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    5822 results match your criteria American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology[Journal]

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    Glomerular hyperpermeability after acute unilateral ureteral obstruction: Effects of Tempol, NOS-, RhoA- and Rac-1-inhibition.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Nephrology, Lund University, Sweden.
    It is well known that proteinuria following urinary tract obstruction is mainly of a tubular nature. Whether there are also changes in glomerular permeability is however unknown. In this study we compared glomerular sieving coefficients (θ) of polydisperse fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Ficoll 70/400 following 120 or 180 min unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

    A MAPP Network Study: Overexpression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Mouse Urothelium Mimics Interstitial Cystitis.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Urology, Northwestern University, United States.
    Interstitial cystitis/ bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic bladder condition associated with pain and voiding dysfunction that is often regarded as a neurogenic cystitis. Patient symptoms are correlated with the presence of urothelial lesions. We previously characterized a murine neurogenic cystitis model that recapitulates mast cell accumulation and urothelial lesions, and these events were dependent upon TNF. Read More

    Morphologic and morphometric study on microvasculature of developing mouse kidneys.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Histology and Embryology, China Medical University, China.
    A proper morphogenesis of the renal microvasculature is crucial not only for fulfilling the renal function, but also to slow down the progression of chronic kidney disease in adulthood. However, the current description of the developing microvasculature is incomplete. The present study investigated the morphogenesis and volume densities of the renal microvasculature using computer-assisted tubular tracing, immunohistochemistry for CD34, and unbiased stereology. Read More

    Mechanisms of Altered Renal Sodium Handling in Age-Related Hypertension.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Pharmacology and Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University, United States.
    The prevalence of hypertension rises with age to approximately two out of three adults over the age of 60 in the United States. Although the mechanisms underlying age-related hypertension are incompletely understood, sodium homeostasis is critical to the long-term regulation of blood pressure and there is strong evidence that aging is associated with alterations in renal sodium handling. This mini-review focuses on recent advancements in our understanding of the vascular, neurohumoral, and renal mechanisms that influence sodium homeostasis and promote age-related hypertension. Read More

    Role of the serotonergic system in urethral continence reflexes during sneezing in rats.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Urology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, United States.
    To clarify the role of serotonin (5-HT) in the prevention of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during sneezing, we investigated the effect of intraperitoneal application of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA; a serotonin synthesis inhibitor) and intravenous application of CP-809101 (a 5-HTagonist) or LP44 (a 5-HTagonist) using female rats, in which the neurally evoked continence reflex during sneezing was examined. Amplitudes of urethral pressure response during sneezing (A-URS), urethral baseline pressure (UBP) at the middle urethra, and sneeze-induced leak point pressure (S-LPP) were measured in normal female adult rats with or without drug administration. PCPA decreased A-URS by 35. Read More

    VEGF therapy for the kidney: emerging strategies.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Physiology and Biophysics, Medicine, and Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, United States.
    Renovascular disease (RVD) is prevalent in the elderly, significantly increases cardiovascular risk, and can progressively deteriorate renal function. The loss of renal function in patients with RVD is associated with a progressive dysfunction, damage, and loss of renal microvessels, which pairs with decreased renal bioavailability of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a defective vascular repair and proliferation. This association has been the impetus for recent efforts that focused on developing methods to stop the progression of renal injury by protecting the renal microvasculature. Read More

    Novel Compound Heterozygous CLCNKB Gene Mutations (c.1755A>G/ c.848_850delTCT) Cause Classic Bartter Syndrome.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Nephrology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, China.
    Inactivated variants in CLCNKB gene encoding the basolateral chloride channel ClC-Kb cause classic Bartter syndrome characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. Here we identified two cBS siblings presenting hypokalemia in a Chinese family due to novel compound heterozygous CLCNKB mutations (c.848_850delTCT/c. Read More

    12-weeks combined resistance and aerobic training confers greater benefits than aerobic alone in non-dialysis CKD.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Dept of Infection, Immunity & Inflammation, University of Leicester.
    There is a growing consensus that chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients should engage in regular exercise, but there is a lack of formal guidelines. In this report, we determined whether combined aerobic and resistance exercise would elicit superior physiological gains, in particular muscular strength, compared to aerobic training alone in non-dialysis CKD. Non-dialysis CKD patients stage 3b-5 were randomly allocated to aerobic exercise (AE, n=21; 9 males; median age 63years [IQR, 58-71]; median eGFR 24[IQR, 20-30] mL/min/1. Read More

