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    4862 results match your criteria American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology [Journal]

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    Inhibition of Ubiquitin-activating Enzyme Protects against Organ Injury after Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 17. Epub 2018 May 17.
    Center for Immunology and Inflammation, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, United States.
    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) occurs in various clinical settings, such as transplantation, acute mesenteric arterial occlusion, trauma and shock. I/R injury causes severe systemic inflammation, leading to multiple organ dysfunction associated with high mortality. The ubiquitin proteasome pathway has been indicated in the regulation of inflammation, particularly through NF-κB signaling pathway. Read More

    Induction of Gut Proteasome Activity in Hemorrhagic Shock and its Recovery by Treatment with Diphenyldihaloketones CLEFMA and EF24.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 10. Epub 2018 May 10.
    University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, United States.
    Background: Multi-organ failure in hemorrhagic shock is triggered by gut barrier dysfunction and consequent systemic infiltration of proinflammatory factors. Our previous study has shown that diphenyldihaloketone drugs CLEFMA and EF24 restore gut barrier dysfunction and reduce systemic inflammatory response in hemorrhagic shock.

    Aims: We investigated the effect of hemorrhagic shock on proteasome activity of intestinal epithelium and how CLEFMA and EF24 treatments modulate proteasome function in hemorrhagic shock. Read More

    Pharmacological decrease of liver stiffness is pressure-related and predicts long term clinical outcome.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 10. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Department of Medicine, Salem Medical Center and Center for Alcohol Research and Liver Disease, University of Heidelberg, Germany.
    Liver stiffness (LS) as measured by transient elastography is increasingly used to non-invasively assess liver fibrosis. However, LS is efficiently modulated by confounders like arterial and portal pressure (PP). We here study the effect of acute hemodynamic changes on LS (measured by µFibroscan) in a rodent model of cirrhosis in response to pharmacological modulation of PP by losartan, NO-donors and propranolol. Read More

    Increased TASK channel mediated currents underlie high fat diet-induced vagal afferent dysfunction.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 10. Epub 2018 May 10.
    G.I. Diseases Research Unit, Queen's University, Canada.
    We have previously demonstrated that satiety sensing vagal afferent neurons are less responsive to meal-related stimuli in obesity, due to reduced electrical excitability. As leak K+ currents are key determinants of membrane excitability, we hypothesized that leak K+ currents are increased in vagal afferents during obesity. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) was induced by feeding C57Bl/6J mice a high fat fed diet (60% energy from fat - HFF) for 8-10 weeks. Read More

    Filaggrin and tight junction proteins are crucial for IL-13-mediated esophageal barrier dysfunction.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 10. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine.
    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergy-mediated disease that is accompanied by IL-13 overexpression and an impaired esophageal barrier. Filaggrin (FLG) and tight junction (TJ) proteins are considered to contribute to epithelial barrier function. However, their functional involvement in EoE has not been elucidated. Read More

    Preventive Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Acustimulation on Ischemic Stroke-Induced Constipation Mediated via the Autonomic Pathway.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 10. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Johns Hopkins Center for Neurogastroenterology, United States.
    Aim: To explore the preventive effect and possible mechanisms of transcutaneous electrical acustimulation (TEA) on stroke-induced constipation.

    Methods: A total of 86 ischemic stroke patients were randomly allocated to 2-week TEA or sham-TEA group. Bowel dairy and Bristol Stool Form Scale were recorded daily. Read More

    Transcriptional factor pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1) is involved in age-related GIP hypersecretion in mice.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medcine, Japan.
    Fat accumulation with aging is a serious problem; glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin that plays an important role in fat accumulation. GIP receptor-knockout mice show reduced fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity associated with aging. Therefore, GIP is involved in fat accumulation and insulin resistance with aging. Read More

