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    3307 results match your criteria American Journal of Reproductive Immunology [Journal]

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    Lymphocyte immunotherapy for recurrent miscarriages: Predictors of therapeutic success.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Campinas University (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil.
    Problem: To evaluate the predictors of successful pregnancies in women with a history of recurrent miscarriages (RMs) having undergone lymphocyte immunotherapy (LIT).

    Method Of Study: Retrospective, multicenter, observational study which involved 702 pregnant women with history of RM treated with LIT. Comparative analysis of women with a history of RM having undergone LIT and experienced treatment success vs those having experienced treatment failure along with the analysis of the association between the number of prior miscarriages and the efficacy of LIT. Read More

    Is non-response to fluconazole maintenance therapy for recurrent Candida vaginitis related to sensitization to atopic reactions?
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Problem: Is sensitization to atopic reaction related to treatment response of recurrent Candida vulvovaginal (RVVC)?

    Method Of The Study: Analysis of ReCiDiF trial data of optimal (OR) and non-responders (NR) to fluconazole maintenance treatment, to explore medical history, physical status, family history, and vaginal immune response for potential sensitization to atopic reaction.

    Results: Sociodemographic characteristics of 33 NR women were not different from 38 OR. NR had received higher number of different treatments (mean difference 1. Read More

    Innate lymphoid cells at the human maternal-fetal interface in spontaneous preterm labor.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Perinatology Research Branch, Division of Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Division of Intramural Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, and Detroit, MI, USA.
    Problem: Pathological inflammation is causally linked to preterm labor and birth, the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Our aims were to investigate whether (i) the newly described family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) was present at the human maternal-fetal interface and (ii) ILC inflammatory subsets were associated with the pathological process of preterm labor.

    Methods Of Study: Decidual leukocytes were isolated from women with preterm or term labor as well as from gestational age-matched non-labor controls. Read More

    Multivariate analysis of cytokine profiles in pregnancy complications.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 15;79(3). Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, International Centre for Applied Mathematics and Computational Bioengineering, Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait, Kuwait.
    Problem: The immunoregulation to tolerate the semiallogeneic fetus during pregnancy includes a harmonious dynamic balance between anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several earlier studies reported significantly different levels and/or ratios of several cytokines in complicated pregnancy as compared to normal pregnancy. However, as cytokines operate in networks with potentially complex interactions, it is also interesting to compare groups with multi-cytokine data sets, with multivariate analysis. Read More

    Unexplained infertility patients present the mostly impaired levels of progesterone receptors: Prospective observational study.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    3rd Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Problem: Τo assess the endometrial expression of progesterone receptors in various subgroups of infertile women during implantation window. ΜETHODS: A prospective observational study was performed during March 2013-February 2017. Infertile women were categorized to those with tubal factor, ovarian failure, endometriosis or unexplained infertility. Read More

    Oxygen concentration modulates cellular senescence and autophagy in human trophoblast cells.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Department of Animal Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Atsugi, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Problem: We investigated the effect of oxygen concentrations on cellular senescence and autophagy and examined the role of autophagy in human trophoblast cells.

    Method Of Study: Human first-trimester trophoblast cells (Sw.71) were incubated under 21%, 5%, or 1% Oconcentrations for 24 hours. Read More

    NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) regulates inflammation-induced pro-labor mediators in human myometrial cells.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Obstetrics, Nutrition and Endocrinology Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Problem: Inflammation plays a major role in preterm birth. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) plays a role in inflammatory diseases. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of term labor on the expression of NLRP3 in human myometrium and the effect of NLRP3 silencing on pro-labor mediators in myometrial cells. Read More

    Pre-eclampsia affects procalcitonin production in placental tissue.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Problem: Procalcitonin (PCT) is the prohormone of calcitonin which is usually released from neuroendocrine cells of the thyroid gland (parafollicular) and the lungs (K cells). PCT is synthesized by almost all cell types and tissues, including monocytes and parenchymal tissue, upon LPS stimulation. To date, there is no evidence for PCT expression in the placenta both in physiological and pathological conditions. Read More

