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    4726 results match your criteria American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology[Journal]

    1 OF 95

    Renin-angiotensin system regulates pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell migration in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Nov 9:ajplung.00515.2016. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    Pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) migration plays a key role in vascular remodeling which occurs during development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to vascular remodeling observed in many diseases including idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the role of RAS imbalance in CTEPH has not been characterized. Read More

    Limited role of kininogen in the host response during gram-negative pneumonia derived sepsis.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Nov 9:ajplung.00288.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Academic Medical Center.
    High molecular weight kininogen (HK), together with Factor XI, Factor XII and prekallikrein, is part of the contact system, which has proinflammatory, prothrombotic and vasoactive properties. We hypothesized that HK plays a role in the host response during pneumonia derived sepsis. To this end mice were depleted of kininogen (KNG) to plasma HK levels of 28% of normal by repeated treatment with a specific antisense oligonucleotide (KNG ASO) for three weeks prior to infection with the common human sepsis pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae via the airways. Read More

    NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Aged Macrophages is diminished during Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Nov 2:ajplung.00393.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Weill Cornell Medical College
    Pneumococcal infections are the 8th leading cause of death in the United States and it is estimated that older patients (>65 years of age) account for the most serious cases. The goal of our current study is to understand the impact of biological aging on innate immune responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative agent of bacterial pneumonia. Using in vitro and in vivo aged murine models, our findings demonstrate that age-enhanced unfolded protein responses (UPR) contribute to diminished inflammasome assembly and activation during S. Read More

    The emerging role of angiogenesis in adaptive and maladaptive right ventricular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Nov 2:ajplung.00374.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Indiana University School of Medicine
    Right ventricular (RV) function is the primary prognostic factor for both morbidity and mortality in pulmonary hypertension (PH). RV hypertrophy is initially an adaptive physiological response to increased overload; however, with persistent and/or progressive afterload increase, this response frequently transitions to more pathological maladaptive remodeling. The mechanisms and disease processes underlying this transition are mostly unknown. Read More

    Docosahexaenoic acid enhances amphiregulin-mediated bronchial epithelial cell repair processes following organic dust exposure.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Nov 2:ajplung.00273.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    University of Nebraska Medical Center
    Injurious dust exposures in the agricultural workplace involve the release of inflammatory mediators and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the respiratory epithelium. Amphiregulin, an EGFR ligand, mediates tissue repair and wound healing in the lung epithelium. Omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are also known modulators of repair and resolution of inflammatory injury. Read More

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 promotes airway smooth muscle cell proliferation through MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Nov 2:ajplung.00129.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry
    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma and influences airway hyperresponsiveness, which is in part modulated by airway smooth muscle proliferative remodeling. Plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) levels are elevated in obese individuals, and long-chain FFAs act as endogenous ligands for the free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1), which couples to both Gq and Gi proteins. We examined whether stimulation of FFAR1 induces airway smooth muscle cell proliferation through classical MEK/ERK and/or PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Read More

    Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension via attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Nov 2:ajplung.00046.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation contribute to pulmonary hypertension (PH) pathogenesis. Previously, we confirmed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could improve hypoxic-induced PH. However, little is known about the link between DHA and monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH. Read More

    Autophagy Inhibitor 3-Methyladenine Protects against Endothelial Cell Barrier Dysfunction in Acute Lung Injury.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 26:ajplung.00555.2016. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    University of Rochester
    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular process that facilitates the continuous recycling of intracellular components (organelles and proteins) and provides an alternative source of energy when nutrients are scarce. Recent studies have implicated autophagy in many disorders including pulmonary diseases. However, the role of autophagy in endothelial cell (EC) barrier dysfunction and its relevance in the context of acute lung injury (ALI) remains uncertain. Read More