    Role of the blood coagulation cascade in hepatic fibrosis.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, United States.
    Liver is the primary source of numerous proteins critical for normal function of the blood coagulation cascade. Because of this, diseases of the liver, particularly when affiliated with severe complications like cirrhosis, are associated with abnormalities of blood clotting. Although conventional interpretation has inferred cirrhosis as a disorder of uniform bleeding risk, it is now increasingly appreciated as a disease wherein the coagulation cascade is precariously rebalanced. Read More

    Differential associations between plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose and intestinal expression of key genes involved in chylomicron metabolism.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Laval University, Canada.
    The mechanisms underlying the oversecretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-48-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) in insulin-resistance (IR) states in humans remain to be fully understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the plasma levels of insulin and glucose and the intestinal expression of key genes involved in chylomicron metabolism in a large sample of nondiabetic men displaying various degrees of IR. Duodenal biopsies were obtained by gastroduodenoscopy in 127 men free of intestinal disease. Read More

    The Muc2 mucin coats murine Paneth cell granules and facilitates their content release and dispersion.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Paneth cells are a key subset of secretory epithelial cells found at the base of small intestinal crypts. Unlike intestinal goblet cells, which secrete the mucin Muc2, Paneth cells are best known for producing an array of antimicrobial factors. We unexpectedly identified Muc2 staining localized around Paneth cell granules. Read More

    Ursodeoxycholic acid protects against intestinal barrier breakdown by promoting enterocyte migration via EGFR- and COX-2-dependent mechanisms.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, United States.
    The intestinal barrier is often disrupted in disease states, and intestinal barrier failure leads to sepsis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a bile acid that may protect the intestinal barrier. We hypothesized that UDCA would protect the intestinal epithelium in injury models. Read More

    An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, ITE induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and ameliorates experimental colitis.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    PMI, University of South Carolina, School of Medicine, United States.
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that affects millions of people with high morbidity and health-care cost. The precise etiology of IBD is unknown, but clear evidence suggests that intestinal inflammation is caused by an excessive immune response to mucosal antigens. Recent studies have shown that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppresses autoimmune diseases. Read More

    P21 activated kinase4 in pancreatic acini is activated by GI hormones /growth factors by novel signaling and is needed to stimulate secretory/growth cascades.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    National Institutes of Health,Niddk.ddb, United States.
    p21-activated kinases(PAKs) are highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases, which are divided into two groups:Group-I(PAKs1-3) and Group-II(PAKs4-6). In various tissues, Group-II PAKs play important roles in cytoskeletal dynamics, cell growth as well as neoplastic development/progression. However, little is known about Group-II PAKs role in a number of physiological events including their ability to be activated by gastrointestinal(GI) hormones/neurotransmitters/growth-factors(GFs). Read More

    Protective effect of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 against experimental necrotizing enterocolitis is mediated by Toll-like receptor 2.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Pediatrics-Gastroenterology, The Univeristy of Texas Health Science Center at Houston McGovern Medical School, United States.
    Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR 17938) has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). It is unclear if preventing NEC by LR 17938 is mediated by toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is known to mediate pro-inflammatory responses to bacterial cell wall components. NEC was induced in newborn TLR2-/- or WT mice by the combination of gavage-feeding cow milk-based formula and exposure to hypoxia and cold stress. Read More

    Role of Mitophagy Regulation by ROS in Hepatic Stellate Cells during Acute Liver Failure.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institution of Hepatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, China.
    Liver sinusoids serve as the first line of defence against extrahepatic stimuli from the intestinal tract. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are pericytes residing in the perisinusoidal space that integrate cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses in the sinusoids and relay these signals to the liver parenchyma. Oxidative stress has been shown to promote inflammation during acute liver failure (ALF). Read More

    Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) reduces intestinal vitamin C uptake: a role for NF-κB mediated signaling.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    UCI/VA Medical Center, United States.
    Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter-1 (SVCT-1) is the major transporter mediating intestinal vitamin C uptake. Intestinal inflammation and prolonged infection are associated with an increased serum and intestinal mucosa levels of TNF-α, which also exerts profound effects on intestinal absorption process. Elevated levels of TNF-α have been linked to the pathogenesis of IBD and malabsorption of nutrients and these patients have low levels of vitamin C. Read More

