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    3360 results match your criteria American Journal of Reproductive Immunology [Journal]

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    Regulation of p38 mitogen-activated kinase-mediated fetal membrane senescence by statins.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 17:e12999. Epub 2018 Jun 17.
    Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine & Perinatal Research, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA.
    Problem: Oxidative stress (OS)-induced, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-mediated chorioamniotic senescence and inflammation (senescence-associated secretory phenotype [SASP]) are associated with parturition. In response to OS-inducing risk factors, premature senescence contributes to preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM) and spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). We determined the effect of simvastatin, rosuvastatin, and progesterone in downregulating p38MAPK-mediated senescence and SASP. Read More

    Interferon epsilon in the reproductive tract of healthy and genital herpes simplex virus-infected pregnant women: Results of a pilot study.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 14:e12995. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.
    Problem: Recently characterized interferon epsilon (IFNe) protects against sexually transmitted infections, including genital herpes simplex virus (HSV), in animal models. There are no reports of IFNe in genital tract secretions of pregnant women, and data on IFNe in non-pregnant women are limited. This pilot study is the first to measure concentrations of IFNe in vaginal and cervical secretions during pregnancy and compare values between healthy and genital HSV-infected women. Read More

    Platinum sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells does not influence their ability to induce M2-type macrophage polarization.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 14:e12996. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Cancer Institute, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Problem: Development of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer is mediated by both cancer cells and tumor microenvironment. Activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition program in cancer cells may lead to enrichment for resistant clones. These processes can be affected by tumor-associated macrophages, a highly plastic population of cells that participate in tumor progression and response to treatment by shaping the microenvironment. Read More

    Downregulation of ILT4 dendritic cells in recurrent miscarriage and recurrent implantation failure.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 14:e12998. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Reproductive Immunology for Peri-implantation, Shenzhen Zhongshan Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Genetics, Fertility Center, Shenzhen Zhongshan Urology Hospital, Shenzhen, China.
    Problem: The role of ILT4 DCs in healthy fertile controls and patients with recurrent miscarriages (RM) and recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is unclear.

    Method Of Study: We studied the expression of ILT4 from peripheral blood and endometrial samples from healthy controls and patients with RM and RIF by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. Endometrial Foxp3 expression was also investigated using immunohistochemistry. Read More

    Microbiome in normal and pathological pregnancies: A literature overview.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 6:e12993. Epub 2018 Jun 6.
    Department of Obstetrics, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    This review summarizes recent findings on the changes that occur during pregnancy in the composition of the vaginal and gut microbiome and their association with metabolic, hormonal, and immunological factors. Despite many studies on the topic, the vaginal and gut microbial profiles and their influence on the course of pregnancy are still unclear. We present data suggesting that, contrary to traditional understanding, the placenta is not sterile but has a microbial community. Read More

    XCL1-XCR1 pathway promotes trophoblast invasion at maternal-fetal interface by inducing MMP-2/MMP-9 activity.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 1:e12990. Epub 2018 Jun 1.
    Institute of Embryo-Fetal Original Adult Disease Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, The International Peace Maternity & Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Problem: Certain chemokines with their receptors can promote or inhibit trophoblast cell migration and invasion in human first-trimester placenta. Whether the lymphotactin (Lptn; XCL1)-XC chemokine receptor 1 (XCR1) chemokine pathway affects trophoblast cell migration and invasion in human first-trimester placenta remains unclear.

    Method Of Study: The expression pattern of chemokine XCL1 and its receptor XCR1 was detected in human first-trimester by qRT-PCR, and the effect of recombinant human XCL1 (rhXCL1) on trophoblast cell function was tested by wound healing and Transwell assays. Read More

    Soluble B7-H4 blood serum levels are elevated in women at high risk for preeclampsia in the first trimester, as well as in patients with confirmed preeclampsia.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 24:e12988. Epub 2018 May 24.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Problem: B7-H4 negatively regulates T-cell-mediated immunity and might play an important role in preeclampsia (PE). Here, we have investigated the association between PE and maternal soluble B7-H4 (sB7-H4) serum levels and B7-H4 mRNA expression in the placenta.

