10,513 results match your criteria American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology[Journal]


Conduit arterial wave reflection promotes pressure transmission, but impedes hydraulic energy transmission, to the microvasculature.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Heart Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Australia.

Current thinking suggests that wave reflection in arteries limits pulse pressure and hydraulic energy (HE) transmission to the microvasculature, and that this protective effect reduces with advancing age. However, according to transmission line theory, pressure transmission (T) and reflection (R) coefficients are proportional (T=1+R), implying that wave reflection would promote rather than limit pressure transmission. We hypothesized that increased distal pulse pressure (PPd) with age is instead related to increasing proximal pulse pressure (PPp) and its forward component, and that these are modulated by arterial compliance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00733.2019DOI Listing

Neurovascular Coupling is Not Influenced by Lower Body Negative Pressure in Humans.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, New Zealand.

Cerebral blood flow is tightly coupled with local neuronal activation and metabolism (i.e., neurovascular coupling; NVC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00076.2020DOI Listing
May 2020
3.838 Impact Factor

The effects of exercise training on lipid metabolism and coronary heart disease.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

DISTEBA, University of Salento, Italy.

Blood lipoproteins are formed by various amounts of cholesterol (C), triglycerides (TG), phospholipids and apolipoproteins (Apos). Apo A1 is the major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), accounting for approximately 70% of HDL protein, and mediates many of the anti-atherogenic functions of HDL. Conversely, Apo B is the predominant low-density lipoprotein (LDL) Apo and is a reliable indicator of circulating LDL, associated with higher coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00708.2019DOI Listing

Cardiac Mesenchymal Cells from Failing and Non-Failing Hearts Limit Ventricular Dilation when Administered Late after Infarction.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, United States.

Although cell therapy-mediated cardiac repair offers promise for treatment/management of heart failure, lack of fundamental understanding of how cell therapy works limits its translational potential. In particular, whether reparative cells from failing hearts differ from cells derived from non-failing hearts remains unexplored. Here, we assessed differences between cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMC) derived from failing (HF) versus non-failing (Sham) hearts and whether the source of donor cells (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00114.2020DOI Listing

Redistribution of Cardiac Output During Exercise by Functional Mitral Regurgitation in Heart Failure: Compensatory O Peripheral Uptake to Delivery Failure.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Cardiology University Department, University of Milano, San Donato Hospital, Italy.

Functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is prognostic in heart failure (HF). This favors an unphysiological exercise central cardiac output (CO) redistribution which add to oxygen (O) delivery failure. To evaluate the putative role of cardiac output (CO) and O artero-venous [c (a-v) O] difference in the attained peak VO in advanced HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and MR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00125.2020DOI Listing

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increases Ca currents by interacting with Ca1.2 and reducing intrinsic inactivation of the L-type calcium channel.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Pharmacology, New York Medical College, United States.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a source of cellular NADPH. In this study, we have identified two isoforms of G6PD (slow and fast migrating) and functionally characterized the slow migrating G6PD (G6PD) in bovine and human arteries. G6PD is eluted in the caveolae fraction and has a higher (1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00727.2019DOI Listing

Co-ordinated regulation of cell survival and cell cycle pathways by DDR2-dependent SRF transcription factor in cardiac fibroblasts.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Cellular and Molecular Cardiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, India.

Relative resistance to apoptosis and the ability to proliferate and produce a collagen-rich scar determine the critical role of cardiac fibroblasts in wound healing and tissue remodeling following myocardial injury. Identification of cardiac fibroblast-specific factors and mechanisms underlying these aspects of cardiac fibroblast function is therefore of considerable scientific and clinical interest. In the present study, gene knockdown and over-expression approaches, and promoter binding assays, showed that DDR2, a mesenchymal cell-specific collagen receptor tyrosine kinase localized predominantly in fibroblasts in the heart, acts via ERK1/2 MAPK-activated SRF transcription factor to enhance the expression of anti-apoptotic cIAP2 in cardiac fibroblasts, conferring resistance against oxidative injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00740.2019DOI Listing

Chronic Cigarette Smoke Exposure Triggers a Vicious Cycle of Leukocyte and Endothelial-Mediated Oxidant Stress that Results in Vascular Dysfunction.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, United States.

