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    5738 results match your criteria American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology[Journal]

    1 OF 115

    The effects of different storage solutions on renal ischemia tolerance after kidney transplantation in mice.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Nov 15:ajprenal.00475.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    University of South Flroida College of Medicine.
    Cold storage is the most prevalent method for graft preservation in kidney transplantation (KTX). The protective effects of various preservation solutions have been extensively studied in both clinical trials and experimental animal models. However, a paucity of studies examined the effect of different preservation solutions on graft function in mouse KTX, in addition, the tolerance of the transplanted grafts to further insult has not been evaluated, which were the objectives of the present study. Read More

    Dapagliflozin in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: A Combined Human-Rodent Pilot Study.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Nov 15:ajprenal.00445.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    University of Toronto
    Background: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is an important cause of non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition (SGLT2i) therapy attenuates the progression of diabetic nephropathy, but it remains unclear whether SGLT2i provides renoprotection in non-diabetic CKD such as FSGS.

    Objective: The primary aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks of dapagliflozin on GFR in humans and in experimental FSGS. Read More

    Stimulation of the Sensory Pudendal Nerve Increases Bladder Capacity in the Rat.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Nov 15:ajprenal.00373.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Duke University
    Pudendal nerve stimulation is a promising treatment approach for lower urinary tract dysfunction, including symptoms of overactive bladder. Despite some promising clinical studies, there remain many unknowns as to how best to stimulate the pudendal nerve to maximize therapeutic efficacy. We quantified changes in bladder capacity and voiding efficiency during single-fill cystometry in response to electrical stimulation of the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve in urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats. Read More

    Novel Differences in Renal Gene Expression in a Diet Induced Obesity Model.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Nov 15:ajprenal.00345.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
    Obesity is a significant risk factor for both chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. To better understand disease development, we sought to identify novel genes differentially expressed early in disease progression. We first confirmed that mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet exhibit early signs of renal injury including hyperfiltration. Read More

    Metformin: an anti-proliferative agent and methylation regulator in treating prostatic disease?
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Nov 8:ajprenal.00443.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    Existing drugs that have been used in clinical practice for other purposes can prove useful for reutilization, since much of the safety profile, pharmacokinetics have been completed. Therefore, the drugs can enter clinical practice for variety of causes with less regulatory burden. Metformin may prove to be such a drug where it may have a role in other diseases, beside management of diabetes. Read More

    Effect of isolated ultrafiltration and isovolemic dialysis on myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function assessed with 13N-NH3 PET and echocardiography.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Nov 8:ajprenal.00368.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    University Medical Center Groningen
    Hemodialysis is associated with a fall in myocardial perfusion and may induce regional left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The pathophysiology of this entity is incompletely understood and the contribution of ultrafiltration and diffusive dialysis has not been studied. We investigated the effect of isolated ultrafiltration and isovolemic dialysis on myocardial perfusion and LV function. Read More

    THE ROLE OF MITOCHONDRIA DERIVED REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN MICROVASCULAR DYSFUNCTION IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Nov 8:ajprenal.00321.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    University of Delaware
    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Mitochondrial dysfunction secondary to CKD is a potential source of oxidative stress that may impair vascular function. This study sought to determine if mitochondria derived reactive oxygen species contribute to microvascular dysfunction in Stage 3-5 CKD. Read More

    Role of Adenosine 1a Receptor Signaling on GFR Early After the Induction of Sepsis.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Nov 8:ajprenal.00051.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    NIDDK.
    Sepsis and acute kidney injury (AKI) synergistically increase morbidity and mortality in the ICU. How sepsis reduces GFR and causes AKI is poorly understood; one proposed mechanism includes tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). When sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubules is reduced in normal animals, the macula densa senses increased luminal sodium chloride, then adenosine 1a receptor (A1aR) signaling triggers tubuloglomerular feedback, reducing GFR through afferent arteriole vasoconstriction. Read More

    INTRARENAL ACTIVATION OF ENDOTHELIN TYPE B RECEPTORS IMPROVES KIDNEY OXYGENATION IN TYPE 1 DIABETIC RATS.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Nov 1:ajprenal.00498.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Uppsala University.
    About one third of patients with type 1 diabetes develops kidney disease. The mechanism is largely unknown, but intrarenal hypoxia has been proposed as a unifying mechanism for chronic kidney disease including diabetic nephropathy. The endothelin system has recently been demonstrated to regulate oxygen availability in the diabetic kidney via a pathway involving endothelin type A receptors (ETA-R). Read More