    Method Of Study: Maternal serum levels of sB7-H4 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in women between 11 and 13 weeks' gestation with elevated risk for PE (n = 48) and women without elevated risk for PE (n = 47). Read More

    The role of the maternal and fetal inflammatory response in retinopathy of prematurity.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 24:e12986. Epub 2018 May 24.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.
    Problem: There is a paucity of research on the contribution of placental inflammation to severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).

    Method Of Study: A retrospective cohort study (n = 1217) was conducted of infants screened for ROP (2006-2016). The outcomes of the study were severe ROP (type 1 or type 2 ROP) and low grade ROP. Read More

    Understanding mucosal and microbial functionality of the female reproductive tract by metaproteomics: Implications for HIV transmission.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 22:e12977. Epub 2018 May 22.
    National HIV and Retrovirology Labs, JCWilt Infectious Disease Research Centre, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    The mucosal surface of the female genital tract contains physiological, immunological, and microbial components that collectively comprise a functioning "mucosal system" that is critical for reproductive health. Alterations or imbalances to any of these components can have significant consequences for susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV. In recent years the advent of advanced systems biology technologies, such as metaproteomics, has provided new toolsets to studying mucosal systems. Read More

    Multi-omics in high-grade serous ovarian cancer: Biomarkers from genome to the immunome.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 21:e12975. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a lethal gynaecological disease that imposes significant burden on health care and patient quality of life. High-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary (HGSC) is the most prevalent histological type of EOC. A vast majority of HGSC cases are diagnosed at late stages of the disease, limiting the opportunity for clinical intervention and resulting in a 10-year survival rate of <20%. Read More

    Clinical significance of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in women with preeclampsia.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 21:e12973. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Severance Hospital, Institute of Women's Life Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Problem: Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious pregnancy complication leading to high maternal, perinatal morbidity, and mortality. We aimed to investigate the clinical effectiveness of the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in women with PE and compare this measurement to platelet indices as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of PE.

    Method Of Study: A total of 471 healthy pregnant women, 126 women diagnosed with mild PE, and 227 with severe PE were included in this retrospective study. Read More

    Granulysin-mediated apoptosis of trophoblasts in blighted ovum and missed abortion.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 18:e12978. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Medical Faculty, Department of Physiology and Immunology, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia.
    Problem: Granulysin (GNLY) is a cytotoxic molecule mostly present in decidual natural killer (NK) cells. Blighted ovum (BO) and missed abortion (MA) represent the early pathological pregnancies with hindered development of the embryoblast or a dead embryo. We investigated the GNLY-mediated apoptotic mechanism potentially responsible for delayed termination of pregnancy. Read More

    Glucocorticoid signaling regulates cell invasion and migration in the human first-trimester trophoblast cell line Sw.71.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 18:e12974. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Problem: The development of the placenta and its functions are sensitive to infection and stress, which can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Adrenally produced glucocorticoids are the body's primary mediators of the inflammatory and stress response. Although the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in all human villous trophoblast tissue, the effect of glucocorticoids on placentation is not well understood. Read More

    Amelioration of Escherichia coli-induced endometritis with ascorbic acid in non-pregnant mouse models.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 14:e12976. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
    Problem: Infection-induced endometritis is associated with infertility. The outcome with oral antibiotics remains poor. This study therefore investigates the role of ascorbic acid in resolving endometritis. Read More

    Abnormal lymphatic vessel development is associated with decreased decidual regulatory T cells in severe preeclampsia.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 14:e12970. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Women's Life Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Korea.
    Problem: The lymphatic vasculature controls leukocytes trafficking and limits the adaptive immune response. In previous models of preeclampsia (PE), defective immune function caused by disruption of lymphangiogenesis was shown to be involved in the disease pathophysiology. Especially, the dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Treg) at the maternal-fetal interface may be one of the causes of severe PE. Read More

