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    Elafin treatment rescues EGFR-Klf4 signaling and lung cell survival in ventilated newborn mice.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Jun 12. Epub 2018 Jun 12.
    Stanford University, Pediatrics - Neonatology, Stanford, California, United States ;
    Rationale: Mechanical ventilation with O-rich gas (MV-O) inhibits alveologenesis and lung growth. We showed that MV-O increases elastase activity and apoptosis in lungs of newborn mice; elastase inhibition by elafin suppressed apoptosis and enabled lung growth. In pilot studies, MV-O reduced lung expression of pro-survival factors, pEGFR and Klf4. Read More

    Lung Defense through Interleukin-8 Carries a Cost of Chronic Lung Remodeling and Impaired Function.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Jun 12. Epub 2018 Jun 12.
    Imperial College, Lung Immunology Group, Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Department of Medicine, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    Rationale: IL-8 dependent inflammation is a hallmark of host lung innate immunity to bacterial pathogens, yet in many human lung diseases including COPD, bronchiectasis, and pulmonary fibrosis, there are progressive, irreversible pathologic, changes associated with elevated levels of IL-8 in the lung.

    Objectives: To better understand the duality of IL-8 dependent host immunity to bacterial infection and lung pathology, we targeted human IL-8 to express transgenically in murine bronchial epithelium, investigating the impact of over-expression on lung bacterial clearance, host immunity, lung pathology and function.

    Measurements And Main Results: Persistent IL-8 expression in bronchial epithelium resulted in neutrophilia, neutrophil maturation, activation and chemtoaxis. Read More

    Maternal cytokine profiles during pregnancy predict asthma in children of nonasthmatic mothers.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    University of Arizona, Tucson, United States ;
    Little is known about whether maternal immune status during pregnancy influences asthma development in the child. We measured cytokine production in supernatants from mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood immune cells collected during and after pregnancy from the mothers of children enrolled in the Tucson Infant Immune Study, a non-selected birth cohort. Physician-diagnosed active asthma in children through age 9 and a history of asthma in their mothers were assessed through questionnaires. Read More

    All-trans Retinoic Acid Augments Autophagy during Intracellular Bacterial Infection.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Clinical Medicine, Dublin, Ireland ;
    Vitamin A deficiency strongly predicts the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) in individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The burden of antibiotic resistant TB is increasing globally therefore there is an urgent need to develop host-directed adjunctive therapies to treat TB. Alveolar macrophages (AM), the niche cell for Mtb, metabolize vitamin A to all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), which influences host immune responses. Read More

    Quantifying Ciliary Dynamics during Assembly Reveals Step-wise Waveform Maturation in Airway Cells.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Washington Univ School of Medicine, ept. of Medicine/Pulmonary & Crit. Care, St. Louis, Missouri, United States ;
    Motile cilia are essential for clearance of particulates and pathogens from airways. For effective transport, ciliary motor proteins and axonemal structures interact to generate the rhythmic, propulsive bending, but the mechanisms that produce a dynamic waveform remain incompletely understood. Biomechanical measures of human cilia motion and their relationships to cilia assembly are needed to illuminate the biophysics of normal cilia function, and to quantify dysfunction in ciliopathies. Read More

    Vascular Adaptation of the Right Ventricle in Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    University of Colorado at Denver Health Sciences Center, Dept. of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, Denver, Colorado, United States.
    Rationale: Optimal right ventricle (RV) function in pulmonary hypertension (PH) requires structural and functional coupling between the RV cardiomyocyte and its adjacent capillary network. Prior investigations have indicated RV vascular rarefaction occurs in PH, which could contribute to RV failure by reduced delivery of oxygen or other metabolic substrates. However, it has not been determined if rarefaction results from relative underproliferation in the setting of tissue hypertrophy, or actual loss of vessels. Read More

    Clinical and Pathologic Factors Predicting Future Asthma in Wheezing Children. A Longitudinal Study.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.
    University of Padova, Department of Cardiological, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, Padova, Italy ;
    Rationale: Wheeze is a common symptom in infants, but not all wheezers develop asthma. Indeed, up to 50% of wheezing children outgrow their symptoms by school age. How to predict if early wheeze will become asthma is still a matter of vivid debate. Read More

    The Importance of Tyrosine Phosphorylation Control of Cellular Signaling Pathways in Respiratory Disease: pY and pY Not.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.
    National Jewish Health, Medicine/Academic Affairs, Denver, Colorado, United States.
    Reversible phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine residues is an essential signaling mechanism by which diverse cellular processes are closely regulated. The tight temporal and spatial control of the tyrosine phosphorylation status of proteins by protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) is critical to cellular homeostasis as well as to adaptations to the external environment. Via regulation of cellular signaling cascades involving other protein kinases and phosphatases, receptors, adaptor proteins, and transcription factors, PTKs and PTPs closely control diverse cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, inflammation, and maintenance of cellular barrier function. Read More

    The Signaling Network Resulting in Ventilator-induced Diaphragm Dysfunction.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Stanford, California, United States ;
    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure for those incapable of adequately ventilating or oxygenating without assistance. Unfortunately, even brief periods of MV result in diaphragm weakness (i.e. Read More