    Measuring rat kidney glomerular number and size in vivo with MRI.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Nov 1:ajprenal.00399.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    University of Hawaii
    Nephron number is highly variable in humans and is thought to play an important role in renal health. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the result of too few nephrons to maintain homeostasis. Currently, nephron number estimates can only be determined invasively or as a terminal assessment. Read More

    BDNF Overexpression in Bladder Induces Neuronal Changes To Mediate Bladder Overactivity.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Nov 1:ajprenal.00386.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    University of Pittsburgh
    Elevated levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in urine of overactive bladder (OAB) patients support the association of BDNF with OAB symptoms, but the causality is not known. Here, we investigated the functionality of BDNF overexpression in rat bladder following bladder wall transfection of either BDNF or luciferase transgenes (10µg). A week after transfection, BDNF overexpression in bladder tissue and elevation of urine BDNF levels was observed together with increased transcript of BDNF, its cognate receptors (TrkB & p75NTR) and downstream PLCγ isoforms in bladder. Read More

    Saphenous Nerve Stimulation Normalizes Bladder Underactivity Induced by Tibial Nerve Stimulation in Cats.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 25:ajprenal.00422.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    University of Pittsburgh
    This study in α-chloralose anesthetized cats aimed at investigating the bladder responses to saphenous nerve stimulation (SNS). A urethral catheter was used to infuse the bladder with saline and to record changes in bladder pressure. With the bladder fully distended, SNS at 1 Hz frequency and an intensity slightly below the threshold (T) for inducing an observable motor response of the hindlimb muscles induced large amplitude (40-150 cmH2O) bladder contractions. Read More

    Cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1) shedding induces apoptosis of renal epithelial cells and exacerbates human nephropathies.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 25:ajprenal.00385.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Kindai University, Faculty of Medicine
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important problem throughout the world, associated with the increase of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (sCre), and renal tubular injuries. It is crucial to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of renal injuries in order to identify the new therapeutics and early diagnostic methods. We focused on cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1) protein. Read More

    MiR-34c-5p and CaMKII are involved in aldosterone-induced fibrosis in kidney collecting duct cells.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 25:ajprenal.00358.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University
    Mineralocorticoids trigger a pro-fibrotic process in kidney. In mouse cortical collecting duct cells (mpkCCDc14 cells), the present study addressed two main questions: 1) what are miRNAs and their target genes changed by aldosterone? and 2) what do miRNAs in response to aldosterone regulate signaling pathways related to fibrosis? Microarray chip assay was done in cells in the absence or presence of aldosterone treatment (10(-6)M, 3 d). The candidate miRNAs were identified by the criteria of more than 30% of fold-change among the significantly changed miRNAs (P value < 0. Read More

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 analog prevents obesity-related glomerulopathy by inhibiting excessive autophagy in podocytes.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 25:ajprenal.00302.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Fudan University
    Aim: To investigate the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 analog (GLP-1) in high fat diet-induced obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG).

    Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet for 12 weeks were treated with GLP-1 (200 μg/kg) or 0.9% saline for 4 weeks. Read More

    Lithium induces aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis in collecting duct principal cells.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 25:ajprenal.00297.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre
    Lithium, given to bipolar disorder patients, causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI), a urinary concentrating defect. Li-NDI is due to downregulation of principal cell AQP2 expression, which coincides with principal cell proliferation. The metabolic effect of lithium on principal cells, however, is unknown and investigated here. Read More

    Hypoxia/reoxygenation enhances murine afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by angiotensin II.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 25:ajprenal.00252.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
    We tested the hypothesis that hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) augments vasoreactivity to angiotensin II (Ang II). In particular, we compared an in situ live kidney slice model with isolated afferent arterioles (C57Bl6 mice) to assess the impact of tubules on microvessel response. H&E staining was used to estimate slice viability. Read More

    Dexamethasone Enhances Vasopressin-Induced Aquaporin-2 Gene Expression in the mpkCCD Cells.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 25:ajprenal.00218.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    National Taiwan University College of Medicine
    The cortical collecting duct cell (mpkCCD) has been an instrumental cell model for studying vasopressin-mediated aquaporin-2 regulation. This cell line was first developed by the Vandewalle's group from a transgenic mouse carrying the transforming SV40 antigens driven by the pyruvate kinase promoter. To immortalize the cells, four hormone supplements (dexamethasone, epidermal growth factor, insulin and triiodothyronine) were used to enhance SV40 antigen expression; however, these hormones appear to have various effects on aquaporin-2 gene expression in the cells. Read More