    Cytosolic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase as a Cataplerotic Pathway in the Small Intestine.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Center for Human Nutrition and Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, United States.
    Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a gluconeogenic enzyme that is highly expressed in liver and kidney, but is also expressed at lower levels in a variety of other tissues where it may play adjunct roles in fatty acid esterification, amino acid metabolism and/or TCA cycle function. PEPCK is expressed in the enterocytes of the small intestine, but it is unclear whether it supports a gluconeogenic rate sufficient to affect glucose homeostasis. To examine potential roles of intestinal PEPCK, we generated an intestinal PEPCK knockout mouse. Read More

    Epimorphin Regulates the Intestinal Stem Cell Niche via Effects on the Stromal Microenvironment.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Medicine/Gastroenterology, Washington University, United States.
    Stem cell therapy is a potential therapeutic approach for disorders characterized by intestinal injury or loss of functional surface area. Stem cell function and proliferation are mediated by the stem cell niche. Stromal cells such as intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) are important but poorly studied components of the stem cell niche. Read More

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 inhibits epithelial growth and proliferation in the rodent intestine.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Departments of Physiology and Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) is a binding protein that modulates the action of IGF-1, a growth factor whose presence is required for the intestinotrophic effects of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). GLP-2 is a gut hormone that utilizes both IGF-1 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) as intermediary factors to promote intestinal growth. Thus, to elucidate the mechanism through which IGFBP-4 regulates IGF-1 activity in the intestine, proliferation assays were conducted using rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells. Read More

    Complement Factor D protects mice from ethanol-induced inflammation and liver injury.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Pathobiology, Cleveland Clinic, Lerner Research Institute, United States.
    Complement plays a crucial role in microbial defense and clearance of apoptotic cells. Emerging evidence suggests complement is an important contributor to alcoholic liver disease. While C1q-dependent complement activation contributes to ethanol-induced liver injury, the role of the alternative pathway in ethanol-induced injury is unknown. Read More

    Novel transmitters in brainstem vagal neurocircuitry: new players on the pitch.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, United States.
    The last few decades have seen a major increase in the number of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides recognized as playing a role in brainstem neurocircuits, including those involved in homeostatic functions such as stress responsiveness, gastrointestinal (GI) motility, feeding, and/or arousal/wakefulness. This mini-review will focus on the known physiological role of three of these novel neuropeptides, i.e. Read More

    Protein fermentation in the gut; implications for intestinal dysfunction in humans, pigs and poultry.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Center for Molecular Medicine, UMC Utrecht, Netherlands.
    The amount of dietary protein is associated with intestinal disease in different vertebrate species. In humans, this is exemplified by the association between high protein intake and fermentation metabolite concentrations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In production animals, dietary protein intake is associated with post-weaning diarrhea in piglets and with the occurrence of wet litter in poultry. Read More

    Extracellular adenosine: a critical signal in liver fibrosis.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Internal Medicine, University of Arkansas, United States.
    Extracellular adenosine nucleoside is a potent, endogenous mediator that signals through specific G protein-coupled receptors, and exerts pleiotropic effects on liver physiology, in health and disease. Particularly, adenosinergic or adenosine-mediated signaling pathways impact the progression of hepatic fibrosis, a common feature of chronic liver diseases, through regulation of matrix deposition by liver myofibroblasts. This review examines the current lines of evidence on adenosinergic regulation of liver fibrosis and myofibroblasts, identifies unanswered research questions, and proposes important future areas of investigation. Read More

    Clostridium difficile Toxins A and B Decrease Intestinal SLC26A3 Protein Expression.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Medicine, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center/University of Illinois at Chicago, United States.
    Clostridium difficile infection is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States. While C. difficile toxins A and B are the primary mediators of CDI, the overall pathophysiology underlying C. Read More

