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    5691 results match your criteria American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology[Journal]

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    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 20:ajprenal.00434.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Northwestern University Medical School
    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play a role in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Myo-inositol Oxygenase (MIOX) has been implicated in tubulo-interstitial injury in the context of DN. We investigated the effect of AGEs on MIOX expression and delineated mechanisms that lead to tubulo-interstitial injury. Read More

    Three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the renal vasculature.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 20:ajprenal.00339.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    University of Western Australia
    Vascular topology and morphology is critical in the regulation of blood flow and the transport of small solutes including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide. Renal vascular morphology is particularly challenging as many arterial walls are partially wrapped by the walls of veins. In the absence of a precise characterization of three-dimensional branching vascular geometry, accurate computational modeling of the intrarenal transport of small diffusible molecules is impossible. Read More

    PGC1α in the kidney.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 20:ajprenal.00263.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) arising from diverse etiologies is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, has been shown to be protective in AKI. Interestingly, reduction of PGC1α has also been implicated in the development of diabetic kidney disease and renal fibrosis. Read More

    PPARA agonist fenofibrate enhances fatty acid β-oxidation and attenuates polycystic kidney and liver disease in mice.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 13:ajprenal.00352.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    UT Southwestern Med. Ctr at Dallas
    PPARA is nuclear hormone receptor that promotes fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We and others have recently shown that PPARA and its target genes are downregulated, and FAO and OXPHOS are impaired in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, whether PPARA and FAO/OXPHOS are causally linked to ADPKD progression is not entirely clear. Read More

    Complement C5a receptors C5L2 and C5aR in renal fibrosis.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 13:ajprenal.00060.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Saarland University Medical Center.
    Complement factor C5a has two known receptors, C5aR mediating pro-inflammatory effects and C5L2, a potential C5a scavenger. We previously identified C5a/C5aR signaling as a potent profibrotic pathway in the kidney. Here we tested for the first time the role of C5L2 in renal fibrosis. Read More

    Aberrant Smad3 phosphoisoforms in cyst-lining epithelial cells in the cpk mouse, a model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 6:ajprenal.00697.2016. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Wakayama Medical University.
    Cystic epithelia acquire mesenchymal-like features in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). In this phenotypic alteration, it is well known that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad3 signaling is involved, however, there is emerging new data on Smad3 phosphoisoforms: Smad3 phosphorylated at linker regions (pSmad3L) and COOH terminal regions (pSmad3C) and both (pSmad3L/C). pSmad3L/C has a pathological role in colorectal cancer. Read More

    Versatility of NaCl Transport Mechanisms in the Cortical Collecting Duct.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 6:ajprenal.00369.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    The cortical collecting duct (CCD) forms part of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron and plays an essential role in maintaining the NaCl balance and acid-base status. The CCD epithelium comprises principal cells as well as different types of intercalated cells. Until recently, transcellular Na+ transport was thought to be restricted to principal cells, while (acid-secreting) type A and (bicarbonate-secreting) type B intercalated cells were associated with the regulation of acid-base homeostasis. Read More

    Mechanotransduction Signaling in Podocytes from Fluid Flow Shear Stress.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 6:ajprenal.00325.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Kansas City VA Medical Center.
    Recently we and others have found that hyperfiltration-associated increase in biomechanical forces, namely tensile stress and fluid flow shear stress (FFSS) can directly and distinctly alter podocyte structure and function. The ultrafiltrate flow over the major processes and cell body generates FFSS to podocyte. Our previous work suggests that COX2-PGE2-EP2 axis plays an important role in mechanoperception of FFSS in podocyte (Srivastava et al. Read More

    Regulatory T cells in Acute and Chronic Kidney Diseases.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 6:ajprenal.00236.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    University of Virginia School of Medicine.
    The Foxp3-expressing CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), which is a subset of the helper T-cells (Th), constitute one of the major mechanisms of peripheral tolerance. Tregs prevent abnormal activation of the immune system throughout the lifespan, thus protecting from autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have elucidated the role of Tregs beyond autoimmunity. Read More