    IL-33 deficiency slows cancer growth but does not protect against cisplatin-induced AKI in mice with cancer.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 25:ajprenal.00040.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    University of Colorado Denver
    The effect of IL-33 deficiency on AKI and cancer growth in a 4 week model of cisplatin-induced AKI in mice with cancer was determined. Mice were injected subcutaneously with murine lung cancer cells. Ten days later, cisplatin (10 mg/kg/week) was administered weekly for 4 weeks. Read More

    Manganese promotes intracellular accumulation of AQP2 via modulating F-actin polymerization and reduces urinary concentration in mice.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 18:ajprenal.00391.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School
    Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a water channel protein expressed in principal cells (PCs) of the kidney collecting ducts (CDs) and plays a critical role in mediating water reabsorption and urine concentration. AQP2 undergoes both regulated trafficking mediated by vasopressin (VP) and constitutive recycling, which is independent of VP. For both pathways, actin cytoskeletal dynamics is a key determinant of AQP2 trafficking. Read More

    High content screening assay based discovery of paullones as novel podocyte protective agents.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 18:ajprenal.00338.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Rush University Medical Center
    Podocyte dysfunction and loss is an early event and a hallmark of proteinuric kidney diseases. Podocyte's normal function is maintained via its unique cellular architecture that relies on an intracellular network of filaments, including filamentous actin (F-actin) and microtubules, that provides mechanical support. Damage to this filamentous network leads to changes in cellular morphology and results in podocyte injury, dysfunction, and death. Read More

    Identification of Dual Mechanisms Mediating 5-hydroxytryptamine Receptor 1F Induced Mitochondrial Biogenesis.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 18:ajprenal.00324.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Medical University of South Carolina
    Our laboratory recently made the novel observation that 5-hydroxytryptamine 1F (5-HT1F) receptor activation induces mitochondrial biogenesis (MB), the production of new, functional mitochondria, in vitro and vivo. We sought to determine the mechanism linking the 5-HT1F receptor to MB in renal proximal tubule cells. Using LY344864, a selective 5-HT1F receptor agonist, we determined that the 5-HT1F receptor is coupled to Gαi/o and induces MB through Gβγ dependent activation of Akt, endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS), cyclic guanosine-monophosphate (cGMP), protein kinase G (PKG) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Read More

    Renal and colonic potassium transporters in the pregnant rat.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 18:ajprenal.00288.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    University of Florida.
    Gestational potassium retention, most of which occurs during late pregnancy, is essential for fetal development. The purpose of this study was to examine mechanisms underlying changes in potassium handling by the kidney and colon in pregnancy. We found that potassium intake and renal excretion increased in late pregnancy while fecal potassium excretion remained unchanged and that pregnant rats exhibited net potassium retention. Read More

    Geraniin is a diuretic by inhibiting the Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter, NKCC2.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 18:ajprenal.00221.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán
    Geranium seemannii Peyr is a perennial plant endemic in central Mexico that has been widely used for its diuretic effect, but the responsible compound of this effect is unknown as well as the mechanism by which the diuretic effect is achieved. Geraniin is one of the compounds isolated from this kind of geranium. This study was designed to determinate whether geraniin possesses diuretic activity and to elucidate the mechanism of action. Read More

    Free circulating active elastase, contributes to chronic inflammation in hemodialysis patients.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 18:ajprenal.00070.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Western Galilee Hospital
    Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications are prevalent among patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD). In this population, peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) are primed, releasing pro-inflammatory mediators, such as elastase. Elastase is normally inhibited by a specific inhibitor, avoiding undesirable degradation of cellular and extracellular components. Read More

    Physiological Regulation of the Epithelial Na+ Channel by Casein Kinase II.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 11:ajprenal.00469.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.
    The Epithelial Na+ Channel, ENaC, is the final arbiter of sodium excretion in the kidneys. As such, discretionary control of ENaC by hormones is critical to the fine-tuning of electrolyte and water excretion and consequently, blood pressure. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates ENaC. Read More