    Role of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 in surgical inflammation and dysmotility in a mouse model of post-operative ileus.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Division of Pathological Sciences, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Japan.
    In this study, we investigated the role of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2), a nonselective cation channel abundantly expressed in inflammatory cells such as macrophages, in the development of post-operative ileus, a complication of abdominal surgery characterized by gastrointestinal dysmotility. In wild type mice, we found that intestinal manipulation, a maneuver that elicits symptoms typical of post-operative ileus, delays the transit of fluorescein-labeled dextran, promotes the infiltration of CD68 macrophages, Ly6B.2 neutrophils, and MPO cells into intestinal muscles, boosts expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, and CXCL2 in intestinal muscles and peritoneal macrophages, enhances phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPK in intestinal muscles, and amplifies IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, and CXCL2 expression in resident and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages following exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Read More

    Sigmoid colon mucosal gene expression supports alterations of neuronal signaling in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Vatche and Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, United States.
    Objective: Peripheral factors likely play a role in at least a subset of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Few studies have investigated mucosal gene expression using an unbiased approach. Here, we performed mucosal gene profiling in a sex-balanced sample to identify relevant signaling pathways and gene networks and compare to publicly available profiling data from additional cohorts. Read More

    The protective effects of guggulsterone against colitis are associated with the suppression of TREM-1 and modulation of macrophages.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Korea (South), Republic of.
    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1)-expressing intestinal macrophages are significantly increased in the colons of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We focused here on the effects of guggulsterone on macrophage modulation in colitis as a potential therapeutic molecule in human IBD and explore the underlying mechanisms. Gene expression in macrophages was examined and wound healing assay using HT-29 cells was performed. Read More

    Primary cilia disruption differentially affects the infiltrating and resident macrophage compartment in the liver.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States.
    Hepatorenal fibrocystic disease (HRFCD) is characterized by cysts in the kidney and liver with associated fibrosis and is the result of defects in proteins required for cilia function or assembly. Previous reports indicate that macrophages, mainly M2-like macrophages, contribute to HRFCD, although the origin (yolk-sac derived resident macrophages vs bone-marrow derived infiltrating macrophages) and contribution of these cells to the observed phenotypes is unknown. Herein, we utilize a congenital model of cilia dysfunction (IFT88) to study the importance of macrophages in HRFCD. Read More

    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, United States.
    In the event of an injury, normal tissues exit quiescent homeostasis and rapidly engage a complex stromal and immune program. These tissue repair responses are hijacked and become dysregulated in carcinogenesis to form a growth supportive tumor microenvironment. In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), which remains one of the deadliest major cancers, the microenvironment is a key driver of tumor maintenance that impedes many avenues of therapy. Read More

    Modulations in extracellular Calcium lead to H-ATPase dependent acid secretion: A clarification of PPI failure.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale School of Medicine, United States.
    The H,K-ATPase was identified as the primary proton secretory pathway in the gastric parietal cell and is the pharmacological target of agents suppressing acid secretion. Recently, we identified a second acid secretory protein expressed in the parietal cell; the vacuolar H-ATPase (V-type ATPase). The aim of the present study was to further characterize the H-ATPase activation by modulations in extracellular calcium via the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR). Read More

    The multiple faces of inflammatory enteric glial cells: is Crohn's disease a gliopathy?
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    IMAD, INSERM U1235, France.
    Gone are the days when enteric glial cells (EGC) were considered merely as satellites of enteric neurons. Like their brain counterpart astrocytes, EGC express an impressive number of receptors for neurotransmitters and intercellular messengers, thereby contributing to neuroprotection and to the regulation of neuronal activity. EGC also produce different soluble factors that regulate neighboring cells among which are intestinal epithelial cells. Read More

    Biliverdin Reductase and Bilirubin in Hepatic Disease.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 1. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Physiology & Pharmacology, University of Toledo Health Science Campus, United States.
    The buildup of fat in the liver (hepatic steatosis) is the first step in a series of incidents that may drive hepatic disease. Obesity is the leading cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in which hepatic steatosis progresses to liver disease. Chronic alcohol exposure also induces fat accumulation in the liver and shares numerous similarities to obesity-induced NAFLD. Read More