    Altered vasopressin and natriuretic peptide levels in a rat model of spinal cord injury - Implications for the development of polyuria.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 6:ajprenal.00229.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    University of Louisville
    Urinary dysfunction is a common complaint following spinal cord injury (SCI), and is a leading issue for individuals with SCI that impacts their quality of life. One urinary complication that has received little attention is SCI-induced polyuria, even though SCI individuals will significantly restrict their fluid intake to decrease urine production leading to a sequelae of medical complications. Understanding the mechanisms instigating the development of polyuria will allow us to target interventions which may alleviate polyuria symptoms leading to significant improvements in the quality of life and urinary health of SCI individuals. Read More

    Uninephrectomy and apical fluid shear stress decrease ENaC abundance in collecting duct principal cells.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 6:ajprenal.00200.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    University of Geneva Medical Center.
    Acute nephron reduction such as after living kidney donation may increase the risk of hypertension. Uninephrectomy induces major hemodynamic changes in the remaining kidney resulting in rapid increase of single nephron GFR and fluid delivery in the distal nephron. Decreased sodium (Na) fractional reabsorption after the distal tubule has been reported after uninephrectomy in animals preserving volume homeostasis. Read More

    Angiotensin II type 1a receptor-deficient mice develop angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage without blood pressure increase.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 6:ajprenal.00183.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    University of Düsseldorf
    Hypertensive patients have an increased risk to develop kidney cancer. We have shown in vivo, that besides elevating blood pressure, angiotensin II causes DNA damage dose-dependently. Here, the role of blood pressure in the formation of DNA damage is studied. Read More

    Acute blood loss stimulates fibroblast growth factor 23 production.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 6:ajprenal.00081.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    New York Medical College
    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) production is upregulated by iron deficiency and hypoxia. However, the influence of acute blood loss, and the resulting increases in circulating erythropoietin, on FGF23 production is unknown. Using wild-type C57BL/6 mice, we show that acute loss of 10% total blood volume leads to an increase in plasma C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) levels within six hours, while plasma levels of intact FGF23, phosphate, calcium, parathyroid hormone, iron, and ferritin remain similar to control mice without acute blood loss. Read More

    Extracellular vesicles as immune mediators in response to kidney injury.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 30:ajprenal.00336.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Faculté de Médecine, Université de Lorraine.
    Important progress has been made on the cytokine signalling in response to kidney injury in the past decade, especially cytokine signalling mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). For example, EVs released by injured renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) can regulate inter-cellular communications and influence tissue recovery via both regulating the expression and transferring cytokines, growth factors, as well as other bioactive molecules at the site of injury. The effects of EVs on kidney tissue seem to vary depending on the sources of EVs; however, the literature data are often inconsistent. Read More

    Adenosine A1 receptor-operated calcium entry in renal afferent arterioles is dependent on postnatal maturation of TRPC3 channels.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 30:ajprenal.00335.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    University of Tennessee Health Science Center
    Adenosine, a regulator of cardiovascular development and renal function, constricts renal afferent arterioles by inducing intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) elevation in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) via activation of its cognate A1 receptors (A1Rs). Mechanisms that underlie A1R-dependent [Ca(2+)]i elevation in renal vascular SMCs are not fully resolved. Whether A1R expression and function in preglomerular microvessels are dependent on postnatal kidney maturation is also unclear. Read More

    An Excitatory Reflex from the Superficial Peroneal Nerve to the Bladder in Cats.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 30:ajprenal.00265.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    University of Pittsburgh
    This study in α-chloralose anesthetized cats discovered an excitatory peroneal nerve-to-bladder reflex. A urethral catheter was used to infuse the bladder with saline and record bladder pressure changes. Electrical stimulation was applied to the superficial peroneal nerve to trigger a reflex bladder activity. Read More

