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    5209 results match your criteria American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism[Journal]

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    Do skeletal muscle-secreted factors influence the function of pancreatic beta-cells?
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 5:ajpendo.00353.2017. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    University of Birmingham.
    Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ that secretes a variety of compounds including proteins (myokines), metabolites, microRNAs (miRNAs) and exosomes. Many of which are regulated by exercise and play important roles in endocrine signaling. Inter-organ communication via muscle-secreted factors therefore provides a novel area for investigation and implicates the importance of skeletal muscle in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Read More

    Increased body fat mass explains the positive association between circulating estradiol and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 5:ajpendo.00293.2017. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Laval University Medical Center
    The relationship between circulating estrogen levels and cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance is unclear in postmenopausal women. High estradiol (E2) levels have been reported to predict increased risk of type 2 diabetes in this population. We aimed to examine associations among estrogen levels, adiposity measurements and cardiometabolic risk variables including insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. Read More

    Perturbations of NAD salvage systems impact mitochondrial function and energy homeostasis in mouse myoblasts and intact skeletal muscle.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 5:ajpendo.00213.2017. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    University of Copenhagen
    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) can be synthesized by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). We aimed to determine the role of NAMPT for maintaining NAD+ levels, mitochondrial function, and metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells. We generated stable Nampt knockdown (shNampt KD) C2C12 cells using a shRNA lentiviral approach. Read More

    Effect of Chronic Liraglutide Therapy and its Withdrawal on Time to Post-challenge Peak Glucose in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 28:ajpendo.00374.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    University of Toronto
    Delayed timing of peak serum glucose following an oral glucose challenge can predict declining beta-cell function and worsening glucose tolerance over time. Accordingly, post-challenge peak glucose is typically delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, little is known about the capacity of anti-diabetic medications to reverse this delay. Read More

    Endotoxin initiated inflammation reduces testosterone production in men of reproductive age.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 28:ajpendo.00279.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    University Hospital Essen.
    Inflammation, both acute and chronic is associated with testosterone deficiency, raising the possibility of a direct causal link. One potential trigger for inflammation in obese men is the passage of intestinal bacteria into the circulation due to a breakdown in mucosal barrier integrity. Recently we hypothesized that this endotoxin exposure may cause androgen deficiency in obese men. Read More

    Low protein diet-induced hyperphagia and adiposity are modulated through interactions involving thermoregulation, motor activity, and protein quality in mice.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 14:ajpendo.00318.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    UMR PNCA, AgroParisTech, INRA, Université Paris-Saclay
    Low-protein (LP) containing diets can induce overeating in rodents and possibly in humans in an effort to meet protein requirement but the consequences on energy expenditure (EE) are unclear. The present study evaluated the changes induced by reducing dietary protein from 20% to 6%, using either soy protein or casein, on energy intake, body composition and EE in mice housed at 22°C or at 30°C (thermal-neutrality). LP feeding increased energy intake and adiposity, more in soy fed than in casein fed mice, but also increased EE thus limiting fat accumulation. Read More

    The Hepatokines Fetuin-A and Fetuin-B are up-regulated in the State of Hepatic Steatosis and may differently impact on Glucose Homeostasis in Humans.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 14:ajpendo.00262.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    University of Tübingen
    The liver is a central regulator of whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis and hepatokines, like fetuin-A, have been identified as markers and mediators of fatty liver-induced cardiometabolic risk. The closely related protein fetuin-B was shown to be up-regulated in the fatty liver and to impact on glucose homeostasis in mice. In the present study we aimed to test the relevance of these findings in humans. Read More

    Insulin Secretory Effect of Sitagliptin: Assessment with a Hyperglycemic Clamp Combined with a Meal Challenge.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 14:ajpendo.00238.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Merck & Co., Inc.
    Sitagliptin,a dipeptidylpeptidase-IVinhibitor(DPP-4),sustains activity of the incretin hormones GLP-1andGIP and improves hyperglycemia inT2DM.It has however proven challenging to quantify the effect of sitagliptin on rates of insulin secretion(ISR) during a prandial challenge.The tight feedback governance ofISR by plasma glucose means that in the face of treatment-related lowering of postprandialglycemia,corresponding stimulation ofISR is lessened. Read More

    Androgen signaling expands β-cell mass in male rats and β-cell androgen receptor is degraded under high-glucose conditions.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 14:ajpendo.00211.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Osaka Prefecture University.
    A deficient pancreatic β-cell mass increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we investigated the effects of testosterone on the development of pancreatic β-cell mass in male rats. The β-cell mass of male rats castrated at 6 weeks of age was reduced to ~30% of that of control rats at 16 weeks of age, and castration caused glucose intolerance. Read More