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 IgG antibodies in sera of umbilical cord as a proxy for placental infection in asymptomatic pregnant women.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Oncovirology Program, Instituto Nacional do Câncer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Problem: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide and is mainly sexually transmitted. When infecting pregnant women, HSV-2 is able to infect the placenta, can reach the fetus, and may affect the fetal development. We sought to determine the prevalence of HSV-2 infection and reactivation in asymptomatic pregnant women, the correlation between IgG in the maternal circulation and cord blood, and the correlation between circulating IgG, placental, and newborn infection (blood cord). Read More

    Transcriptional profiling of primary endometrial epithelial cells following acute HIV-1 exposure reveals gene signatures related to innate immunity.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Michael G. DeGroote Center for Learning and Discovery, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Problem: Genital epithelial cells (GECs) line the mucosal surface of the female genital tract (FGT) and are the first cells that interface with both commensal microbiota and sexually transmitted pathogens. Despite the protective barrier formed by GECs, the FGT is a major site of HIV-1 infection. This highlights the importance of studying the interaction of HIV-1 and GECs. Read More

    Uterine natural killer cell progenitor populations predict successful implantation in women with endometriosis-associated infertility.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 30;79(3). Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    School of Biochemistry & Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.
    Problem: Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells play a critical role early in gestation. As we previously identified altered uNK cell development in endometriosis-associated infertility, we herein sought to characterize natural killer (NK) cell profiles in endometriosis that may predict embryo implantation.

    Method Of Study: Study participants had a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis-associated infertility. Read More

    Lipopolysaccharide-induced maternal inflammation induces direct placental injury without alteration in placental blood flow and induces a secondary fetal intestinal injury that persists into adulthood.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
    Problem: Premature birth complicates 10%-12% of deliveries. Infection and inflammation are the most common etiologies and are associated with increased offspring morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced maternal inflammation causes direct placenta injury and subsequent injury to the fetal intestine. Read More

    Impact of Th1/Th2 cytokine polarity induced by invariant NKT cells on the incidence of pregnancy loss in mice.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 24;79(3). Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association of Th1/Th2 polarity induced by CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells with pregnancy outcome.

    Methods: Two types of iNKT cell stimulants with different cytokine induction properties, alpha-galactosylceramide (AGC; Th1-biased inducer), and a sphingosine-truncated derivative of AGC (OCH; Th2-biased inducer) were administered to pregnant mice on day 9.5 post-coitus (pc), and the incidence of pregnancy loss was evaluated. Read More

    Application of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) for detecting sperm-immobilizing antibody.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 19;79(3). Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan.
    Problem: Since the 1970s, anti-sperm antibodies have been studied as a pathogenic factor contributing to infertility. The complement-dependent sperm-immobilization test (SIT) and quantitative SIT have been used as effective tools for detecting anti-sperm antibodies in clinical settings. These tests have been carried out traditionally by manually counting the number of motile sperm through eye estimation. Read More

    Immune protective effects of chitooligosaccharides on mice genital tract infected by Chlamydia trachomatis.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jan 18. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    College of medical technology, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences, Shanghai, China.
    Problem: The immune protective effects of chitooligosaccharides (COs) on mouse genital tract infected by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) were unknown.

    Methods: The minimum effective/infective dose was obtained by establishing the murine model of the genital tract infected by Ct. The model mice were treated with different doses (0. Read More

    Soluble CD14 levels in plasma and breastmilk of Malawian HIV+ women: Lack of association with morbidity and mortality in their exposed infants.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 11;79(3). Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    National Center for Drug Research and Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    Problem: Data on soluble CD14 (sCD14) during pregnancy and lactation are scarce. We assessed the levels of sCD14 in plasma and breastmilk of Malawian HIV-positive women and evaluated the possible association with morbidity and mortality in the HIV-exposed children.