    Metabolomics as a clinical testing method for the diagnosis of vaginal dysbiosis.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 14:e12979. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Surgery, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
    Microbes play an important role in vaginal health, with lactobacilli a particularly abundant species. When dysbiosis occurs, the tools to determine whether it is a condition such as bacterial vaginosis, and whether it warrants antibiotic treatment, are currently suboptimal. We propose that standardization and implementation of an affordable metabolomics-based diagnostic technique could reduce instances of false positives, stress associated with misdiagnosis, and potentially save time and money. Read More

    Expression of FcRn receptor in placental tissue and its relationship with IgG levels in term and preterm newborns.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 10:e12972. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA)-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
    Problem: IgG is the only antibody class, that is, actively transferred from the mother to the fetus across the placenta by an active, neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) mediated process during pregnancy, conferring passive immunity and protection against infections to the newborn during the first months of life. Preterm infants may not receive sufficient titers of protective antibodies, as most of them are transferred only after the 34th week of gestation. Because of the great importance of this process, we investigated in a clinical setting the placental transmission of IgG antibodies in term and preterm newborns. Read More

    Enhanced Th1 and inflammatory mRNA responses upregulate NK cell cytotoxicity and NKG2D ligand expression in human pre-eclamptic placenta and target it for NK cell attack.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 9:e12969. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infection and Immunology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Problem: Pre-eclampsia (PE), a severe human pregnancy disorder, is associated with exaggerated systemic inflammation, enhanced cytokine production, and increased shedding of microvesicles leading to endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy, and extensive placenta destruction. The cause of PE is still unclear. Evidence suggests that its origin lies in the placenta and that the maternal immune system is involved. Read More

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially regulate in vitro and ex vivo placental antioxidant capacity.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 7:e12868. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John's University, Queens, NY, USA.
    Problem: Complications from prematurity are the leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age. Although clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between maternal high-fat diet (HFD) and preterm birth (PTB), the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, it remains unclear how fatty acid type influences the effects of bacterial endotoxins. Read More

    Extracellular vesicles generated by placental tissues ex vivo: A transport system for immune mediators and growth factors.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 4:e12860. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Section of Intercellular Interactions, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Problem: To study the mechanisms of placenta function and the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in pregnancy, it is necessary to develop an ex vivo system that retains placental cytoarchitecture and the primary metabolic aspects, in particular the release of EVs and soluble factors. Here, we developed such a system and investigated the pattern of secretion of cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular vesicles by placental villous and amnion tissues ex vivo.

    Methods Of Study: Placental villous and amnion explants were cultured for 2 weeks at the air/liquid interface and their morphology and the released cytokines and EVs were analyzed. Read More

    PregOMICS-Leveraging systems biology and bioinformatics for drug repurposing in maternal-child health.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 4:e12971. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Section of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
    Obstetric diseases remain underserved and understudied. Drug repurposing-utilization of a drug whose use is accepted in one condition for a different condition-could represent a rapid and low-cost way to identify new therapies that are known to be safe. In diseases of pregnancy, the known safety profile is a strong additional incentive. Read More

    A comparison of effectiveness among frequent treatments of recurrent spontaneous abortion: A Bayesian network meta-analysis.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Apr 30:e12856. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.
    Objective: A comprehensive network meta-analysis was designed to clarify contradictions and offer valuable clinical guidance in the treatment of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    Method: The included clinical trials were selected from the relevant medical journal databases and screened. Treatments were ranked by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve. Read More

    17OHP-C in patients with spontaneous preterm labor and intact membranes: is there an effect according to the presence of intra-amniotic inflammation?
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Apr 30:e12867. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama, Japan.
    Problem: It is not known whether 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHP-C) is effective for preventing preterm delivery with an episode of preterm labor (PTL) with or without intra-amniotic inflammation/infection.