    Inhibition of smooth muscle contraction and ARF 6 activity by the inhibitor for cytohesin GEFs, secinH3 in the human prostate.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 30:ajprenal.00125.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    University of Munich
    Prostate smooth muscle contraction is critical for etiology and treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and is promoted by small monomeric GTPases (RhoA, Rac). GTPases may be activated by guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). GEFs of the cytohesin family may indirectly activate Rac, or ADP ribosolyation factor (ARF) GTPases directly. Read More

    Effect of salt intake on afferent arteriolar dilatation: Role of connecting tubule glomerular feedback (CTGF).
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 23:ajprenal.00320.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Henry Ford Hospital
    Afferent arteriole (Af-Art) resistance is modulated by 2 intrinsic nephron feedbacks: 1) vasoconstrictor tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), which is mediated by NKCC2 in the macula densa and blocked by furosemide; and 2) vasodilator connecting tubule glomerular feedback (CTGF), which is mediated by ENaC in the connecting tubule and blocked by benzamil. High salt intake reduces the Af-Art vasoconstrictor ability in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (Dahl SS). Previously, we measured CTGF indirectly using the differences between the TGF responses with and without CTGF inhibition. Read More

    Evaluating the Voiding Spot Assay in Mice: A Simple Method With Complex Environmental Interactions.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 23:ajprenal.00318.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
    The voiding spot assay (VSA) on filter paper is an increasingly popular method for studying lower urinary tract physiology in mice. However, the ways VSA are performed differ significantly between laboratories, and many variables are introduced compared to the mouse's normal housing situation. Rodents are intelligent social animals, and it is increasingly understood that social and environmental stresses have significant effects on their physiology. Read More

    Glomerular Mesangial Cell Recruitment and Function Requires the Co-Receptor Neuropilin-1.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 23:ajprenal.00311.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Nephrology, Northwestern, Chicago
    Proteinuria has been reported in cancer patients receiving agents that target the transmembrane receptor neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) suggesting potential adverse effects on glomerular function. Here we show that Nrp1 is highly expressed by mesangial cells and that genetic deletion of the Nrp1 gene from PDGFR+ mesangial cells results in proteinuric disease and glomerulosclerosis, leading to renal failure and death within 6 weeks of age in mice. The major defect is a failure of mesangial cell migration that is required to establish the mature glomerular tuft. Read More

    Collecting Duct Prorenin Receptor Knockout Reduces Renal Function, Increases Na+ Excretion and Mitigates renal Responses in ANGII induced hypertensive mice.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 16:ajprenal.00152.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso.
    Augmented intratubular angiotensin (ANG) II is a key determinant of enhanced distal Na+ reabsorption via activation of epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) and other transporters, which leads to the development of high blood pressure (BP). In ANGII-induced hypertension, there is increased expression of the prorenin receptor (PRR) in the collecting duct (CD), which has been implicated in the stimulation of the sodium transporters and resultant hypertension. The impact of PRR deletion along the nephron on BP regulation and Na+ handling remains controversial. Read More

    Adaptive responses of rat descending vasa recta to ischemia.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 16:ajprenal.00062.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    University of Maryland, Baltimore and Baltimore VA Medical Center
    We tested whether rat descending vasa recta (DVR) undergo regulatory adaptions after the kidney is exposed to ischemia. Left kidneys (LK) were subjected to 30 minute renal artery cross clamp. After 48 hours, the post-ischemic LK and contralateral right kidney (RK) were harvested for study. Read More

    Insights into cellular and molecular basis for urinary tract infection in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 9:ajprenal.00279.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Albany Medical College
    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a broad term referring to an infection of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and/or urethra. Due to its prevalence, frequent recurrence and rising resistance to antibiotics, UTI has become a challenge in clinical practice. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic disorder of the kidney and is characterized by the growth of fluid-filled cysts in both kidneys. Read More