    With no lysine kinase 4 modulates sodium potassium 2 chloride cotransporter activity in vivo.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    OCTRI, Oregon Health and Science University, United States.
    With no lysine kinase 4 (WNK4) is essential to activate the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) along the distal convoluted tubule, an effect central to the phenotype of familial hyperkalemic hypertension. Although effects on potassium and sodium channels along the connecting and collecting tubules have also been documented, WNK4 is typically believed to have little role in modulating sodium chloride reabsorption along the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Yet wnk4-/- mice (knockout mice lacking WNK4) do not demonstrate the hypocalciuria typical of pure distal convoluted tubule dysfunction. Read More

    A new low nephron-CKD model with hypertension, progressive decline of renal function and enhanced inflammation in C57BL/6 mice.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Flroida College of Medicine, United States.
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health issue in the United States. The typical five-sixths nephrectomy (typical 5/6 NX) is a widely used experimental CKD model. However, the typical 5/6 NX model is hypertensive in rats, but strain dependent in mice. Read More

    α-ketoglutarate stimulates pendrin-dependent Clabsorption in the mouse CCD through protein kinase C.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Medicine and Physiology, Emory University, United States.
    Alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) is a citric acid cycle intermediate and a glutamine catabolism product. It is also the natural ligand of OXGR1, a Gq-protein coupled receptor expressed on the apical membrane of intercalated cells. In the CCD, Cl/HCOexchange increases upon αKG binding to the OXGR1. Read More

    The rise and fall of novel renal magnesium transporters.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Physiology, Radboud university medical center, Netherlands.
    Body Mg2+ balance is finely regulated in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), where a tight interplay between transcellular reabsorption, mitochondrial exchange and basolateral extrusion takes place. In the last decades, several research groups have aimed to identify the molecular players in these processes. A multitude of proteins have been proposed to function as Mg2+ transporter in eukaryotes based on phylogenetic analysis, differential gene expression and overexpression studies. Read More

    LINEAGE TRACING AGED MOUSE KIDNEYS SHOWS LOWER NUMBER OF CELLS OF RENIN LINEAGE AND REDUCED RESPONSIVENESS TO RAAS INHIBITION.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    university of washington, seattle, United States.
    Blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) remains a mainstay of therapy in hypertension and glomerular diseases. With the population aging, our understanding of renin producing cells in kidneys with advanced age is more critical than ever. Accordingly, we administered tamoxifen to Ren1cCreERxRs-tdTomato-R mice to permanently fate map cells of renin lineage (CoRL). Read More

    Identification of differential gene expression patterns in human arteries from patients with chronic kidney disease.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark.
    Background: Uremia accelerates atherosclerosis but little is known about affected pathways in human vasculature. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed arterial transcripts in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) Methods: Global mRNA expression was estimated by microarray hybridization in iliac arteries (n=14) from renal transplant recipients and compared with renal arteries from healthy living kidney donors (n=19) in study 1. Study 2 compared non-atherosclerotic internal mammary arteries (IMA) from five patients with elevated plasma creatinine levels and age and gender matched controls with normal levels. Read More

    The organic anion transporter OAT3 enhances the glucosuric effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of California San Diego and the Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System, United States.
    The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin (plasma protein binding ~88%) may reach its target in the brush border of the early proximal tubule by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Here we determined whether empagliflozin is secreted by renal tubules, and whether genetic knockout of the basolateral organic anion transporter Oat3 (-/-) affects its tubular secretion or glucosuric effect. Renal clearance studies in wild-type (WT) mice showed that tubular secretion accounted for 50-70% of empagliflozin urinary excretion. Read More

    Lack of contribution of nitric oxide synthase to cholinergic vasodilation in murine renal afferent arterioles.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Dept. of Physiology, Box P7-3, LSU Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, United States.
    We have previously reported significant increases in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunostaining in renal arterioles of angiotensin type 1A receptor (AT1A) knockout mice, and in arterioles and macula densa cells of AT1A/AT1B knockout mice. The contribution of nitric oxide derived from endothelial and macula densa cells in the maintenance of afferent arteriolar tone and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation were functionally determined in kidneys of wild-type, AT1A, and AT1A/AT1B knockout mice. Acetylcholine-induced changes in arteriolar diameters of in vitro blood perfused juxtamedullary nephrons were measured during control conditions, in the presence of the nonspecific NOS inhibitor, Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NLA), or the highly selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, N5-(1-imino-3-butenyl)-L-ornithine (VNIO). Read More

    Salvianolic acid A ameliorates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signaling pathway.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China.
    Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) has been shown to prevent and treat ischemic cardiovascular as well as cerebral vascular diseases. However, little is known about Sal A in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, a renal I/R injury model in rats and a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model to damage proximal renal tubular cells (HK-2) were used to assess whether Sal A halts the development and progression of renal I/R injury. Read More