    Methods Of Study: This was a retrospective cohort study. One hundred and seven PTL patients were selected and divided into a 17OHP-C group (use of 17OHP-C: n = 53) and a no-treatment group (no use of 17OHP-C: n = 54). Read More

    Magnesium sulfate differentially modulates fetal membrane inflammation in a time-dependent manner.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Apr 30:e12861. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Problem: Chorioamnionitis and infection-associated inflammation are major causes of preterm birth. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO ) is widely used in obstetrics as a tocolytic; however, its mechanism of action is unclear. This study sought to investigate how MgSO modulates infection-associated inflammation in fetal membranes (FMs), and whether the response was time dependent. Read More

    The vaginal microbiome amplifies sex hormone-associated cyclic changes in cervicovaginal inflammation and epithelial barrier disruption.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Apr 30:e12863. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Department of Medicine Solna, Unit of Infectious Diseases, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Problem: Susceptibility to HIV is associated with the menstrual cycle and vaginal microbiome, but their collective impact on vaginal inflammation remains unclear. Here, we characterized the cervicovaginal proteome, inflammation, and microbiome community structure and function during the menstrual cycle.

    Method Of Study: Cervicovaginal secretions were collected from regularly cycling women (n = 16) at median day 10, 16, and 24 of each menstrual cycle and analyzed by mass spectrometry, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and a multiplex bead array immunoassay. Read More

    Chlamydia trachomatis-induced cell-mediated and humoral immune response in women with unexplained infertility.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Apr 25:e12865. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Problem: What is the role of past Chlamydia trachomatis infection in unexplained infertility?

    Method Of Study: This is a prospective study of the impact of past C. trachomatis infection on pregnancy rates in 96 women with unexplained infertility. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (CMI) against C. Read More

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide is upregulated in women with endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Apr 19:e12857. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Problem: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) causes compromised the quality of life in women with endometriosis and is often attributed to local inflammation and ingrowth of nerve fibers. In this pilot study, we aimed to investigate whether the inflammation-related vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and interleukin (IL)-6 were increased in affected patients.

    Method Of Study: Endometrial and endometriotic tissue biopsy specimens, and serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) samples, were obtained from 85 endometriosis patients and 53 controls. Read More

    A novel model to study neonatal Escherichia coli sepsis and the effect of treatment on the human immune system using humanized mice.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Apr 19:e12859. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics St. Hedwig, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
    Problem: Neonatal sepsis is a serious threat especially for preterm infants. As existing in vitro and in vivo models have limitations, we generated a novel neonatal sepsis model using humanized mice and tested the effect of Betamethasone and Indomethacin which are used in the clinic in case of premature birth.

    Method Of Study: Humanized mice were infected with Escherichia coli (E. Read More

    Prevalence of HHV-6 in endometrium from women with recurrent implantation failure.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Apr 17:e12862. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department Microbiology and Immunology, Clinical Immunology Laboratory, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, USA.
    Problem: To study the prevalence of HHV-6 in endometrial biopsies among women experiencing recurrent implantation failure (RIF) after IVF/ET compared with controls.

    Method Of Study: Thirty women experiencing RIF after IVF/ET and 10 fertile women participated in the study. All women had endometrial biopsies taken in the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle for an endometrial immune profile (EIP) and HHV-6 mRNA as well as lymphocyte and granulocyte populations. Read More

    MiR-27a-3p and miR-124-3p, upregulated in endometrium and serum from women affected by Chronic Endometritis, are new potential molecular markers of endometrial receptivity.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Apr 16:e12858. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgical Specialties, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Problem: Chronic endometritis (CE) is usually asymptomatic and different studies demonstrated the relation with infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss. Altered regulation of protein-encoding genes in CE has been demonstrated, but no evidence about the involvement of microRNAs in the pathology is present in literature.