    Simvastatin Decreases Hyperoxic Oxygen-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Upregulating eNOS.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 26:ajplung.00520.2016. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Institute of Naval Medical Research.
    Statins, which are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase competitive inhibitors, not only lower blood cholesterol, but also exert pleiotropic and beneficial effects in various diseases. However, the effects of statins on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) have not been investigated. The present study is the first to investigate the effects of simvastatin in ALI induced by HBO in 8 - 9 week old C57BL/6 mice exposed to 0. Read More

    Lung disease phenotypes caused by over-expression of combinations of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of the epithelial sodium channel in mouse airways.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 26:ajplung.00382.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
    The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) regulates airway surface hydration. In mouse airways, ENaC is composed of three subunits, alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ), which are differentially expressed (α > β > γ). Airway-targeted overexpression of the β subunit results in Na+ hyperabsorption causing airway surface dehydration, hyperconcentrated mucus with delayed clearance, lung inflammation, and perinatal mortality. Read More

    Autophagy and the Unfolded Protein Response Promote Pro-fibrotic Effects of TGFβ1 in Human Lung Fibroblasts.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 26:ajplung.00372.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    University of Manitoba
    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal fibrotic lung disease in adults with limited treatment options. Autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR), fundamental processes induced by cell stress, are dysregulated in lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells from humans with IPF.

    Methods: Human primary cultured lung parenchymal and airway fibroblasts from non-IPF and IPF donors were stimulated with TGFβ1 with or without the inhibitors of autophagy or UPR (IRE1α inhibitor). Read More

    Endothelial HIF-2α Contributes to Severe Pulmonary Hypertension by Inducing Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 26:ajplung.00096.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    University of Arizona
    Pulmonary vascular remodeling characterized by concentric wall thickening and intraluminal obliteration contributes to the elevated PVR in patients with IPAH. Here we report that increased HIF-2α in lung vascular endothelial cells (LVEC) under normoxic conditions is involved in the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) by inducing endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), which subsequently results in vascular remodeling and occlusive lesions. We observed significant EndMT and markedly increased expression of SNAI, an inducer of EndMT, in LVEC from IPAH patients and PH animals compared with controls. Read More

    12-lipoxygenase and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid regulate hypoxic angiogenesis and survival of pulmonary artery endothelial cells via PI3K/Akt pathway.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 26:ajplung.00049.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Harbin Medical University (Daqing)
    Dysfunction and injury of endothelial cells play critical roles in the pulmonary arterial hypertension, which including the aberrant proliferation, suppressed apoptosis and excessive angiogenesis.12-lipoxygenase and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid pathway, which has been considered as a crucial mediator, elevates pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying the bioactivity of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in pulmonary vasculature especially in endothelial cells are still elusive. Read More

    Neutrophil elastase increases airway ceramide levels via upregulation of serine palmitoyltransferase.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 12:ajplung.00322.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Children's Hospital of Richmond at Virginia Commonwealth University
    Altered sphingolipid metabolism is associated with increased inflammation; however, the impact of inflammatory mediators, including neutrophil elastase (NE), on airway sphingolipid homeostasis remains unknown. Using a well-characterized mouse model of NE oropharyngeal aspiration, we investigated a potential link between NE-induced airway inflammation and increased synthesis of various classes of sphingolipids, including ceramide species. Sphingolipids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BAL) were identified and quantified using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Read More

    Ion channels of the lung and their role in disease pathogenesis.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Nov 12;313(5):L859-L872. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama;
    Maintenance of normal epithelial ion and water transport in the lungs includes providing a thin layer of surface liquid that coats the conducting airways. This airway surface liquid is critical for normal lung function in a number of ways but, perhaps most importantly, is required for normal mucociliary clearance and bacterial removal. Preservation of the appropriate level of hydration, pH, and viscosity for the airway surface liquid requires the proper regulation and function of a battery of different types of ion channels and transporters. Read More

    Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 have Opposing Roles in the Pathogenesis of Cigarette Smoke-induced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 12:ajplung.00154.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    University of Newcastle
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of morbidity and death and imposes major socioeconomic burdens globally. It is a progressive and disabling condition that severely impairs breathing and lung function. There is a lack of effective treatments for COPD, which is a direct consequence of the poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in driving the pathogenesis of the disease. Read More