    Vasa Recta Pericyte Density is Negatively Associated with Vascular Congestion in the Renal Medulla Following Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 9:ajprenal.00261.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Augusta University
    Recent evidence suggests that a greater density of pericytes in renal cadaveric allografts is associated with better recovery following transplant. The physiological mechanism(s) through which pericyte density may be beneficial is not well understood. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that lower medullary pericyte density is associated with greater renal injury following ischemia reperfusion (IR) in a rat model, providing a basis for future studies to better understand pericytes in a pathological environment. Read More

    TRPV4 Channels Contribute to Renal Myogenic Autoregulation in Neonatal Pigs.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 2:ajprenal.00300.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    University of Tennessee Health Science Center
    Myogenic response, a phenomenon in which resistance size arteries and arterioles swiftly constrict or dilate in response to an acute elevation or reduction, respectively in intravascular pressure is a key component of renal autoregulation mechanisms. Although it is well-established that the renal system is functionally immature in neonates, mechanisms that regulate neonatal renal blood flow (RBF) remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that members of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are molecular components of renal myogenic constriction in newborns. Read More

    OAB without an Overactive Bladder in the Acute Prostaglandin E2 Rat Model.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 2:ajprenal.00270.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Duke University
    Intravesical Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was previously used to induce overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms as it reduces bladder capacity in rats and causes a "strong urgency sensation" in healthy women. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. To clarify how PGE2 reduces bladder capacity, 100 µM PGE2 was administered intravesically during open, single-fill cystometry with simultaneous measurement of sphincter EMG in the urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rat. Read More

    Dopamine reduces cell surface Na+/H+ exchanger-3 (NHE3) protein by decreasing NHE3 exocytosis and cell membrane recycling.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 2:ajprenal.00251.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center At Dallas.
    The intrarenal autocrine-paracrine dopamine (DA) system mediates a significant fraction of the natriuresis in response to a salt load. DA inhibits a number of Na+ transporters to effect sodium excretion, including the proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger-3 (NHE3). DA represent a single hormone that regulates NHE3 at multiple levels including translation, degradation, endocytosis, and protein phosphorylation. Read More

    Preventative effects of a HIF inhibitor, 17-DMAG on partial bladder outlet obstruction-induced bladder dysfunction.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 2:ajprenal.00240.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado
    Posterior urethral valves are the most common cause of partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) in the pediatric population. Pathological changes in the bladder developed during PBOO are responsible for long-lasting voiding dysfunction in this population despite early surgical interventions. Increasing evidence showed PBOO induces an upregulation of Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) and their transcriptional target genes, and they play a role in pathophysiological changes in the obstructed bladders. Read More

    Effects of multiple simulated birth traumas on urethral continence function in rats.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 2:ajprenal.00230.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    University of Pittsburgh
    Multiple vaginal parities have been reported to be an important risk factor for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Simulated birth trauma with single vaginal distention (VD) has been used to induce the SUI condition in animals; however, the effect of multiple simulated birth traumas on the urethral continence function has not been well characterized. Therefore, we examined the effects of multiple VDs on urethral functions in vivo and the changes in gene expressions of several molecules in the urethra using female SD rats, which were divided into 3 groups; sham, VD-1 (single VD), and VD-3 groups (3 times of VDs every 2 weeks). Read More

    Stimulation of diuresis and natriuresis by renomedullary infusion of a dual inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 2:ajprenal.00196.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Virginia Commonwealth Univ
    The renal medulla, considered critical for the regulation of salt and water balance and long-term blood pressure control, is enriched in anandamide and two of its major metabolizing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Infusion of anandamide (15, 30 and 60 nmol/min/kg) into the renal medulla of C57BL/6J mice stimulated diuresis and salt excretion in a COX-2- but not COX-1-dependent manner. To determine if endogenous endocannabinoids in the renal medulla can elicit similar effects, the effects of intramedullary isopropyl dodecyl fluorophosphate (IDFP), which inhibits the two major endocannabinoid hydrolases, were studied. Read More