    Method Of Study: In the endometrium from 15 women with CE and 15 healthy women, by RT-qPCR single assays, we investigated some microRNAs targeting IL11, CCL4, IGF1, and IGFBP1, which mRNAs had been found differentially expressed in endometrium of women affected by CE. Read More

    Intrauterine vaccination induces a dose-sensitive primary humoral response with limited evidence of recall potential.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Apr 1:e12855. Epub 2018 Apr 1.
    Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Problem: Induction of the local mucosal immune system within the reproductive tract is widely considered to be a key component in the development of effective prophylactic vaccines to control the spread of sexually transmitted infections. Here, we examine the capacity of the upper reproductive tract to act as a site of immune induction following.

    Method Of Study: Two vaccines formulated with a triple adjuvant combination and either recombinant bovine herpesvirus (tgD) protein or ovalbumin (OVA) were delivered at varying doses to the uterine lumen of rabbits and the resulting immune response evaluated after 32 days. Read More

    Lymphocytes immunotherapy for preserving pregnancy: Mechanisms and Challenges.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 31:e12853. Epub 2018 Mar 31.
    Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Due to the expression of paternal antigens by the embryo, pregnancy is considered as a semi-allograft and so immunological dysregulation is considered as one of the important causes in repeated implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). It has been revealed that lymphocytes immunotherapy (LIT) could be an appropriate approach to prevent pregnancy loss in such patients. Various mechanisms have been suggested for effectiveness of LIT such as enhancing expression of anti-paternal cytotoxic antibodies (APCA), progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF), anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2), and mixed lymphocyte reaction blocking antibodies (MLR-Bf), as well as reduction in the T helper 1/T helper 2 ratio and deviation in the pattern of cytokines production. Read More

    Placental immune state shifts with gestational age.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 25;79(6):e12848. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternal and Child Health Research Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Problem: Placental immunologic functions are implicated in both the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy and the pathogenesis of obstetric complications. Immune populations at the maternal-fetal interface are hypothesized to support fetomaternal tolerance, defend the fetus from infection, and contribute to labor initiation. Despite the many potential roles of placental immune cells in normal and abnormal pregnancy, little is known about placental immune population dynamics over gestation, particularly near parturition. Read More

    Placenta immune infiltrates and perinatal outcomes.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 25;79(5):e12850. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    Integrated Research Center for Fetal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Pregnancy is a state of immunotolerance and loss of this immunotolerance may lead to fetal rejection, pregnancy complications, and neonatal complications. Immunobiology of pregnancy is complex and involves unique immune cell populations specific to pregnancy, changes in mucosal immune cells and peripheral immune system, and reciprocal adaptations between the mother and the fetus. The mechanisms required for sustaining a healthy feto-placental barrier and a healthy pregnancy such as activation of regulatory immune responses with a predominance of regulatory T cells lead to immune evasion and propagation of cancer. Read More

    Nitric oxide synthase and oxidative-nitrosative stress play a key role in placental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 25:e12852. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    Biología Celular, Histología y Embriología, Fac. Cs. Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba-INICSA (CONICET), Córdoba, Argentina.
    Problem: The innate immune response of the placenta may participate in the congenital transmission of Chagas disease through releasing reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates.

    Method Of Study: Placental explants were cultured with 1 × 10 and 1 × 10 trypomastigotes of Tulahuen and Lucky strains and controls without parasites, and with the addition of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) as the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. Detachment of the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) was examined by histological analysis, and the nitric oxide synthase, endothelial (eNOS), and nitrotyrosine expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, as well as the human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels in the culture supernatant through ELISA assays. Read More