    Intranasal administration of recombinant progranulin inhibits bronchial smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness in mouse allergic asthma.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 5:ajplung.00575.2016. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Hoshi University.
    Progranulin (PGRN) is a growth factor with multiple biological functions, and has been suggested as an endogenous inhibitor of TNFα-mediated signaling. TNFα is believed as one of the important mediators of the pathogenesis of asthma, including airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In the present study, effects of recombinant PGRN on the TNFα-mediated signaling and the antigen-induced hyper-contractility were examined in bronchial smooth muscles (BSMs) both in vitro and in vivo. Read More

    Evaluation of a SPLUNC1-Derived Peptide for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 5:ajplung.00546.2016. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    In cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs, epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) hyperactivity causes a reduction in airway surface liquid (ASL) volume, leading to decreased mucocilliary clearance and lung damage. Inhibition of ENaC is an attractive therapeutic option. However, ENaC antagonists have failed clinically due to off-target renal effects. Read More

    An epoxide hydrolase secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa decreases mucociliary transport and hinders bacterial clearance from the lung.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 5:ajplung.00383.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth
    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonizes the lungs of susceptible individuals by deploying virulence factors targeting host defenses. The secreted CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif) dysregulates the endocytic recycling of CFTR and thus reduces CFTR abundance in host epithelial membranes. We have postulated that the decrease in ion secretion mediated by Cif would slow mucociliary transport and decrease bacterial clearance from the lungs. Read More

    Acidosis Exacerbates in vivo IL-1-Dependent Inflammatory Responses and Neutrophil Recruitment During Pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 5:ajplung.00338.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Dartmouth Medical School
    Acidic microenvironments commonly occur at sites of inflammation and bacterial infections. In the context of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, we previously demonstrated that acidosis enhances the cellular proinflammatory IL-1β response in vitro. However, how pH alterations affect in vivo IL-1β responses and subsequent IL-1 driven inflammation during infection with P. Read More

    Use of proper statistical techniques for research studies with small samples.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Nov 5;313(5):L873-L877. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
    In this review I discuss the appropriateness of various statistical methods for use with small sample sizes. I review the assumptions and limitations of these methods and provide recommendations for figures and statistical tests. Read More

    ATP catabolism by tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase contributes to development of ARDS in influenza-infected mice.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Oct 5:ajplung.00149.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    The Ohio State University
    Influenza A viruses are highly contagious respiratory pathogens that are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide on an annual basis. We have shown previously that influenza infection of mice leads to increased ATP and adenosine accumulation in the airway lumen. Moreover, we demonstrated that A1-adenosine receptor activation contributes significantly to influenza-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Read More

    Activation of the sweet taste receptor, T1R3, by the artificial sweetener sucralose regulates the pulmonary endothelium.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 28:ajplung.00490.2016. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Anglia Ruskin University
    A hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is pulmonary vascular permeability. In these settings, loss of barrier integrity is mediated by cell-contact disassembly and actin-remodelling. Studies into molecular mechanisms responsible for improving microvascular barrier function are therefore vital in the development of therapeutic targets for reducing vascular permeability in ARDS. Read More

    Human lung branching morphogenesis is orchestrated by the spatio-temporal distribution of ACTA2, SOX2 and SOX9.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 28:ajplung.00379.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Children's Hospital Los Angeles
    Lung morphogenesis relies on a number of important processes including proximal-distal patterning, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. In mouse lung development, SOX2+ cells are localized in the proximal epithelium whereas SOX9+ cells are present in the distal epithelium. We show that in human lung, expression of these transcription factors differs, in that during the pseudoglandular stage distal epithelial progenitors at the tips co-express SOX2 and SOX9. Read More

    Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of late lung development and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 28:ajplung.00343.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    University of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC)
    The objective of lung development is to generate an organ of gas exchange that provides both a thin gas diffusion barrier and a large gas diffusion surface area, which concomitantly generates a steep gas-diffusion concentration gradient. As such, the lung is perfectly structured to undertake the function of gas exchange: a large number of small alveoli provide extensive surface area within the limited volume of the lung, and a delicate alveolo-capillary barrier brings circulating blood into close proximity to the inspired air. Efficient movement of inspired air and circulating blood through the conducting airways and conducting vessels, respectively, generates steep oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration gradients across the alveolo-capillary barrier, providing ideal conditions for effective diffusion of both gases during breathing. Read More

    TBX4 is involved in the super-enhancer-driven transcriptional programs underlying features specific to lung fibroblasts.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 28:ajplung.00193.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Univ. of Tokyo, Faculty of Medicine.
    Lung fibroblasts participate in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, including lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. Although fibroblasts are ubiquitous constituents of various organs, their cellular diversity among different organs has been poorly characterized. Here, we aimed to investigate the distinct gene signature of lung fibroblasts that represents its pulmonary origin, and the underlying gene regulatory networks. Read More

    Hypoxia-induced changes in plasma microRNAs correlate with pulmonary artery pressure at high altitude.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 28:ajplung.00146.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    University of Cologne/ University Hospital and University Bern
    In vitro and animal studies revealed miRs to be involved in modulation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH). However, knowledge on circulating miRs in humans in the context of HPH is very limited. Since symptoms of HPH are non-specific and non-invasive diagnostic parameters do not exist, a disease-specific and hypoxemia-independent biomarker indicating HPH would be of clinical value. Read More

    Attenuation of pulmonary ACE2 activity impairs inactivation of des-Arg9 bradykinin/BKB1R axis and facilitates LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 21:ajplung.00498.2016. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Johns Hopkins University
    Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a terminal carboxypeptidase with important functions in the renin angiotensin system and plays a critical role in inflammatory lung diseases. ACE2 cleaves single terminal residues from several bioactive peptides such as angiotensin II. However, few of its substrates in the respiratory tract have been identified and the mechanism underlying the role of ACE2 in inflammatory lung disease has not been fully characterized. Read More

    Isolation and characterization of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition-cells in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 21:ajplung.00296.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
    Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a process in which endothelial cells lose polarity and cell-to-cell contacts, and undergo a dramatic remodeling of the cytoskeleton. It has been implicated in initiation and progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the characteristics of cells which have undergone EndMT-cells in vivo have not been reported and so remain unclear. Read More

    Phagocytosis of microparticles by alveolar macrophages during acute lung injury requires MerTK.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 21:ajplung.00058.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    National Jewish Health.
    Microparticles are a newly recognized class of mediators in the pathophysiology of lung inflammation and injury, but little is known about the factors that regulate their accumulation and clearance. The primary objective of our study was to determine whether alveolar macrophages engulf microparticles and to elucidate the mechanisms by which this occurs. Alveolar microparticles were quantified in bronchoalveolar fluid of mice with lung injury induced by LPS and hydrochloric acid. Read More

    Versican is Produced by Trif- and Type I Interferon-Dependent Signaling in Macrophages and Contributes to Fine-Control of Innate Immunity in Lungs.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 14:ajplung.00353.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Univeristy of Washington
    Growing evidence suggests that versican is important in the innate immune response to lung infection. Our goal was to understand the regulation of macrophage-derived versican and the role it plays in innate immunity. We first defined the signaling events that regulate versican expression using bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from mice lacking specific Toll-like receptors (TLR), TLR adaptor molecules or the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR1). Read More

    Invariant natural killer T cells promote immunogenic maturation of lung dendritic cells in mouse models of asthma.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 14:ajplung.00340.2016. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China
    Our previous study showed that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells might act as an adjuvant to promote Th2 inflammatory responses in an OVA-induced mouse model of allergic asthma, but the mechanism remains unknown. To clarify the underlying mechanism through which iNKT cells promote Th2 inflammatory responses, we investigated the modulatory influence of iNKT cells on phenotypic and functional maturation of lung dendritic cells (LDCs) using iNKT cell-knockout mice, specific iNKT cell activation, co-culture experiments, and adoptive transfer of iNKT cells in mouse models of asthma. Our data showed that iNKT cell deficiency could downregulate surface maturation markers and proinflammatory cytokine secretion of LDCs from a mouse model of asthma. Read More