    Attenuation of Accelerated Renal Cystogenesis in Pkd1 Mice by Renin Angiotensin System Blockade.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 11:ajprenal.00389.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    University of Alabama at Birmingham
    Background: The intrarenal renin angiotensin system (RAS) is activated in polycystic kidney disease. We have recently shown in the Pkd1 mouse that Gen 2 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), which suppresses angiotensinogen (Agt) synthesis, is efficacious in slowing kidney cyst formation compared to lisinopril. The aim of this current study was to determine 1) if unilateral nephrectomy accelerates cystogenesis in Pkd1 mice (as previously shown in cilia knockout mice), and 2) whether Agt ASO can slow the progression in this accelerated cystic mouse model. Read More

    ATP induces PAD4 in renal proximal tubule cells via P2X7 receptor activation to exacerbate ischemic AKI.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 11:ajprenal.00364.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Columbia University
    We previously demonstrated that renal tubular peptidylarginine deiminase-4 (PAD4) is induced after ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury and this induction of PAD4 exacerbates ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) by promoting renal tubular inflammation and neutrophil infiltration. However, the mechanisms of renal tubular PAD4 induction after IR remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ATP, a pro-inflammatory danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) ligand released from necrotic cells after IR injury, induces renal tubular PAD4 and exacerbates ischemic AKI via P2 purinergic receptor activation. Read More

    The Role of TLR4 Signaling in the Nephrotoxicity of Heme and Heme Proteins.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 4:ajprenal.00432.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    University of Minnesota Med School.
    Destabilized heme proteins release heme, and free heme is toxic. Heme is now recognized as an agonist for the TLR4 receptor. This study examined whether the TLR4 receptor mediates the nephrotoxicity of heme, specifically, the effects of heme on renal blood flow and inflammatory responses. Read More

    IR- Role of adaptor protein p66Shc in renal pathologies.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 4:ajprenal.00414.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Medical College of Wisconsin
    p66Shc is one of the three adaptor proteins encoded by Shc1 gene, which are expressed in many organs including the kidney. Recent studies shed new light on several key questions concerning the signaling mechanisms mediated by p66Shc. The central goal of this review article is to summarize recent findings on p66Shc and the role it plays in kidney physiology and pathology. Read More

    NMR Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy Identification of Metabolic and Ultrastructural Changes to the Kidney Following Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 4:ajprenal.00363.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Miami University, Oxford
    Cellular, molecular, and ultrastructural nephron changes associated with ischemia reperfusion injury-induced acute kidney injury (IRI-AKI) are not completely understood. Here, a multidisciplinary study was used to identify nephron changes in a mouse model of IRI-AKI. Histological analyses indicated distended Bowman's glomerular spaces and proximal and distal tubules. Read More

    Non-invasive Measurement of Renal Blood Flow by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Rats.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 4:ajprenal.00332.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Henry Ford Hospital
    Renal blood flow (RBF) provides important information regarding renal physiology and nephropathies. Arterial spin labeling-magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) is a non-invasive method of measuring blood flow without exogenous contrast media. However, low signal/noise ratio and respiratory motion artifacts are challenges for RBF measurements in small animals. Read More

    Tubular maximum phosphate reabsorption capacity in living kidney donors is independently associated with one year recipient GFR.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 4:ajprenal.00287.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen
    The donor glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured before kidney donation is a strong determinant of recipient graft outcome. No tubular function markers have been identified that can similarly be used in donors to predict recipient outcomes. In the current study we investigated whether the predonation tubular maximum reabsorption capacity of phosphate (TmP-GFR), which may be considered as a functional tubular marker in healthy kidney donors, is associated with recipient GFR at one year after transplantation, a key determinant of long-term outcome. Read More

    Effects of Serelaxin on Renal Microcirculation in Rats under Control and High Angiotensin Environments.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 4:ajprenal.00201.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Tulane University Health Sciences Center.
    Serelaxin is a novel recombinant human relaxin-2 that has been investigated for the treatment of acute heart failure. However, its effects on renal function, especially on the renal microcirculation remain incompletely characterized. Our immunoexpression studies localized RXFP1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells of afferent arterioles and on principal cells of collecting ducts. Read More