    SIRT1 Controls Poly(I:C)-dependent MMP9 Activation in Primary Human Nasal Epithelial Cells.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.
    The University of Adelaide, Surgery-ENT, Woodville, South Australia, Australia ;
    Background: Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is thought to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and cleaves collagen IV causing hyperpermeability of the basement membrane within mucosal tissue. It is known that MMP9 expression is negatively affected by sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) in human monocytotic cells, retinal endothelial cells and epithelial carcinoma cells. However, it is unknown which factors affect MMP9 expression and activity in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs). Read More

    MicroRNA Dysregulation in Pulmonary Arteries from COPD: Relationships with Vascular Remodeling.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Pulmonary vascular remodeling is an angiogenic-related process involving changes in smooth muscle cell (SMC) homeostasis, which is frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate mRNA expression levels of many genes leading to the manifestation of cell identity and specific cellular phenotypes. Here we evaluate the miRNA expression profiles of pulmonary arteries (PA) of patients with COPD and its relationship with the regulation of SMC phenotypic change. Read More

    The Emerging Role of Neutrophils in Repair after Acute Lung Injury.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 04 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain.
    Neutrophils are key players in acute lung injury. Once recruited from the circulation, these cells release cytotoxic molecules that lead to tissue disruption, so their blockade has been advocated to prevent lung damage. However, lung injury also occurs during neutropenia, and usually involves a very poor outcome. Read More

    The Expression and Functional Analysis of CST1 in Intractable Nasal Polyps.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Faculty of Medical Science, University of Fukui, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Fukui, Japan.
    This study found Cystatin SN (CST1), a type 2 cystatin subfamily member, to be highly expressed in nasal polyps from patients with intractable chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), using a whole transcript analysis with next-generation sequencing. Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) involves nasal polyps that are refractory and recurrent immediately after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). We hypothesized that CST1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of ECRS. Read More

    ICOS Costimulation Differentially Affects T Cells in Secondary Lymphoid Organs and Inflamed Tissues.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, 14928, Chronic Immune Reactions, Berlin, Germany ;
    B cell interaction with follicular helper T cells and their subsequent differentiation into high-affinity antibody producing cells normally takes place in secondary lymphoid organs. The costimulator ICOS plays a key role in this process and is therefore considered as an attractive target to modulate exaggerated B cell responses in autoimmune or allergic diseases. Inflamed tissues were recently recognized as additional sites of active T cell/B cell interaction. Read More

    A Potential Role for Exosomal TCTP Export in Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ;
    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of pulmonary vascular cells. Increased expression of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), a pro-survival and anti-apoptotic mediator, has recently been demonstrated in patients with hereditary PAH (HPAH) although its role in the pathobiology of PAH remains unclear. Silencing of TCTP in blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) isolated from control subjects led to significant changes in morphology, cytoskeletal organization, increased apoptosis and decreased directionality during migration. Read More

    Reticulocalbin 3 Deficiency in Alveolar Epithelium Exacerbated Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China ;
    Reticulocalbin 3 (Rcn3) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen protein localized to the secretory pathway. We have reported that Rcn3 plays critical role for alveolar epithelial cell type II (AECII) maturation during perinatal lung development, but its biological role in the adult lung is largely unknown. Herein, we found marked induction of Rcn3 expression in alveolar epithelium during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, which is most obvious in AECIIs. Read More

    PLCB3 Loss-of-function Reduces P. aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 Release in Cystic Fibrosis.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    University Hospital of Verona, Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, Verona, Italy ;
    An excessive inflammation orchestrated by release of neutrophilic chemokine IL-8 from bronchial epithelial cells, amplified by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection, is a hallmark of lung disease of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. To identify novel anti-inflammatory molecular targets, we previously performed a genetic study of 135 genes of the immune response, which identified the c. Read More

    Unravelling a Clinical Paradox - Why Does Bronchial Thermoplasty Work in Asthma?
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    University of Western Australia, Physiology, School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Rationale Bronchial thermoplasty is a relatively new but effective treatment in asthmatic subjects who do not respond to conventional therapy. While the favoured mechanism is ablation of the airway smooth muscle layer, because bronchial thermoplasty treats only a small number of central airways, there is ongoing debate regarding its precise method of action. Objectives Elucidate the underlying method of action behind bronchial thermoplasty. Read More

    Hemolysis-induced Lung Vascular Leakage Contributes to the Development of Pulmonary Hypertension.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    University of Arizona, Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, United States ;
    Rationale: While hemolytic anemia-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are more common than the prevalence of idiopathic PAH alone, the role of hemolysis in the development of PAH is poorly characterized.

    Objectives: We hypothesized that hemolysis independently contributes to PAH pathogenesis via endothelial barrier dysfunction with resulting perivascular edema and inflammation.

    Methods: Plasma samples from patients with and without PAH (both confirmed by right heart catheterization) were used to measure free hemoglobin (Hb) and its correlation with PAH severity. Read More

    Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 Signaling Regulates Fibroblast Apoptosis Through PDK1/Akt.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States ;
    Progressive fibrosis is a complication of many chronic diseases and collectively, organ fibrosis is the leading cause of death in the US. Fibrosis is characterized by accumulation of activated fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, especially type I collagen. Extensive research has supported a role for matrix signaling in propagating fibrosis but type I collagen itself is often considered an end product of fibrosis rather than an important regulator of continued collagen deposition. Read More

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