    Exposure of Neonatal Mice to Bromine Impairs Their Alveolar Development and Lung Function.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 14:ajplung.00315.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    University of Alabama at Birmingham.
    The halogen bromine (Br2) is used extensively in industry and stored and transported in large quantities. Its accidental or malicious release into the atmosphere has resulted in significant casualties. The pathophysiology of Br2-induced lung injury has been studied in adult animals, but the consequences of Br2 exposure to the developing lung are completely unknown. Read More

    Element-based prognostics of occupational pneumoconiosis using micro-proton-induced X-ray emission analysis.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 14:ajplung.00009.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Tongji University School of Medicine
    Pneumoconiosis is an occupational disease accompanied by long-term lung impairment for which prediction of prognosis is poorly understood because of the complexity of the inhaled particles. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) analysis, which is advantageous for high-sensitivity 2D element mapping of lung tissues, was used to investigate element-based predictive factors of prognosis in Chinese patients with welder's and coal miner's pneumoconiosis. Chest radiographs and lung function tests showed that most of the coal miners deteriorated, while symptoms in some welders were alleviated after five years, as determined by comparing percent vital capacity (VC%) and forced expiratory volume in the first second over forced vital capacity (FEV1. Read More

    Childhood tolerance of severe influenza: a mortality analysis in mice.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 7:ajplung.00364.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
    During the 1918 influenza pandemic, children experienced substantially lower mortality than adults, a striking but unexplained finding. Whether this was due to enhanced resistance (reduced virus load) or better tolerance (reduced impact of infection) has not been defined. We found that prepubertal mice infected with H1N1 influenza virus also showed greater survival than infected pubertal mice, despite similar virus loads. Read More

    Opsin 3 and 4 Mediate Light-Induced Pulmonary Vasorelaxation that is Potentiated by G-Protein Receptor Kinase 2 Inhibition.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 7:ajplung.00091.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    The Johns Hopkins University
    We recently demonstrated that blue light induces vasorelaxation in the systemic mouse circulation, a phenomenon mediated by the non-visual G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) melanopsin (opsin 4; Opn4). Here we tested the hypothesis that non-visual opsins mediate photorelaxation in the pulmonary circulation. We discovered Opsin 3 (Opn3), Opn4, and G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in rat pulmonary arteries (PAs) and in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), where the opsins interact directly with GRK2 as demonstrated with a proximity ligation assay. Read More

    Targeting Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 in Tetracycline-Induced Pleural Injury in Rabbits.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Aug 31:ajplung.00579.2016. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler
    Elevated active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has an adverse effect on the outcomes of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy (IPFT) in tetracycline-induced pleural injury in rabbits. In order to enhance IPFT with prourokinase (scuPA), two mechanistically distinct approaches to targeting PAI-1 were tested: slowing its reaction with urokinase (uPA) and mAb-mediated PAI-1 inactivation. Removing positively charged residues at the "PAI-1 docking site" ((179)RHRGGS(184)→(179)AAAAAA(184)) of uPA results in a 60-fold decrease in the rate of inhibition by PAI-1. Read More

    Blockade of extracellular heat shock protein 90 alpha by 1G6-D7 attenuates pulmonary fibrosis through inhibiting ERK signaling.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Aug 31:ajplung.00489.2016. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Southern Medicial University
    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by lung fibroblast activation and ECM deposition and has a poor prognosis.Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) participates in organ fibrosis and extracellular Hsp90α (eHsp90α) promotes fibroblast activation and migration. This study aimed to investigate whether a selective anti-Hsp90α monoclonal antibody, 1G6-D7, could attenuate lung fibrosis and whether 1G6-D7 presents protective effect by inactivating profibrotic pathway. Read More