    TGF-β1-VEGF-A pathway induces neoangiogenesis with peritoneal fibrosis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Oct 4:ajprenal.00052.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Nagoya University School of Medicine
    The characteristic features of chronic peritoneal injury with peritoneal dialysis (PD) are submesothelial fibrosis and neoangiogenesis. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A are the main mediators of fibrosis and neoangiogenesis, respectively; however, the effect of the interaction between them on the peritoneum is not well known. In this study, we investigated the relationship between TGF-β1 and VEGF-A in inducing peritoneal fibrosis using human tissues and dialysate, cultured cells, and animal models. Read More

    EARLY LIFE STRESS INDUCES PRIMING OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN KIDNEYS OF ADULT MALE RATS.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 27:ajprenal.00590.2016. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    University of Alabama at Birmingham
    Early life stress (ELS) in humans is associated with elevated pro-inflammatory markers. We hypothesized that ELS induces activation of the immune response in a rat model of ELS, maternal separation (MatSep), in adulthood. MatSep involves separating pups from the dam from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 14 for 3hrs/day. Read More

    Diuretic state affects ascending thin limb tight junctions.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 27:ajprenal.00419.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel
    The nephron segments in the inner medulla are part of the urine concentrating mechanism. Depending on the diuretic state they are facing a large range of extracellular osmolality. We investigated whether water homeostasis affects tubular transport and permeability properties in inner medullary descending thin limb (IMdTL) and ascending thin limb (IMaTL). Read More

    Targeted gamma-secretase inhibition of Notch signaling activation in acute renal injury.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 27:ajprenal.00414.2016. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    CHUV and University of Lausanne
    The Notch pathway has been reported to control tissue damage in acute kidney diseases. To investigate potential beneficial nephroprotective effects of targeting Notch, we developed chemically functionalized γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) targeting γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT) and/or γ-glutamylcyclotransfase (γ-GCT), two enzymes overexpressed in the injured kidney, and evaluated them in in vivo murine models of acute tubular and glomerular damage. Exposure of the animals to disease-inducing drugs together with the functionalized GSIs improved proteinuria and, to some extent, kidney dysfunction. Read More

    Chronic renal artery insulin infusion increases mean arterial pressure in male Sprague Dawley rats.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 27:ajprenal.00374.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Augusta University
    Hyperinsulinemia has been hypothesized to cause hypertension in obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome through a renal mechanism. However, it has been challenging to isolate renal mechanisms in chronic experimental models due, in part, to technical difficulties. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a renal mechanism underlies insulin hypertension. Read More

    Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin decreases intrarenal oxygen availability and alters glomerular permeability.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 27:ajprenal.00033.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Uppsala University
    Increased kidney oxygen consumption causing tissue hypoxia is suggested as a common pathway to chronic kidney disease. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell proliferation and mitochondrial function. mTOR inhibitors, e. Read More

    High dietary sodium causes dyssynchrony of the renal molecular clock in rats.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 27:ajprenal.00028.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    University of Alabama at Birmingham
    Dyssynchrony of circadian rhythms are associated with various disorders, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The cell autonomous molecular clock maintains circadian control, however, environmental factors that may cause circadian dyssynchrony either within or between organ systems are poorly understood. Our lab recently reported that the endothelin B (ETB) receptor functions to facilitate Na+ excretion in a time of day dependent manner. Read More

    CONTRIBUTION OF MYO-INOSITOL OXYGENASE IN AGE: RAGE MEDIATED RENAL TUBULO-INTERSTITIAL INJURY IN THE CONTEXT OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 20:ajprenal.00434.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Northwestern University Medical School
    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play a role in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Myo-inositol Oxygenase (MIOX) has been implicated in tubulo-interstitial injury in the context of DN. We investigated the effect of AGEs on MIOX expression and delineated mechanisms that lead to tubulo-interstitial injury. Read More

    Three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the renal vasculature.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 20:ajprenal.00339.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    University of Western Australia
    Vascular topology and morphology is critical in the regulation of blood flow and the transport of small solutes including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide. Renal vascular morphology is particularly challenging as many arterial walls are partially wrapped by the walls of veins. In the absence of a precise characterization of three-dimensional branching vascular geometry, accurate computational modeling of the intrarenal transport of small diffusible molecules is impossible. Read More

    PGC1α in the kidney.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Sep 20:ajprenal.00263.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) arising from diverse etiologies is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, has been shown to be protective in AKI. Interestingly, reduction of PGC1α has also been implicated in the development of diabetic kidney disease and renal fibrosis. Read More

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