    Method Of Study: One hundred and forty-nine mother/child pairs were studied. Read More

    Impaired Treg and NK cells profile in overweight women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 5;79(3). Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Department of Obstetrics, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Problem: Maternal obesity is frequently associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and immunological mechanisms seem to be involved in the physiopathology of these conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of immune cells in peripheral blood of overweight women with GDM.

    Method Of Study: This case-control study included 27 glucose-tolerant (controls) and 31 GDM overweight pregnant women. Read More

    Effects of intrauterine perfusion of human chorionic gonadotropin in women with different implantation failure numbers.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 30;79(2). Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.
    Problem: The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of the intrauterine perfusion of hCG before a frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) in women with different implantation failure numbers.

    Method Of Study: This was a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing FET who received an intrauterine injection hCG 1000 IU before embryo transfer. The groups included women with their first implantation failure (A group, n = 26), second implantation failure (B group, n = 122), and three or more failures (C group, n = 77). Read More

    Cancer immunotherapy: A need for peripheral immunodynamic monitoring.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2017 Dec 30. Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
    Immunotherapy has become an important approach for treating different tumours which has shown significant efficacy in numerous clinical trials, especially those using new checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell therapy, which have rapidly become widespread after being approved. However, analysis of peripheral immune biomarkers before and after immunotherapy and their relationship to clinical responses and disease prognosis have rarely been performed in clinical trials. In this review, we examine dynamic changes in the immune system before and after therapy by analyzing recent clinical trials of immunotherapy in patients with cancer that focused on checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell therapy. Read More

    Localized cyclical variations in immunoproteins in the female genital tract and the implications on the design and assessment of mucosal infection and therapies.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 29;79(2). Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Mucosal Infection & Immunity Group, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Problem: Fluctuating hormones regulate reproductive processes in the female genital tract. Consequent changes in the local immunological environment are likely to affect cellular interaction with infectious agents and the assessment of therapies that target mucosal infections.

    Method Of Study: We compared Softcup and Weck-Cel sampling protocols and assessed the changes in the concentrations of 39 soluble proteins with menstrual cycle progression in the mucosal and peripheral compartments. Read More

    Toll-like receptor variants and cervical Atopobium vaginae infection in women with pelvic inflammatory disease.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 29;79(2). Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Problem: Toll-like (TLR) receptor genetic variants have been implicated in bacterial vaginosis (BV). We determined whether TLR variants are associated with fastidious BV-associated microbes that are linked with infertility following pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

    Method Of Study: Sneathia spp. Read More

    Sludge reflects intra-amniotic inflammation with or without microorganisms.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 27;79(2). Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toyama, Toyama City, Japan.
    Problem: To investigate whether amniotic fluid (AF) "sludge" in patients with preterm labor (PTL) with intact membranes is related to intra-amniotic infection or inflammation.

    Method Of Study: 105 PTL patients before 29 weeks' gestation were enrolled. AF "sludge" was evaluated by transvaginal sonography. Read More

    Characterization of CD127 CD25Treg from human colostrum.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 22;79(2). Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Infectology and Immunology Department, National Institute of Perinatology (INPer), Mexico City, Mexico.
    Problem: Breastfeeding's influence on the tolerance to environmental antigens is essential for short- and long-term homeostasis for children. Colostrum is rich in leucocytes, but it is unknown whether regulatory T cells (Treg) account for part of this cell population.

    Method Of Study: Frequencies of CD127 CD25Treg and levels of immunoregulatory-associated cell markers were determined in colostrum and were compared with autologous blood cells. Read More

    Chorioamnionitis, IL-17A, and fetal origins of neurologic disease.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 1 in 323 infants have cerebral palsy. Highly correlated to intrauterine infection and inflammation, the incidence of cerebral palsy has remained constant over the last few decades despite significant advances in neonatal intensive care including improved ventilator techniques, surfactant therapy, maternal steroid administration, and use of intrapartum empiric antimicrobials. Recent advances in our understanding of immune responses to infection and inflammation have identified the cytokine IL-17A as a crucial component of early proinflammatory mediators that cause brain injury associated with neurologic impairment. Read More

    Plasma immunological markers in pregnancy and cord blood: A possible link between macrophage chemo-attractants and risk of childhood type 1 diabetes.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 20;79(3). Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Problem: Previous studies have suggested that immune perturbations during pregnancy can affect offspring type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk. We aimed to identify immunological markers that could predict offspring T1D or that were linked to T1D risk factors.