    The impact of short chain fatty acids on GLP-1 and PYY secretion from the isolated perfused rat colon.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 1. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The colonic epithelium harbors a large number of endocrine cells, but little is known about the endocrine functions of the colon. However, the high density of GLP-1 and PYY secreting L-cells is of great interest because of the potential anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of GLP-1 and PYY. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by local bacterial fermentation are suggested to activate the colonic free fatty acid receptors FFAR2 (GPR43) and FFAR3 (GPR41), stimulating the colonic L-cells. Read More

    Cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains are needed for insulin signaling and proliferation in hepatic cells.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Physiology and Biophysics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration is a well-coordinated process regulated by the activation of several growth factor receptors, including the insulin receptor (IR). The IR can be localized in part to cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains, but the role of such domains in insulin-mediated events in hepatocytes is not known. We investigated whether partitioning of IRs into cholesterol-enriched membrane rafts is important for the mitogenic effects of insulin in the hepatic cells. Read More

    Towards an Effective Peripheral Visceral Analgesic: Responding to the National Opioid Crisis.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, United States.
    This is an editorial summarizing recent new developments in visceral analgesics. This promising field is important as a new approach to address abdominal pain with peripheral visceral analgesics is considered a key approach to addressing the current opioid crisis. Some of the novel compounds address peripheral pain mechanisms through modulation of opioid receptors through biased ligands, nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide (NOP) receptor or dual action on NOP and μ-opioid receptor, buprenorphine and morphiceptin analogs. Read More

    Portal vein stenosis preconditioning of living donor liver in swine: early mechanisms of liver regeneration and gain of hepatic functional mass.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of General surgery and liver transplantation, AP-HM, La Timone Hospital, France.
    In order to reduce the morbidity and mortality risk for the donor in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), we previously identified 20% left portal vein (LPV) stenosis as the effective preconditioning to induce cell proliferation in the contralateral lobe without the downstream ipsilateral atrophy. We report, here, the pathways involved in the first hours after the preconditioning and investigate the changes in liver volume and function. Fourteen pigs entered this study. Read More

    The effect of Mono- and Diglycerides on the Digestion and Absorption of Lutein in Lymph Fistula Rats.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Global Discovery R&D, Abbott Nutrition.
    Breastmilk lutein is better absorbed by infants than lutein delivered in infant formula. Therefore, we wish to better understand the possible absorption differences of lutein in breast milk versus infant formula by determining its bioavailability after gastric administration and whether the intestinal absorption of lutein can be improved by using new delivery vehicles. STUDY ONE compared the intestinal uptake, and the lymphatic and portal transport of lutein in conscious lymph fistula rats. Read More

    cGAS-mediated autophagy protects the liver from ischemia/reperfusion injury independent of STING.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, United States.
    Liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs through induction of oxidative stress and release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including cytosolic DNA released from dysfunctional mitochondria or from the nucleus. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor known to trigger stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and downstream type1 interferon (IFN-I) pathways, which are pivotal innate immune system responses to pathogen. However, little is known about the role of cGAS/STING in liver I/R injury. Read More

    Developmental regulation of the intestinal FGF19 system in domestic pigs.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, University of Kiel; Lucta S.A., Germany.
    Fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) is an emerging endocrine factor involved in the regulation of bile acid homeostasis and energy metabolism in rodents and humans. In pigs, however, the FGF19 system remains largely unexplored. This study was designed to investigate the developmental regulation of the FGF19 system in domestic pigs. Read More