    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Aug 2:ajprenal.00085.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Wayne State University.
    Although all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) provides protection against a variety of conditions in vivo, particularly ischemia, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these effects remain unclear. The present studies were designed to assess potential mechanisms by which ATRA affords cytoprotection against renal toxicants in LLC-PK1 cells. Pretreatment of LLC-PK1 cells with ATRA (25 μM) for 24 hr afforded cytoprotection against oncotic cell death induced by p-aminophenol (PAP), 2-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (MGHQ), and iodoacetamide but not against apoptotic cell death induced by cisplatin. Read More

    Metabolic Acidosis Stimulates the Production of the Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin in Rabbit Urine.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 26:ajprenal.00701.2016. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    University of Rochester Medical Center
    Intercalated cells of the collecting duct (CD) are critical for acid-base homeostasis and innate immune defense of the kidney. Little is known about the impact of acidosis on innate immune defense in the distal nephron. Urinary tract infections are mainly due to Escherichia coli and are an important risk factor for development of chronic kidney disease. Read More

    Cannabinoids and the Kidney: Effects in Health and Disease.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 26:ajprenal.00290.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    University of Tennessee
    Consumption of cannabis and various related products (cannabinoids) for both medicinal and recreational use is gaining popularity. Furthermore, regulatory changes are fostering a cultural shift towards increasing liberalization of cannabis use, thereby increasing the likelihood of even larger numbers of individuals being exposed in the future. The two different types of receptors (CB1 and CB2) that are activated by the pharmacologically active ingredients of cannabis are found in numerous tissues, including the kidneys. Read More

    Coupling between Phosphate and Calcium Homeostasis: A Mathematical Model.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 26:ajprenal.00271.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    We developed a mathematical model of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO4) homeostasis in the rat to elucidate the hormonal mechanisms that underlie the regulation of Ca and PO4 balance. The model represents the exchanges of Ca and PO4 between the intestine, plasma, kidneys, bone, and the intracellular compartment, and the formation of Ca-PO4-fetuin A complexes. It accounts for the regulation of these fluxes by parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D3, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and Ca2+-sensing receptors. Read More

    Urinary Renin-Angiotensin Markers in Polycystic Kidney Disease.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 26:ajprenal.00209.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Erasmus University
    In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) activation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) may contribute to hypertension and disease progression. Although previous studies focused on circulating RAAS-components, preliminary evidence suggests APDKD may increase urinary RAAS-components. Therefore, our aim was to analyze circulating and urinary RAAS-components in ADPKD. Read More

    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 26:ajprenal.00186.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Johns Hopkins University
    Adult-onset autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in either the PKD1 or PKD2 gene, leading to malfunction of their gene products, polycystin 1 or 2. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) expression and activity are increased in PKD1-mutant renal epithelial cells. Here we studied the effect of ACY-1215, a specific HDAC6 inhibitor, on cyst growth in ADPKD. Read More

    Regulation of PDZ domain containing 1 (PDZK1) Expression by Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 alpha (HNF1α) in Human Kidney.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 19:ajprenal.00650.2016. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    University of Basel
    In the renal proximal tubule the secretion and reabsorption of glomerularly filtrated compounds is realized by a functional network of uptake and efflux transporters. The activity and localization of several transporters expressed at the apical tubular membrane is regulated by the membrane associated protein PDZ domain containing 1 (PDZK1). We aimed to characterize the transcriptional regulation of this modulator of renal transport. Read More

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Kidney function and hypertension.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 19:ajprenal.00535.2016. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Tulane University School of Medicine.
    Hypertension is considered to be a low-grade inflammatory condition characterized by the presence of various pro-inflammatory cytokines. The inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a constituent of the pro-inflammatory environment that is associated with salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) and related renal injury. Elevated angiotensin II (AngII) and other factors such as oxidative stress conditions promote TNF-α formation. Read More