While there is a strong association between cigarette smoking exposure (CSE) and vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED), the underlying mechanisms by which CSE triggers VED remain unclear. Therefore, studies were performed to define these mechanisms using a chronic mouse model of cigarette smoking (CS)-induced cardiovascular disease mirroring that in humans. C57BL/6 male mice were subjected to CSE for up to 48 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00657.2019DOI Listing

Lactobacillus reuteri attenuates cardiac injury without lowering cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice fed standard chow.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, United States.

Disruption of the normal gut microbiome (dysbiosis) is implicated in the progression and severity of myriad disorders, including hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease. Probiotics attenuate and reverse gut dysbiosis to improve cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Lactobacillus reuteri is a well-studied lactic acid-producing probiotic with known cholesterol-lowering properties and anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00569.2019DOI Listing

Pressure-induced constriction of the middle cerebral artery is abolished in TrpC6 knockout mice.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, United States.

Pressure-induced constriction (PIC) is an inherent response of small arteries and arterioles in which increases in intraluminal pressure evoke vasoconstriction. It is a critical mechanism of blood flow autoregulation in the kidney and brain. Degenerin (Deg) and transient receptor potential (Trp) protein families have been implicated in transduction of PIC because of evolutionary links to mechanosensing in the nematode and fly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00126.2020DOI Listing

Cardiac endurance training alters plasma profiles of circular RNA MBOAT2.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Institute of Molecular and Translational Therapeutic Strategies, Hannover Medical School, Germany.

Marathon running is an extreme physical activity which determines cardiopulmonary adaption of athletes. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) as potential biomarkers in the blood stream have so far not been tested after such strenuous activities. In silico approaches were performed to identify the potential candidate circRNA MBOAT2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00067.2020DOI Listing

Social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic can increase physical inactivity and the global burden of cardiovascular disease.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 06 15;318(6):H1441-H1446. Epub 2020 May 15.

Applied Physiology and Nutrition Research Group, School of Physical Education and Sport, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Emerging data indicate a substantial decrease in global physical activity levels during the period of social isolation adopted worldwide to contain the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Confinement-induced decreases in physical activity levels and increases in sedentary behavior may provoke a rapid deterioration of cardiovascular health and premature deaths among populations with increased cardiovascular risk. Even short-term (1-4 wk) inactivity has been linked with detrimental effects in cardiovascular function and structure and increased cardiovascular risk factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00268.2020DOI Listing

Chemogenetic activation of intracardiac cholinergic neurons improves cardiac function in pressure overload induced heart failure.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Pharmacology and Physiology, George Washington University, United States.

Heart failure (HF) is characterized by autonomic imbalance with sympathetic hyperactivity and loss of parasympathetic tone. Intracardiac ganglia (ICG) neurons represent the final common pathway for vagal innervation of the heart and strongly regulate cardiac functions. This study tests if ICG cholinergic neuron activation mitigates the progression of cardiac dysfunction and reduces mortality that occurs in HF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00150.2020DOI Listing

Cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS plays an essential pathogenetic role in pressure overload-induced heart failure.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Peking University People's Hospital, China.

Background: Growing evidence shows that activation of inflammation in the heart provokes left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction in humans and experimental animals with heart failure (HF). Moreover, recent studies found that cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), serving as a cytosolic DNA sensor, was essential for activating innate immunity against infection and cellular damage by initiating the STING-IRFs-type I IFN signaling cascade, which played important roles in regulating the inflammatory response. However, the pathophysiological role of cGAS in pressure overload-induced HF is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00097.2020DOI Listing

Atypical ALPK2 kinase is not essential for cardiac development and function.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Medicine, University of California San Diego, United States.

Protein kinases play an integral role in cardiac development, function, and disease. Recent experimental and clinical data have implied that protein kinases belonging to a family of atypical α-protein kinases, including α-protein kinase 2 (ALPK2), are important for regulating cardiac development and maintaining function via regulation of WNT signaling. A recent study in zebrafish reported that loss of ALPK2 leads to severe cardiac defects, however, the relevance of ALPK2 has not been studied in a mammalian animal model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00249.2020DOI Listing

Reduced Na current in Purkinje fibers explains cardiac conduction defects and arrhythmias in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 Jun 8;318(6):H1436-H1440. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Neurophysiology-Pharmacology, Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Cardiac arrhythmias significantly contribute to mortality in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a degenerative muscle disease triggered by mutations in the gene encoding for the intracellular protein dystrophin. A major source for the arrhythmias in patients with DMD is impaired ventricular impulse conduction, which predisposes for ventricular asynchrony, decreased cardiac output, and the development of reentrant mechanisms. The reason for ventricular conduction impairments and the associated arrhythmias in the dystrophic heart has remained unidentified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00224.2020DOI Listing

Exercise training ameliorates cerebrovascular dysfunction in a murine model of Alzheimer's Disease: Role of the P2Y2 receptor and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Health & Human Performance, University of Houston, United States.