    Differential roles of WNK4 in regulation of NCC in vivo.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, United States.
    The Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) in distal convoluted tubule (DCT) plays important roles in renal NaCl reabsorption. Current hypothesis for the mechanism of regulation of NCC focuses on WNK4 and intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i). WNK kinases bind Cl- and Cl- binding decreases the catalytic activity. Read More

    Sub-clinical kidney injury induced by repeated cisplatin administration results in progressive chronic kidney disease.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, United States.
    Cisplatin is used to treat many solid cancers, but its dose-limiting side effect is nephrotoxicity, causing acute kidney injury in 30% of patients. Previously, we have developed a mouse model that better recapitulates the cisplatin dosing regimen humans receive, and found that repeated dosing of cisplatin induces interstitial renal fibrosis. Chronic kidney disease is progressive and is characterized by chronic inflammation, worsening interstitial fibrosis, development of glomerulosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction. Read More

    Targeted Deletion of the Ncoa7 Gene Results in Incomplete Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Mice.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Program in Membrane Biology, Center for Systems Biology and Division of Nephrology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, United States.
    We recently reported that nuclear receptor coactivator 7 (Ncoa7) is a vacuolar proton pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) interacting protein whose function has not been defined. Ncoa7 is highly expressed in the kidney and partially co-localizes with the V-ATPase in collecting duct intercalated cells (ICs). Here, we hypothesized that targeted deletion of the Ncoa7 gene could affect V-ATPase activity in ICs in vivo. Read More

    The mechanical challenges and cytoskeletal impairments in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatric, United States.
    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a histologically defined form of kidney injury typically mediated by podocyte dysfunction. Podocytes rely on their intricate actin-based cytoskeleton to maintain the glomerular filtration barrier in the face of mechanical challenges resulting from pulsatile blood flow and filtration of this blood flow. This review summarizes the mechanical challenges faced by podocytes in the form of stretch and shear stress, both of which may play a role in the progression of podocyte dysfunction and detachment. Read More

    WNT Signaling Is Required for Peritoneal Membrane Angiogenesis.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Canada.
    The WNT signaling pathway is involved in wound healing and fibrosis. We evaluated the WNT signaling pathway in peritoneal membrane injury. We assessed WNT1 protein expression in the peritoneal effluents of 54 stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and WNT-related gene expression in ex vivo mesothelial cell cultures from 21 PD patients. Read More

    Short Term High Glucose Treatment Decreased Abundance of Orai1 Protein through Posttranslational Mechanisms in Rat Mesangial Cells.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Physiology and Anatomy, UNTHSC, United States.
    The short-term effect of high glucose (HG) treatment on store-operated Ca2+ entry in mesangial cells (MCs) is not well known. The aim of the present study was to determine whether and how HG treatment for a short period altered protein abundance of Orai1, the channel mediating store-operated Ca2+ entry in MCs. Rat and human MCs were exposed to HG (25 mM) for 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours and the abundance of Orai1 protein was significantly decreased at the time point of 8 and 16 hours. Read More

    Chronic Nicotine Exposure Reduces Klotho Expression And Triggers Different Renal And Hemodynamic Responses In Klotho-Haploinsufficient Mice.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Internal Medicine - Nephrology, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Brazil.
    The klotho gene, which encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and a secreted protein, is expressed predominantly by the distal renal tubules and is related to calcium-phosphorus metabolism, ion channel regulation, intracellular signaling pathways, and longevity. Klotho deficiency aggravates acute kidney injury and renal fibrosis. Exposure to nicotine also worsens kidney injury. Read More

    ALBUMINURIA IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED URINARY SERINE PROTEASES AND ACTIVATION OF THE EPITHELIAL SODIUM CHANNEL.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Cardiovascular and Renal Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Albuminuria predicts adverse renal outcome in kidney transplant recipients. The present study addressed the hypothesis that albuminuria is associated with increased urine serine proteases with the ability to activate the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and with greater extracellular volume and higher blood pressure. In a cross-sectional design, kidney transplant recipients with (n=18) and without (n=19) albuminuria were included for office blood pressure measurements, estimation of volume status by bioimpedance, and collection of spot urine and plasma samples. Read More

    Mechanisms and controversies in mutant Cul3-mediated Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, United States.
    Autosomal dominant mutations in Cullin3 (Cul3) cause the most severe form of Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (FHHt). Cul3 mutations cause skipping of exon 9 which results in an internal deletion of 57 amino acids from the CUL3 protein (CUL3-∆9). The precise mechanism by which this altered form of CUL3 causes FHHt is controversial. Read More