    Developing Better Mouse Models to Study Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 19:ajprenal.00285.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    University of Louisville
    Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic used for the treatment of many types of cancer. However, its dose-limiting side effect is nephrotoxicity leading to acute kidney injury (AKI) (29, 30). Patients who develop AKI have an increased risk of mortality and are more likely to develop chronic kidney disease (CKD) (5, 14, 31). Read More

    Thy-1+/- fibroblast subsets in the human peritoneum.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 19:ajprenal.00274.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Germany
    Fibrotic thickening of the peritoneum develops in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) for renal failure. For unknown reasons, however, in some patients it progresses to extensive fibrosis that compromises dialysis capacity of the peritoneum. It is increasingly clear that fibroblasts display large heterogeneity not only between but also within tissues. Read More

    ErbB4 deletion accelerates renal fibrosis following renal injury.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 19:ajprenal.00260.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Vanderbilt University
    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a prominent factor in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) regardless of etiology. ErbB4 expression levels were inversely correlated to renal fibrosis in human fibrotic kidneys. In both unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and ischemia reperfusion injury followed by uninephrectomy (IRI/UNx) mouse models, expression levels of ErbB4 were elevated in the early stage of renal injury. Read More

    Renal hemodynamic effects of glucagon like peptide-1 agonist are mediated by nitric oxide but not prostaglandin.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 19:ajprenal.00258.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    UC San Diego and VASDHS
    The incretin hormone, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is known for responding to dietary fat and carbohydrate. It elicits effects on pancreas, gut, and brain to stabilize blood glucose levels. We have previously reported that the GLP-1 agonist, exenatide, vasodilates the kidney and suppresses proximal reabsorption. Read More

    Sex and Gender Differences in Hypertensive Kidney Injury.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 19:ajprenal.00206.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Augusta University.
    Hypertension is a complex, multifaceted disorder, affecting approximately 1 on 3 adults in the United States. Although hypertension occurs in both men and women, there are distinct sex differences in the way in which they develop hypertension, with women having a lower incidence of hypertension until the sixth decade of life. Despite observed sex differences in hypertension, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of hypertension in females, primarily due to their underrepresentation in both clinical and experimental animal studies. Read More

    Heterozygous Loss-of-Function Mutation in Odd Skipped Related 1 (Osr1) Is Associated with Vesico-Ureteric Reflux, Duplex Systems, and Hydronephrosis.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 19:ajprenal.00107.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre
    Osr1 is a transcriptional repressor that plays critical roles in maintaining the mesenchymal stem cell population within the developing kidney. Here, we report that newborn pups with a heterozygous null mutation in Osr1 exhibit a 21% incidence of vesico-ureteric reflux and have hydronephrosis and urinary tract duplications. Newborn pups have a short intravesical ureter resulting in a less competent uretero-vesical junction which arises from a delay in urinary tract development. Read More

    Effect of endurance training and branched-chain amino acids on the signaling for muscle protein synthesis in CKD model rats fed a low-protein diet.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 12;313(3):F805-F814. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan; and.
    A low-protein diet (LPD) protects against the progression of renal injury in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, LPD may accelerate muscle wasting in these patients. Both exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are known to increase muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Read More

    Cux1 promotes cell proliferation and polycystic kidney disease progression in an ADPKD mouse model.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Jul 12:ajprenal.00380.2016. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Western Michigan University Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine
    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common monogenic hereditary disorders in humans characterized by fluid-filled cysts, primarily in the kidneys. Cux1, a cell cycle regulatory gene highly expressed during kidney development, is elevated in the cyst-lining cells of Pkd1 mutant mice, and in human ADPKD cells. However, forced expression of Cux1 is insufficient to induce cystic disease in transgenic mice, or to induce rapid cyst formation after cilia disruption in the kidneys of adult mice. Read More

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