Cerebrovascular dysfunction is a critical risk factor for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purinergic P2Y2 receptor and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are tightly associated with vascular dysfunction and the pathogenesis of AD. However, the protective effect of exercise training on P2Y2 receptor- and ER stress-associated cerebrovascular dysfunction in AD are mostly unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00129.2020DOI Listing

Contractile work directly modulates mitochondrial protein levels in human engineered heart tissues.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, United States.

Engineered heart tissues (EHTs) have emerged as a robust in vitro model to study cardiac physiology. Although biomimetic culture environments have been developed to better approximate in vivo conditions, currently available methods do not permit full recapitulation of the four phases of the cardiac cycle. We have developed a bioreactor which allows EHTs to undergo cyclic loading sequences that mimic in vivo work loops. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00055.2020DOI Listing

Using 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide as a model of menopause for cardiovascular disease.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Physiology, University of Arizona, United States.

There is a sharp rise in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and progression with the onset of menopause. The 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) model of menopause recapitulates the natural, physiological transition through perimenopause to menopause. We hypothesized that menopausal female mice were more susceptible to CVD than pre- or perimenopausal females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00555.2019DOI Listing

Reduced stiffness and augmented traction force in type 2 diabetic coronary microvascular smooth muscle.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 Jun 1;318(6):H1410-H1419. Epub 2020 May 1.

Center for Cardiovascular Research, The Heart Center, The Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio.

Type 2 diabetic (T2DM) coronary resistance microvessels (CRMs) undergo inward hypertrophic remodeling associated with reduced stiffness and reduced coronary blood flow in both mice and pig models. Since reduced stiffness does not appear to be due to functional changes in the extracellular matrix, this study tested the hypothesis that decreased CRM stiffness in T2DM is due to reduced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) stiffness, which impacts the traction force generated by VSMCs. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and traction force microscopy (TFM) were conducted on primary low-passage CRM VSMCs from normal / and T2DM / mice in addition to low-passage normal and T2DM deidentified human coronary VSMCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00542.2019DOI Listing

Does vascular stiffness predict white matter hyperintensity burden in ischemic heart disease with preserved ejection fraction?

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 Jun 1;318(6):H1401-H1409. Epub 2020 May 1.

School of Kinesiology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

The survival rate of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) is increasing. However, survivors experience increased risk for neurological complications. The mechanisms for this increased risk are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00057.2020DOI Listing

Differential Effects of REV-ERBa/b Agonism on Cardiac Gene Expression, Metabolism, and Contractile Function in a Mouse Model of Circadian Disruption.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 1. Epub 2020 May 1.

Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States.

Cell autonomous circadian clocks have emerged as temporal orchestrators of numerous biological processes. For example, the cardiomyocyte circadian clock modulates transcription, translation, posttranslational modifications, ion homeostasis, signaling cascades, metabolism, and contractility of the heart over the course of the day. Circadian clocks are composed of more than 10 interconnected transcriptional modulators, all of which have the potential to influence the cardiac transcriptome (and ultimately cardiac processes). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00709.2019DOI Listing

Evidence of structural and functional plasticity occurring within the intracardiac nervous system of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 Jun 1;318(6):H1387-H1400. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Physiology, Manaaki Mānawa Centre for Heart Research, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Plasticity is a fundamental property of neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, enabling rapid changes in neural network function. The intracardiac nervous system (ICNS) is an extensive network of neurons clustered into ganglionated plexi (GP) on the surface of the heart. GP neurons are the final site of neuronal control of heart rhythm, and pathophysiological remodeling of the ICNS is proposed to feature in multiple cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00020.2020DOI Listing

Small Molecule Inhibition of Gut Microbial Choline Trimethylamine Lyase Activity Alters Host Cholesterol and Bile Acid Metabolism.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, United States.