    Maternal-fetal cross talk through cell-free fetal DNA, telomere shortening, microchimerism, and inflammation.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 25;79(5):e12851. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
    There exists a strong correlation between unscheduled inflammation at the maternal-fetal interface and the continuum of pregnancy complications. In normal pregnancy, immunological tolerance is established to protect the semi-allogeneic fetus. There has been extensive research on how the immunity, endovascular trophoblast migration, and hormonal nexus are orchestrated during pregnancy at the maternal-fetal interface to program a normal pregnancy outcome. Read More

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A and Ca /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D modulate trophoblast cell function.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Problem: Trophoblast cells regulate embryo implantation and placental development. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is an initiator of translation involved in cellular processes, such as migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, the function of eIF5A in trophoblast cells is unknown. Read More

    Immune biomarkers and anti-HIV activity in the reproductive tract of sexually active and sexually inactive adolescent girls.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 13;79(6):e12846. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Medstar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.
    Problem: Adolescent girls are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, accounting for 22% of all new HIV infections globally. Yet little is known regarding the immune microenvironment of the adolescent female reproductive tract, especially regarding differences among sexually active and inactive girls, a critical parameter to evaluate HIV susceptibility associated with young age and sexual debut.

    Methods: Cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) was collected from sexually active (10) and inactive (8) girls aged 11-19 years and analyzed by ELISA for inflammation-associated biomarkers IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MIP-3α, IL-1α, IL-1β, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9, as well as anti-HIV mediators, Elafin, SLPI, human beta-defensin 2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) 1 and 2. Read More

    Stress, anxiety, and depression of both partners in infertile couples are associated with cytokine levels and adverse IVF outcome.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 04 12;79(4):e12832. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Problem: Psychiatric disorders and stress in women have been associated with poor IVF outcome. We hypothesized that both partners in the infertile couples are emotionally affected, and cytokines in both may link psychological to reproductive outcome.

    Method Of Study: Forty-five IVF couples completed questionnaires and visual analog scales for stress and psychiatric disorders and had cytokines measured in serum, semen, cervicovaginal, and follicular fluids. Read More

    Maternal cytomegalovirus sero-positivity and autism symptoms in children.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 9;79(5):e12840. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI, USA.
    Problem: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders in the United States. While ASD can be significantly influenced by genetics, prenatal exposure to maternal infections has also been implicated in conferring risk. Despite this, the effects of several important maternal pathogens, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), remain unknown. Read More

    Silencing of dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK180) obliterates pregnancy by interfering with decidualization due to blockage of nuclear entry of autoimmune regulator (AIRE).
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Female Reproduction and Metabolic Syndromes Laboratory, Division of Molecular Reproduction, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
    Problem: Dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK 180) involved in cytoskeletal reorganization is primarily a cytosolic molecule. It is recently shown to be nuclear in HeLa cells but its nuclear function is not known.

    Method Of Study: The spatiotemporal distribution of DOCK180 in uterus was studied in uterine cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments during the "window of implantation. Read More

    Effects of prokineticin 2 on testicular inflammation in rats.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 8;79(6):e12843. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Institute of Family Planning Research, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Problem: Prokineticin 2 (PK2), a pro-inflammatory peptide, is highly expressed in primary spermatocytes. However, systematic research on PK2 and testicular inflammation is lacking to date.

    Method Of Study: An experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) model was established to detect the expression of PK2 and its receptor (prokineticin receptor 1, PKR1) 50 and 80 days after immunization. Read More

    Characterization of microbiota in male infertility cases uncovers differences in seminal hyperviscosity and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia possibly correlated with increased prevalence of infectious bacteria.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 3;79(6):e12838. Epub 2018 Mar 3.
    Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto (I3S), Porto, Portugal.
    Problem: Sexually transmitted diseases and other infections of male genitourinary tract are thought to negatively impact reproductive health, affecting semen quality. Despite a possible link between bacteria and infertility, few studies attempted to characterize seminal microbiota in healthy and diseased subjects.