    Method Of Study: We quantified selected circulating immunological markers in mid-pregnancy (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2Rα, IL-2, -4, -5, -6, -10, -12p70, 13, -17A, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, CXCL10, CCL 2, CCL3, CCL4, TNF) and cord blood plasma (neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio) in a case-control study with 175 mother/child T1D cases (median age 5. Read More

    The possible role of CD8+/Vα7.2+/CD161++ T (MAIT) and CD8+/Vα7.2+/CD161T (MAIT-like) cells in the pathogenesis of early-onset pre-eclampsia.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 19;79(2). Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Clinical Center, University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary.
    Problem: The objective of this study was to compare the expressions of different immune-checkpoint molecules by MAIT and MAIT-like cells in healthy pregnancy and in early-onset pre-eclampsia.

    Method Of Study: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stained with monoclonal antibodies to characterize MAIT and MAIT-like cells. Flow cytometric analyses were used to measure PD-1, TIM-3, activation markers, and intracellular perforin expression. Read More

    Maternal history of recurrent pregnancy loss is associated with increased risk for long-term pediatric gastrointestinal morbidity in the offspring.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 15;79(2). Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel.
    Problem: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) potentially involves an abnormal maternal inflammatory response. We investigated whether children of mothers with a history of RPL are at an increased risk for childhood gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity, with a specific focus on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).

    Method Of Study: A population-based cohort analysis comparing the risk for long-term GI morbidity in children born to mothers with and without a history of RPL. Read More

    IL-17 in neonatal health and disease.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
    Over the last few years, scientific interest in the cytokine IL-17A has intensified as its role in human health and disease has been elucidated. Discovered almost a quarter century ago, IL-17A is known to have poor biologic activity when acting alone, but attains robust actions when working synergistically with potent mediators of proinflammatory immune responses, such as IL-6 and IL-8. IL-17A is produced by specialized innate immune cells that protect host barriers from the outside world. Read More

    Paternal HLA-C is a risk factor in unexplained recurrent miscarriage.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 4;79(2). Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Problem: HLA-C is the only classical HLA-I antigen expressed on trophoblast. We hypothesized that the alloimmune response to paternal HLA-C plays a role in unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

    Method Of Study: In a case-control design, we included 100 women with at least three unexplained consecutive miscarriages along with their partners and children. Read More

    Immune checkpoint molecules soluble program death ligand 1 and galectin-9 are increased in pregnancy.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 4;79(2). Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Problem: Pregnancy requires balance between tolerance to the haploidentical fetus and the mother's ability to mount immune responses. There are parallels to this phenomenon that occur in metastatic cancer. We assessed soluble program death ligand-1 soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) and galectin-9 in the blood of pregnant women during gestation as these molecules are highly involved in immune suppression during cancer. Read More

    Maternal CD8T-cell depletion alleviates intrauterine inflammation-induced perinatal brain injury.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Integrated Research Center for Fetal Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    We investigated the mechanisms by which CD8T-cell trafficking in placenta contributes to perinatal brain injury by studying effects of maternal CD8T-cell depletion (DEP) in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation (IUI). Maternal CD8T cells were depleted with anti-CD8antibodies. IUI was induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Read More

    Vitamin D facilitates trophoblast invasion through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 4;79(2). Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Myunggok Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon, Korea.
    Problem: Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of developing pregnancy-related complications, including preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age infants. Vitamin D was demonstrated to promote the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). However, whether vitamin D induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of EVTs remains unclear. Read More

    Decidual CD68HLA-DRCD163M1 macrophages increase in miscarriages with normal fetal chromosome.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 2;79(2). Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.
    Problem: Is an abnormal increase or decrease of M1/M2 macrophages observed in the deciduae of miscarriages with normal fetal chromosome (MN)?