    IL-17 in the lung: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Aug 31:ajplung.00344.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    University of Michigan, MI, USA.
    The IL-17 family of cytokines has emerged over the last two decades as a pleiotropic group of molecules that function in a wide variety of both beneficial and detrimental (pathologic) processes mainly in mucosal barrier tissue. The beneficial effects of IL-17 expression are especially important in the lung where exposure to foreign agents is abundant. IL-17A plays an important role in protection from both extracellular bacteria and fungi as well as viruses that infect cells of the mucosal tracts. Read More

    The respiratory tract microbial biogeography in alcohol use disorder.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Aug 31:ajplung.00277.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
    Rationale: Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are at an increased risk of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Data of the lung microbiome in the setting of AUDs are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the microbial biogeography of the upper and lower respiratory tract in individuals with AUDs compared to non-AUD subjects. Read More

    IPF lung fibroblasts have a senescent phenotype.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Aug 31:ajplung.00220.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    University of Pittsburgh
    The mechanisms of aging that are involved in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are still unclear. Although it has been hypothesized that the proliferation and activation of human lung fibroblasts (hLF) are essential in IPF, no studies have assessed how this process works in an aging lung. Our goal was to elucidate if there were age-related changes on primary hLF isolated from IPF lungs compared to age-matched controls. Read More

    IL-8 Mediates Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Mesenchymal Progenitor Cell Fibrogenicity.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Aug 31:ajplung.00200.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    University of Minnesota School of Medicine
    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrotic lung disease, but the mechanisms driving progression remain incompletely defined. We previously reported that the IPF lung harbors fibrogenic mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs), which serve as a cell-of-origin for IPF fibroblasts. Proliferating IPF MPCs are located at the periphery of fibroblastic foci in an active cellular front at the interface between the myofibroblast rich focus core and adjacent normal alveolar structures. Read More

    Novel therapeutic roles for surfactant-inositols and -phosphatidylglycerols in a neonatal piglet ARDS model. A translational study.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Aug 31:ajplung.00128.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein (UKSH), Campus Kiel
    The biological and immune-protective properties of surfactant-derived phospholipids and phospholipid-subfractions in the context of neonatal inflammatory lung disease are widely unknown. Using a porcine neonatal triple-hit ARDS model (repeated airway lavage, overventilation, LPS instillation into airways), we assessed whether the supplementation of surfactant (poractant alfa, S) with inositol-derivatives (inositol-1,2,6-trisphosphate, IP3; phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate, PIP2) or phosphatidylglycerol-subfractions (16:0/18:1-POPG; 18:1/18:1-DOPG) would result in improved clinical parameters, and sought to characterize changes in key inflammatory pathways behind these improvements. Within 72 h of mechanical ventilation, the oxygenation index (S+IP3/PIP2/POPG), the ventilation efficiency index (S+IP3/POPG), the compliance (S+IP3/POPG) and the resistance (S+POPG) of the respiratory system, and the extra-vascular lung water index (S+IP3/POPG) significantly improved compared to S treatment alone. Read More

    Alcohol Abuse is Associated with Enhanced Pulmonary and Systemic Xanthine Oxidoreductase Activity.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Aug 24:ajplung.00570.2016. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine
    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common and devastating disorder. Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) increase ARDS risk, and worsen outcomes, through mechanisms that may include enhancing pulmonary oxidative stress. Alcohol consumption increases activity of the enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) that contributes to production of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uric acid, a damage-associated molecular pattern. Read More

    Epigenetic Changes by DNA methylation in Chronic and Intermittent Hypoxia.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Aug 24:ajplung.00325.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    The University of Chicago
    DNA methylation of cytosine residues is a well-studied epigenetic change, which regulates gene transcription by altering accessibility for transcription factors. Hypoxia is a pervasive stimulus that affects many physiological processes. The circulatory and respiratory systems adapt to chronic sustained hypoxia, such as that encountered during a high altitude sojourn. Read More

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