    Methods Of The Study: A high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene was performed in a cohort of infertility-related cases (N = 89) and controls (N = 29) using a pooled sample approach. Read More

    The immunophenotype of amniotic fluid leukocytes in normal and complicated pregnancies.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 04 3;79(4):e12827. Epub 2018 Mar 3.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.
    Problem: The immune cellular composition of amniotic fluid is poorly understood. Herein, we determined: 1) the immunophenotype of amniotic fluid immune cells during the second and third trimester in the absence of intra-amniotic infection/inflammation; 2) whether amniotic fluid T cells and ILCs display different phenotypical characteristics to that of peripheral cells; and 3) whether the amniotic fluid immune cells are altered in women with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation.

    Method Of Study: Amniotic fluid samples (n = 57) were collected from 15 to 40 weeks of gestation in women without intra-amniotic infection/inflammation. Read More

    IL-33/ST2 axis affects the polarization and efferocytosis of decidual macrophages in early pregnancy.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 3;79(6):e12836. Epub 2018 Mar 3.
    Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Problem: To explore whether IL-33/ST2 axis modulates the polarization and efferocytosis of decidual macrophages (dMφs).

    Method Of Study: The phenotype characteristics of dMφs from both normal pregnant women and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) patients were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry (FCM). Then, the efferocytosis and expression of IL-33 and its receptor (ST2) in dMφs were analyzed by FCM. Read More

    Progesterone improves perinatal neuromotor outcomes in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation via immunomodulation of the placenta.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 May 1;79(5):e12842. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    To assess the fetal neuroprotective potential of progesterone using a well-validated mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intrauterine inflammation (IUI). Embryonic day 17 pregnant mouse dams (n = 69) were randomly allocated to receive 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC), micronized progesterone (MP), or vehicle 1 hour prior to intrauterine injection of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or LPS. After 6 hours, mice were killed for the collection of placentas and fetal brains, or pregnancy continued for the evaluation of preterm birth (PTB) and offspring neuromotor function. Read More

    Lipopolysaccharide and cAMP modify placental calcitriol biosynthesis reducing antimicrobial peptides gene expression.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jun 1;79(6):e12841. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Departamento de Biología de la Reproducción Dr. Carlos Gual Castro, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México, México.
    Problem: Calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D (VD), stimulates placental antimicrobial peptides expression; nonetheless, the regulation of calcitriol biosynthesis in the presence of bacterial products and its consequence on placental innate immunity have scarcely been addressed.

    Method Of Study: We investigated how some bacterial products modify placental VD metabolism and its ability to induce antimicrobial peptides gene expression.

    Results: Cultured human trophoblasts biosynthesized calcitriol only in the presence of its precursor calcidiol, a process that was inhibited by cyclic-AMP but stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Read More

    Pleiotropic roles of melatonin in endometriosis, recurrent spontaneous abortion, and polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 1. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Key Laboratory of Reproduction Regulation of NPFPC, SIPPR, IRD, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai, China.
    Melatonin is a neurohormone synthesized from the aromatic amino acid tryptophan mainly by the pineal gland of mammals. Melatonin acts as a broad-spectrum antioxidant, powerful free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory agent, anticarcinogenic factor, sleep inducer and regulator of the circadian rhythm, and potential immunoregulator. Melatonin and reproductive system are interrelated under both physiological and pathological conditions. Read More

    The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin differentially regulates plasmacytoid and myeloid blood dendritic cell subsets.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 04 28;79(4):e12837. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Department of Experimental Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Faculty, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.
    Problem: Dendritic cells (DCs) are critically involved in fetal fate due to their capability to promote either immunity or tolerance to foreign fetal antigens. Our study aimed to investigate whether the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) affects different peripheral blood DC (PBDCs) subsets.

    Method Of Study: PBDCs were isolated from non-pregnant women, stimulated and co-cultured with hCG-producing JEG-3 or non hCG-producing SWAN-71 trophoblasts as well as with two different hCG preparations. Read More

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