The gut microbe-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has recently been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathogenesis, prompting the development of therapeutic strategies to reduce TMAO. Previous work has shown that experimental alteration of circulating TMAO levels via dietary alterations or inhibition of the host TMAO producing enzyme flavin containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is associated with reorganization of host cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in mice. In this work we set out to understand whether recently developed non-lethal gut microbe-targeting small molecule choline trimethylamine (TMA) lyase inhibitors also alter host cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00584.2019DOI Listing

Sirt1 during childhood is associated with microvascular function later in life.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 Jun 24;318(6):H1371-H1378. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Georgia Prevention Institute, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia.

Microvascular dysfunction often precedes other age-related macrovascular conditions and predicts future cardiovascular risk. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) has recently emerged as a protein that protects the vasculature and reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that lower Sirt1 during childhood is associated with a reduced microvascular function during adulthood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00024.2020DOI Listing

Chronic imaging of mitochondria in the murine cerebral vasculature using in vivo two-photon microscopy.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 Jun 24;318(6):H1379-H1386. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Pharmacology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Mitochondria are important regulators of cerebral vascular function in health and disease, but progress in understanding their roles has been hindered by methodological limitations. We report the first in vivo imaging of mitochondria specific to the cerebral endothelium in real time in the same mouse for extended periods. Mice expressing Dendra2 fluorescent protein in mitochondria (mito-Dendra2) in the cerebral vascular endothelium were generated by breeding PhAM-floxed and Tie2-Cre mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00751.2019DOI Listing

Plasticity of cardiovascular chemoreflexes after prolonged unilateral carotid body denervation: implications for its therapeutic use.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 24;318(5):H1325-H1336. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Centro de Fisiología Celular e Integrativa, Facultad de Medicina, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile.

Unilateral carotid body denervation has been proposed as treatment for sympathetic-related human diseases such as systolic heart failure, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, and cardiometabolic diseases. The long-term therapeutic effects of carotid body removal will be maintained if the remnant "buffer nerves," that is, the contralateral carotid nerve and the aortic nerves that innervate second-order neurons at the solitary tract nuclei (NTS), do not modify their contributions to the cardiovascular chemoreflexes. Here, we studied the cardiovascular chemoreflexes 1 mo after unilateral carotid body denervation either by excision of the petrosal ganglion (petrosal ganglionectomy, which eliminates central carotid afferents) or exeresis of a segment of one carotid nerve (carotid neurectomy, which preserves central afferents). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00451.2019DOI Listing

TLR2/CXCR4 coassociation facilitates infection-induced atherosclerosis.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 Jun 24;318(6):H1420-H1435. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

infection could play a role in atherosclerosis. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) have been both shown to be involved in atherosclerosis. However, whether and how TLR2/CXCR4 cross talk is involved in infection-induced atherosclerosis remains to be determined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00011.2020DOI Listing

CDC-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Reprogram Inflammatory Macrophages to an Arginase 1-Dependent Pro-Angiogenic Phenotype.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, United States.

Macrophages play a pivotal role in tissue repair following myocardial infarction (MI). In response to injury, they exist along a spectrum of activation states tightly regulated by their microenvironment. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) have been shown to mediate cardioprotection via modulation of the macrophage response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00155.2020DOI Listing
April 2020
3.838 Impact Factor

Apohemoglobin-haptoglobin complex attenuates the pathobiology of circulating acellular hemoglobin and heme.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 17;318(5):H1296-H1307. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Haptoglobin (Hp) is the plasma protein that binds and clears cell-free hemoglobin (Hb), whereas apohemoglobin (apoHb, i.e., Hb devoid of heme) can bind heme. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00136.2020DOI Listing

An in silico simulation of flow-mediated dilation reveals that blood pressure and other factors may influence the response independent of endothelial function.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 17;318(5):H1337-H1345. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Endothelial dysfunction is thought to underpin atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The most widely used in vivo test of endothelial function is flow-mediated dilation (FMD). However, the results of FMD may be subject to some confounding factors that are not fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00703.2019DOI Listing

Functional knockout of ASIC3 attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrated rats with ligated femoral arteries.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 17;318(5):H1316-H1324. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Heart and Vascular Institute and Department of Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

The exercise pressor reflex arises from contracting muscle and is manifested by increases in arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac contractility. In patients with peripheral artery disease, the exercise pressor reflex is exaggerated. This effect is believed to be caused by a metabolite whose concentration is increased when the working muscles are inadequately perfused. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00137.2020DOI Listing