    Podocyte-Specific Knockin of PTEN Protects Kidney from Hyperglycemia.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, China.
    Aim Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) has been proved to be downregulated in podocytes challenged with high glucose (HG), and knockout of PTEN in podocytes aggravated the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, whether podocyte-specific knockin of PTEN protects the kidney against hyperglycemia in vivo remains undefined. Methods The inducible podocyte-specific PTEN knockin (PPKI) mice were generated by crossing newly created transgenic loxP-stop-loxP-PTEN mice with podocin-iCreERT2 mice. Read More

    SGLT2 Inhibition in a Kidney with Reduced Nephron Number: Modeling and Analysis of Solute Transport and Metabolism.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of California San Diego and the Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System, United States.
    Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors enhance urinary glucose, Na+ and fluid excretion and lower hyperglycemia in diabetes by targeting Na+ and glucose reabsorption along the proximal convoluted tubule. A goal of this study is to predict the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. To that end, we employed computational rat kidney models to explore how SGLT2 inhibition affects renal solute transport and metabolism when nephron populations are normal or reduced. Read More

    Cutaneous Exposure to Lewisite Causes Acute Kidney Injury by Invoking DNA Damage and Autophagic Response.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States.
    Lewisite (2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine) is an organic and arsenical chemical warfare agent which was developed and weaponized during World Wars I/II. Stockpiles of lewisite still exist in many parts of the world and pose potential environmental and human health threat. Exposure to lewisite and similar chemicals causes intense cutaneous inflammatory response. Read More

    Renal potassium handling in rats with subtotal nephrectomy: Modeling and Analysis.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 13. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of California San Diego and the Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System, United States.
    We sought to decipher the mechanisms underlying the kidney's response to changes in Kload and intake, under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. To accomplish that goal, we applied a published computational model of epithelial transport along rat nephrons in a \Red{sham}, uninephrectomized (UNX), and 5/6-nephrectomized (5/6-NX) \Red{rats that also considers adaptations in GFR and tubular growth}. Model simulations \Red{of an acute Kload} indicate that elevated expression levels and activities of Na/K-ATPase, epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), large conductance Ca-activated Kchannels (BK), and renal outer medullary Kchannels (ROMK), together with downregulation of sodium-chloride cotransporters (NCC), increase Ksecretion along the connecting tubule, resulting in a > 6-fold increase in urinary Kexcretion in \Red{sham rats}, which substantially exceeds the filtered Kload. Read More

    Hyperfiltration, urinary albumin excretion, and ambulatory blood pressure in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 13. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto.
    Aim: Adolescents with T1DM (type 1 diabetes mellitus) are at risk for hyperfiltration and elevated urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which are early indicators of diabetic nephropathy. Adolescents with T1DM also develop early changes in blood pressure, cardiovascular structure and function. Our aims were to define the relationships between hyperfiltration, ACR, and 24-Hr ambulatory blood pressure over time in adolescents with T1DM. Read More

    Characterization of urinary exosomal release of aquaporin-1 and -2 after renal ischemia-reperfusion in rats.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 13. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Veterinary Pharmacology, University of Miyazaki, Japan.
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and an alteration in renal water handling has been observed during the transition of AKI to CKD. Urinary exosomal release of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and AQP2, important proteins for renal water handling, has recently been reported to predict their levels of renal expression. We therefore examined the patterns of urinary exosomal release of AQP1 and AQP2, and the exosomal marker proteins tumor susceptibility 101 protein (TSG101) and ALG-2 interacting protein X (Alix), in the acute and chronic phases following induction of AKI by renal bilateral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Read More

    Circadian regulation of kidney function - finding a role for Bmal1.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States.
    Mounting evidence suggests that there is an internal molecular "clock" within the kidney to help maintain normal renal function. Disturbance of the kidney circadian rhythm may pose a threat to water and electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure regulation, amongst many other problems. The identification of circadian genes facilitated a more comprehensive appreciation of the importance of "keeping the body on time"; however, our knowledge is very limited with regard to how circadian genes regulate kidney function. Read More

    Therapeutic potential of regulatory macrophages generated from peritoneal dialysate in Adriamycin nephropathy.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Centre for Transplant and Renal Research, Westmead Millennium Institute for Medical Research, Australia.
    Cell therapy using macrophages requires large amounts of cells which are difficult to collect from patients. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) discard huge numbers of peritoneal macrophages in dialysate daily. Macrophages can be modulated to become regulatory macrophages which have shown great promise as a therapeutic strategy in experimental kidney disease and human kidney transplantation. Read More