    VIP is involved in peripheral CRF-induced stimulation of propulsive colonic motor function and diarrhea in male rats.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 8;314(5):G610-G622. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center, Vatche and Tamar Manoukian Digestive Diseases Division, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, and Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, California.
    We investigated whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and/or prostaglandins contribute to peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced CRF receptor-mediated stimulation of colonic motor function and diarrhea in rats. The VIP antagonist, [4Cl-D-Phe, Leu]VIP injected intraperitoneally completely prevented CRF (10 µg/kg ip)-induced fecal output and diarrhea occurring within the first hour after injection, whereas pretreatment with the prostaglandins synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, had no effect. In submucosal plexus neurons, CRF induced significant c-Fos expression most prominently in the terminal ileum compared with duodenum and jejunum, whereas no c-Fos was observed in the proximal colon. Read More

    Organic solute transporter OSTα/β is overexpressed in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and modulated by drugs associated with liver injury.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 8;314(5):G597-G609. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
    The heteromeric steroid transporter organic solute transporter α/β (OSTα/β, SLC51A/B) was discovered over a decade ago, but its physiological significance in the liver remains uncertain. A major challenge has been the lack of suitable models expressing OSTα/β. Based on observations first reported here that hepatic OSTα/β is upregulated in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, the aim of this research was to develop an in vitro model to evaluate OSTα/β function and interaction with drugs and bile acids. Read More

    CC chemokine receptor 2 promotes recruitment of myeloid cells associated with insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Apr 8;314(4):G483-G493. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Unit and Centre for Liver Research, University of Birmingham , Birmingham , United Kingdom.
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease, closely associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We investigated the presence of a subset of myeloid cells associated with metabolic disturbance in the liver of patients with NAFLD and a murine model of obesity-induced liver disease. Gene and protein expression in liver and serum was investigated with RT-PCR or ELISA and correlated to clinical disease. Read More

    Transcription factor GATA6: a novel marker and putative inducer of ductal metaplasia in biliary atresia.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 1;314(5):G547-G558. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Pediatric Research Center, Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital , Helsinki , Finland.
    Biliary atresia (BA), a neonatal liver disease, is characterized by obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts with subsequent cholestasis, inflammation, and progressive liver fibrosis. To gain insights into the pathophysiology of BA, we focused attention on GATA6, a transcription factor implicated in biliary development. Early in fetal development GATA6 expression is evident in cholangiocytes and hepatocytes, but by late gestation it is extinguished in hepatocytes. Read More

    Acute high-fat diet upregulates glutamatergic signaling in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 25;314(5):G623-G634. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine , Hershey, Pennsylvania.
    Obesity is associated with dysregulation of vagal neurocircuits controlling gastric functions, including food intake and energy balance. In the short term, however, caloric intake is regulated homeostatically although the precise mechanisms responsible are unknown. The present study examined the effects of acute high-fat diet (HFD) on glutamatergic neurotransmission within central vagal neurocircuits and its effects on gastric motility. Read More

    A specific amino acid formula prevents alcoholic liver disease in rodents.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 May 25;314(5):G566-G582. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, Center for Study and Research on Obesity, University of Milan , Milan , Italy.
    Chronic alcohol consumption promotes mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, defective protein metabolism, and fat accumulation in hepatocytes (liver steatosis). Inadequate amino acid metabolism is worsened by protein malnutrition, frequently present in alcohol-consuming patients, with reduced circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Here we asked whether dietary supplementation with a specific amino acid mixture, enriched in BCAAs (BCAAem) and able to promote mitochondrial function in muscle of middle-aged rodents, would prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and liver steatosis in Wistar rats fed on a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol (EtOH)-containing liquid diet. Read More

    Visceral hypersensitivity induced by optogenetic activation of the amygdala in conscious rats.
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Mar 14;314(3):G448-G457. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center , Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
    In vivo optogenetics identifies brain circuits controlling behaviors in conscious animals by using light to alter neuronal function and offers a novel tool to study the brain-gut axis. Using adenoviral-mediated expression, we aimed to investigate whether photoactivation with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) or photoinhibition with halorhodopsin (HR3.0) of fibers originating from the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) at the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) had any effect on colonic sensitivity. Read More

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