    Methods Of Study: Deciduae of 18 MN and 26 miscarriages with abnormal fetal chromosome (MA) were obtained. Additionally, deciduae from 15 women whose pregnancies ended in induced abortions (IA) and endometriums at the mid-luteal phase from 19 non-pregnant women endomeriums of mid-luteal phases (EM) were obtained. Macrophages were analyzed by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies for CD68, HLA-DR, and CD163. Read More

    Analysis of the ectoenzymes ADA, ALP, ENPP1, and ENPP3, in the contents of ovarian endometriomas as candidate biomarkers of endometriosis.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Feb 30;79(2). Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department de Patologia i Terapèutica Experimental, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Campus Bellvitge, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Problem: The diagnosis of endometriosis, a prevalent chronic disease with a strong inflammatory component, is usually delayed due to the lack of noninvasive diagnostic tests. Purinergic signaling, a key cell pathway, is altered in many inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), and ENPP3, elements of purinergic signaling, as biomarker candidates for endometriosis. Read More

    Oxidative stress diseases unique to the perinatal period: A window into the developing innate immune response.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.
    The innate immune system has evolved to play an integral role in the normally developing lung and brain. However, in response to oxidative stress, innate immunity, mediated by specific cellular and molecular programs and signaling, contributes to pathology in these same organ systems. Despite opposing drivers of oxidative stress, namely hyperoxia in neonatal lung injury and hypoxia/ischemia in neonatal brain injury, similar pathways-including toll-like receptors, NFκB and MAPK cascades-have been implicated in tissue damage. Read More

    Placental exosomes: A proxy to understand pregnancy complications.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine and Perinatal Research, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA.
    Exosomes (30- to 150-nm particles), originating from multivesicular bodies by the invagination of the endosomal membrane, are communication channels between cells. Exosomes are released by various cell types and cargo proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids reflecting the physiologic status of their cells of origin and cause functional changes in recipient cells, which are likely dependent on their quantity and/or cargo contents. Recently, placental exosomes, produced by various placental cell types, have been isolated from maternal blood using the placental protein-specific marker, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP). Read More

    Amniotic fluid pentraxins: Potential early markers for identifying intra-amniotic inflammatory complications in preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Hradec Kralove, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.
    In this study, pentraxin 3 (PTX3), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid P component (SAP) concentrations in the amniotic fluid of women with preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes (PPROM) were evaluated based on evidence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC), intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI), and microbial-associated IAI. A total of 149 women with PPROM were included in this study. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis. Read More

    A distinct mechanism of senescence activation in amnion epithelial cells by infection, inflammation, and oxidative stress.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 30;79(3). Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.
    Problem: We investigated p38MAPK activation-induced fetal membrane cell senescence in response to inflammation (tumour necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α]) and infection (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Method Of Study: Primary amnion epithelial cells (AECs) were exposed to TNF-α, 50 ng/mL and LPS, 100 ng/mL. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE), a known OS inducer, was used as positive control. Read More

    Therapy for antiphospholipid miscarriages: Throwing the baby out with the bathwater?
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 28;79(3). Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Department of Clinical Science and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Problem: The association of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with low-dose aspirin (LDASA) provides the therapeutic cornerstone of obstetric anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). This combo approach is not effective in all patients, and few women still experience recurrences.