    Renal ischemia reperfusion injury causes hypertension and renal perfusion impairment in the CD1 mice which promotes progressive renal fibrosis.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Germany.
    Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a severe complication after major surgery and a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. We investigated potential mechanisms, which contribute to IRI induced progression to chronic kidney disease. Acute kidney injury was induced by unilateral IRI for 35 min in CD1 and C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Read More

    Mechanism for Higher Urine pH in Normal Women Compared to Men.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Medicine, University of Chicago, United States.
    Regulation of acid base metabolism maintains the pH of body fluids within a tight range. Urine pH (UpH) is also regulated under normal conditions. Median pH of 24-hour urines is about 6, but others have noted that UpH of women is higher than men, which has been attributed to differences in diet. Read More

    Highly tamoxifen-inducible principal-cell-specific Cre mice with complete fidelity in cell specificity and no leakiness.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Regenerative and Cancer Cell Biology, Albany Medical College, United States.
    An ideal inducible system should be cell-specific and have absolute no background recombination without induction (i.e. no leakiness), a high recombination rate after induction, and complete fidelity in cell specificity (i. Read More

    Neuraminidase Activity mediates IL-6 production by activated lupus prone mesangial cells.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Medicine/Rheumatology, Medical University of South Carolina, United States.
    The development of nephritis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in lupus patients. While the general pathophysiological progression of lupus nephritis is known, the molecular mediators and mechanisms are incompletely understood. Previously, we demonstrated that the glycosphingolipid catabolic pathway is elevated in the kidneys of MRL/lpr lupus mice and human lupus patients with nephritis. Read More

    mCCDcl1 cells show Plasticity Consistent with the Ability to Transition between Principal and Intercalated Cells.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    The cortical collecting duct of the mammalian kidney plays a critical role in the regulation of body volume, sodium pH and osmolarity and is composed of two distinct cells types, principal cells and intercalated cells. Each cell type is detectable in the kidney by the localization of specific transport proteins such as Aqp2 and ENaC in principal cells and V-ATPase B1 and Cx30 in intercalated cells. mCCDcl1 cells have been widely used as a mouse principal cell line on the basis of their physiological characteristics. Read More

    In vivo 3-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of the renal vasculature in preclinical rodent models.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London.
    Non-invasive imaging of the kidney vasculature in preclinical murine models is important for studying renal development, diseases and evaluating new therapies, but is challenging to achieve using existing imaging modalities. Photoacoustic imaging is a promising new technique that is particularly well suited to visualising the vasculature and could provide an alternative to existing preclinical imaging methods for studying renal vascular anatomy and function. To investigate this, an all-optical Fabry-Perot based photoacoustic scanner was used to image the abdominal region of mice. Read More

    Vascular endothelial cell changes in post cardiac surgery acute kidney injury.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Cardiovascular sciences, University of Leicester.
    Background: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is common complication of cardiac surgery however the phenotype of this condition is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to characterize changes in endothelial structure and function that underlie post cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) AKI.

    Methods: Adult pigs (N=16) were randomised to undergo following procedures; (n=8 per group); Group 1: sham operation-neck dissection with 2. Read More

    Role of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Modulating the Expressions of Aquaporins in Obstructive Kidney Disease.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Nephrology, Nanjing Children's Hospital affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, China.
    Downregulation of aquaporins (AQPs) in obstructive kidney disease has been well demonstrated with elusive mechanisms. Our previous study indicated that mitochondrial dysfunction played crucial role in this process. However, it is still uncertain that how mitochondrial dysfunction affected the AQPs in obstructive kidney disease. Read More

    Analysis of the calcium paradoxon of renin secretion.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Institute of Physiology, University of Regensburg.
    The secretion of the protease renin from renal juxtaglomerular cells is enhanced by subnormal extracellular calcium concentrations. The mechanisms underlying this atypical effect of calcium have not yet been unraveled. We therefore aimed to characterize the effect of extracellular calcium concentration on calcium handling of juxtaglomerular cells and on renin secretion in more detail. Read More

    Divergent roles for kidney proximal tubule and granulocyte PAD4 in ischemic AKI.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Anesthesiology, Columbia University, United States.
    We previously demonstrated that kidney peptidylarginine deiminase-4 (PAD4) plays a critical role in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice by promoting renal tubular inflammation and neutrophil infiltration. Although the role of PAD4 in granulocytes including neutrophils is well known, we surprisingly observed profound renal proximal tubular PAD4 induction after renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that renal proximal tubular PAD4 rather than myeloid cell lineage PAD4 plays a critical role in exacerbating ischemic AKI by utilizing mice lacking PAD4 in renal proximal tubules (PAD4ff PEPCK Cre mice) or in granulocytes (PAD4ff LysM Cre mice). Read More

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