Excessive dietary salt promotes aortic stiffness in murine renovascular hypertension.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 17;318(5):H1346-H1355. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Renovascular hypertension is characterized by activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, blunted natriuretic responses, and elevated sympathetic nerve activity. Excess dietary salt intake exaggerates arterial blood pressure (ABP) in multiple models of experimental hypertension. The present study tested whether a high-salt diet exaggerated ABP and vascular dysfunction in a 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) murine model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00601.2019DOI Listing

Effect of carvedilol on atrial excitation-contraction coupling, Ca release, and arrhythmogenicity.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 10;318(5):H1245-H1255. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Carvedilol is an FDA-approved β-blocker commonly used for treatment of high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and cardiac tachyarrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. We investigated at the cellular level the mechanisms through which carvedilol interferes with sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release during excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in single rabbit atrial myocytes. Carvedilol caused concentration-dependent (1-10 µM) failure of SR Ca release. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00650.2019DOI Listing

Ex vivo aortic stiffness in mice with different eNOS activity.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 10;318(5):H1233-H1244. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

An important physiological role of the aorta is to convert the pulsatile blood flow that originates in the heart to a nearly continuous flow in the peripheral vessels. Previously, we demonstrated that basal, unstimulated nitric oxide (NO) production is more abundant in large as compared with muscular arteries and that it is an important regulator of arterial (aortic) stiffness. Hence, endothelial function and NO bioavailability are important determinants of aortic biomechanics, and mouse models with altered NO signaling might be of interest to investigate the (patho)physiological role of the NO signaling as a dynamic regulator of arterial stiffness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00737.2019DOI Listing

Ca release-activated Ca channels are responsible for histamine-induced Ca entry, permeability increase, and interleukin synthesis in lymphatic endothelial cells.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 10;318(5):H1283-H1295. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Medical Physiology, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, Texas.

The lymphatic functions in maintaining lymph transport, and immune surveillance can be impaired by infections and inflammation, thereby causing debilitating disorders, such as lymphedema and inflammatory bowel disease. Histamine is a key inflammatory mediator known to trigger vasodilation and vessel hyperpermeability upon binding to its receptors and evoking intracellular Ca ([Ca]) dynamics for downstream signal transductions. However, the exact molecular mechanisms beneath the [Ca] dynamics and the downstream cellular effects have not been elucidated in the lymphatic system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00544.2019DOI Listing

Letter to the Editor: Ervin G. Erdös, MD (1922-2019): a holocaust survivor and eminent cardiovascular scientist.

Authors:
Sinisa Stanic

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May;318(5):H1049-H1050

Division of Radiation Oncology, Carle Cancer Center, Carle Illinois College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00100.2020DOI Listing

Atrial septal defects and pulmonary hemodynamics: a time for holey reflection.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 3;318(5):H1159-H1161. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

The Helen B. Taussig Heart Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00226.2020DOI Listing

Abnormal sympathetic neural recruitment patterns and hemodynamic responses to cold pressor test in women with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 3;318(5):H1198-H1207. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, Dallas, Texas.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is more prevalent in women and associated with greater risk of major forms of cardiovascular disease, but physiological mechanisms underlying this association remain unknown. We hypothesized that abnormal sympathetic responses to sympathoexcitatory stimuli might predispose PTSD patients to a greater risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined changes in integrated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) burst and multiunit action potential (AP) recruitment patterns as well as hemodynamic responses during cold pressor test (CPT) in 14 women with PTSD and 14 healthy control subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00684.2019DOI Listing

Crossing signals: bioactive lipids in the microvasculature.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 3;318(5):H1185-H1197. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Cardiovascular Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

The primary function of the arterial microvasculature is to ensure that regional perfusion of blood flow is matched to the needs of the tissue bed. This critical physiological mechanism is tightly controlled and regulated by a variety of vasoactive compounds that are generated and released from the vascular endothelium. Although these substances are required for modulating vascular tone, they also influence the surrounding tissue and have an overall effect on vascular, as well as parenchymal, homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00706.2019DOI Listing

Microstructure of early embryonic aortic arch and its reversibility following mechanically altered hemodynamic load release.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 3;318(5):H1208-H1218. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey.

In the embryonic heart, blood flow is distributed through a bilaterally paired artery system composed of the aortic arches (AAs). The purpose of this study is to establish an understanding of the governing mechanism of microstructural maturation of the AA matrix and its reversibility, toward the desired macroscopic vessel lumen diameter and thickness for healthy, abnormal, and in ovo repaired abnormal mechanical loading. While matrix-remodeling mechanisms were significantly different for normal versus conotruncal banding (CTB), both led to an increase in vessel lumen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00495.2019DOI Listing
May 2020
3.838 Impact Factor

Trimethylamine--oxide acutely increases cardiac muscle contractility.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 3;318(5):H1272-H1282. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, Missouri.

Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Trimethylamine--oxide (TMAO), a uremic metabolite that is elevated in the setting of CKD, has been implicated as a nontraditional risk factor for cardiovascular disease. While association studies have linked elevated plasma levels of TMAO to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, its direct effect on cardiac and smooth muscle function remains to be fully elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00507.2019DOI Listing

COVID-19, ACE2, and the cardiovascular consequences.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 05 31;318(5):H1084-H1090. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Cardiovascular Sciences Center, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

The novel SARS coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic may be particularly deleterious to patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the requisite binding of the virus to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and internalization of the complex by the host cell. Recognition that ACE2 is the coreceptor for the coronavirus has prompted new therapeutic approaches to block the enzyme or reduce its expression to prevent the cellular entry and SARS-CoV-2 infection in tissues that express ACE2 including lung, heart, kidney, brain, and gut. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00217.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191628PMC

Quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of ischemic myocardial stunning in swine.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 30;318(5):H1256-H1271. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York.

Despite decades of research on the pathophysiology of myocardial stunning, protein changes and/or phosphorylation status underlying alterations in cardiac function/structure remain inadequately understood. Here, we utilized comprehensive and quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic approaches to explore molecular mechanisms of myocardial stunning in swine. The closed-chest swine ( = 5 pigs) were subjected to a 10-min left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion producing regional myocardial stunning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00713.2019DOI Listing

Letter to the Editor: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: an ally or a Trojan horse? Implications to SARS-CoV-2-related cardiovascular complications.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 05 30;318(5):H1080-H1083. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University Hospital, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00215.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191629PMC

Fast in vivo detection of myocardial norepinephrine levels in the beating porcine heart.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 27;318(5):H1091-H1099. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

The sympathetic nervous system modulates cardiac function by controlling key parameters such as chronotropy and inotropy. Sympathetic control of ventricular function occurs through extrinsic innervation arising from the stellate ganglia and thoracic sympathetic chain. In the healthy heart, sympathetic release of norepinephrine (NE) results in positive modulation of chronotropy, inotropy, and dromotropy, significantly increasing cardiac output. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00574.2019DOI Listing

Loss of dynamic regulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 by nitric oxide leads to cardiovascular dysfunction with aging.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 27;318(5):H1162-H1175. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Nitric oxide (NO) and -nitrosothiol (SNO) are considered cardio- and vasoprotective substances. We now understand that one mechanism in which NO/SNOs provide cardiovascular protection is through their direct inhibition of cardiac G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2 (GRK2) activity via -nitrosylation of GRK2 at cysteine 340 (C340). This maintains GPCR homeostasis, including β-adrenergic receptors, through curbing receptor GRK2-mediated desensitization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00094.2020DOI Listing
May 2020
3.838 Impact Factor

Macrophage galectin-3 enhances intimal translocation of vascular calcification in diabetes mellitus.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 27;318(5):H1068-H1079. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

The clinical risks and prognosis of diabetic vascular intimal calcification (VIC) and medial calcification (VMC) are different. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of VIC/VMC translocation. Anterior tibial arteries were collected from patients with diabetic foot amputation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00690.2019DOI Listing
May 2020
3.838 Impact Factor

Hemodynamic assessment of diastolic function for experimental models.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 27;318(5):H1139-H1158. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Traditionally, the evaluation of cardiac function has focused on systolic function; however, there is a growing appreciation for the contribution of diastolic function to overall cardiac health. Given the emerging interest in evaluating diastolic function in all models of heart failure, there is a need for sensitivity, accuracy, and precision in the hemodynamic assessment of diastolic function. Hemodynamics measure cardiac pressures in vivo, offering a direct assessment of diastolic function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00705.2019DOI Listing

Dysregulated micro-RNAs and long noncoding RNAs in cardiac development and pediatric heart failure.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 May 27;318(5):H1308-H1315. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.

Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are broadly described as RNA molecules that are not translated into protein. The investigation of dysregulated ncRNAs in human diseases such as cancer, neurological, and cardiovascular diseases has been under way for well over a decade. Micro-RNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the best characterized ncRNAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00511.2019DOI Listing