    Method Of Study: In an elegant in vitro study, Chiombori Quao and colleagues demonstrated that anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) affect the functionality of endometrial endothelial cells interfering with angiogenesis. Read More

    The role of immunological testing and intervention in reproductive medicine: A fertile collaboration?
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Mar 20;79(3). Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Clinical Immunology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Advances in reproductive medicine have significantly increased the success of fertility treatments. Nevertheless, some women experience recurrent implantation failure (RIF) after in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Imbalances in the immune system and failure to achieve immune tolerance to the foetus have been implicated as potentially modifiable causes of idiopathic RIF and RPL. Read More

    The role of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in normal and pathological pregnancies.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    The survival of allogeneic fetus during pregnancy contradicts the laws of immune responses. Behind this paradoxical phenomenon, the mechanism is quite complex. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of tryptophan catabolism. Read More

    Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 25 expressed by trophoblast cells and leukocytes bearing its receptor Ccr9: An alliance during embryo implantation?
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jan 20;79(1). Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Problem: We hypothesized that trophoblast expression of Ccl25 attracts a specific leukocyte cell population to the implantation site for local regulation.

    Method Of Study: Mice blastocysts, ectoplacental cones, and decidua at gestational days 3.5-7. Read More

    Rapid and simple detection of Ureaplasma species from vaginal swab samples using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jan 20;79(1). Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Problem: Ureaplasma species occasionally cause chorioamnionitis and premature labor. We developed a novel assay employing a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Method Of Study: Loop-mediated isothermal amplification primers were designed to amplify Ureaplasma-specific ureaseB genes. Read More

    Chronic endometritis in patients with unexplained infertility: Prevalence and effects of antibiotic treatment on spontaneous conception.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jan 14;79(1). Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Institute of Pathology, Department of Biomedical and Human Oncological Science (DIMO), University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Problem: The correlations between chronic endometritis and unexplained infertility are unexplored.

    Method Of Study: We performed a retrospective study on consecutive patients referred to our hysteroscopy service due to unexplained infertility. All women underwent endometrial sampling with histological and cultural examinations. Read More

    Low molecular weight heparin and aspirin exacerbate human endometrial endothelial cell responses to antiphospholipid antibodies.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jan 14;79(1). Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Problem: Women with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are at risk for pregnancy complications despite treatment with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or aspirin (ASA). aPL recognizing betaglycoprotein I can target the uterine endothelium, however, little is known about its response to aPL. This study characterized the effect of aPL on human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs), and the influence of LMWH and ASA. Read More

    Genetic and epigenetic regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I gene expression in bovine trophoblast cells.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jan 12;79(1). Epub 2017 Nov 12.
    Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA.
    Problem: The regulatory mechanisms governing differential expression of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (MHC-Ia) and non-classical MHC class I (MHC-Ib) genes are poorly understood.

    Method Of Study: Quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the abundance of MHC-I transcripts and related transcription factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and placental trophoblast cells (PTC). Methylation of MHC-I CpG islands was detected by bisulfite treatment and next-generation sequencing. Read More

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate-treated human, primary endometrial epithelial cells reveal unique gene expression signature linked to innate immunity and HIV-1 susceptibility.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jan 6;79(1). Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Michael G. DeGroote Center for Learning and Discovery, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Problem: Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a progestin-based hormonal contraceptive designed to mimic progesterone, has been linked to increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) susceptibility. Genital epithelial cells (GECs) form the mucosal lining of the female genital tract (FGT) and provide the first line of protection against HIV-1. The impact of endogenous sex hormones or MPA on the gene expression profile of GECs has not been comprehensively documented. Read More

    Inhibition of IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) proteins represses inflammatory status via nuclear factor-kappa B pathway in murine endometriosis lesions.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2018 Jan 6;79(1). Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Research Center for Bioscience and Technology, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Yonago, Japan.
    Problem: How is the role of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in the development of murine endometriosis lesions?

    Method Of Study: BALB/c female mice (n = 36) were used for the murine endometriosis model. Endometriotic lesions were surgically induced in mice by transplanting mouse uterine tissue. After 4 weeks of IAP antagonist (BV6) treatment, the expression of inflammatory factors in the implants was evaluated using real-time RT-PCR. Read More

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