    Short-term Metformin and Exercise Training Effects on Strength, Aerobic Capacity, Glycemic Control, and Mitochondrial Function in Children with Burn Injury.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 14:ajpendo.00194.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Shriners Hospitals/U of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX.
    Severely burned children experience a chronic state of sympathetic nervous system activation that is associated with hypermetabolic/cardiac stress and muscle wasting. Metformin, a diabetes medication, helps control hyperglycemia in diabetic populations, and exercise has been shown to improve exercise strength and aerobic exercise capacity after severe burns. However, whether exercise improves glycemic control in burned children and whether combining exercise and metformin improves outcomes to a greater degree than exercise alone is unknown. Read More

    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 14:ajpendo.00119.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
    Introduction: Involvement of endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) in obesity is well-characterized. However, information regarding eCB physiology in obesity associated with pregnancy is sparse.

    Methods: From at least 9 months before conception, non-pregnant baboons (Papio spp. Read More

    Modelling insulin resistance in rodents by alterations in diet. What have "high fat" and high calorie diets revealed?
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 7:ajpendo.00337.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    University of Sydney
    For over half a century, researchers have been feeding different diets to rodents to examine the effects of macronutrients on whole body and tissue insulin action. During this period, the number of different diets and the source of macronutrients employed has grown dramatically. Due to the large heterogeneity in both the source and percentage of different macronutrients used for studies, it is not surprising that different high calorie diets do not produce the same changes in insulin action. Read More

    Exercise training reduces intrahepatic lipid in people with and people without non-alcoholic fatty liver.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 7:ajpendo.00266.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Maastricht University Medical Center
    Exercise training reduces intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content in people with elevated liver fat content. It is unclear, however, whether exercise training reduces IHL content in people with normal liver fat content. Here, we measured the effect of exercise training on IHL content in people with and people without non-alcohol fatty liver. Read More

    Restricting glycolysis impairs brown adipocyte glucose and oxygen consumption.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 7:ajpendo.00218.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    University of Copenhagen
    During thermogenic activation, brown adipocytes take up large amounts of glucose. In addition, cold stimulation leads to an upregulation of glycolytic enzymes. Here we have investigated the importance of glycolysis for brown adipocyte glucose consumption and thermogenesis. Read More

    Effects and Mechanisms of Caffeine to Improve Immunologic and Metabolic Abnormalities in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 7:ajpendo.00094.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    National Yang-Ming University School, Cheng Hsin General Hospital.
    In obesity, there are no effective therapies for parallel immune and metabolic abnormalities including systemic/tissue insulin-resistance/inflammation, adiposity and hepatic steatosis. Caffeine has anti-inflammation, anti-hepatic steatosis and anti-insulin-resistance effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects and molecular mechanisms of 6-week of caffeine treatment (HFD-caf) on immunologic and metabolic abnormalities of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Read More

    Curcumin and other dietary polyphenols: potential mechanisms of metabolic actions and therapy for diabetes and obesity.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 31:ajpendo.00285.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Mount Sinai Hospital
    Recent controversy regarding the therapeutic potential of curcumin indicate the challenges to research in this field. Here, we highlight the investigations of curcumin and other plant-derived polyphenols that demonstrate their application to metabolic diseases, in particular obesity and diabetes. Thus a number of preclinical and clinical investigations have shown the beneficial effect of curcumin (and other dietary polyphenols) in attenuating body weight gain, improving insulin sensitivity and preventing diabetes development in rodent models and pre-diabetic subjects. Read More

    mTORC1/rpS6 regulates blood-testis barrier (BTB) dynamics and spermatogenetic function in the testis in vivo.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 31:ajpendo.00263.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Population Council
    The blood-testis barrier (BTB), conferred by Sertoli cells in the mammalian testis, is an important ultrastructure that supports spermatogenesis. Studies using animal models have shown that a disruption of the BTB leads to meiotic arrest, causing defects in spermatogenesis and male infertility. In order to better understand the regulation of BTB dynamics, we report findings herein to understand the role of rpS6 (ribosomal protein S6), a downstream signaling protein of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1), in promoting BTB disruption in the testis in vivo, making the barrier "leaky". Read More

    The effects of periconceptional maternal alcohol intake and a postnatal high-fat diet on obesity and liver disease in male and female rat offspring.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 31:ajpendo.00251.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    The Univeristy of Queensland
    The effects of maternal alcohol consumption around the time of conception on offspring are largely unknown and difficult to determine in a human population. This study utilized a rodent model to examine if periconceptional alcohol (PC:EtOH), alone or in combination with a postnatal high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in obesity and liver dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or ethanol-containing liquid diet (12. Read More

    iBAT sympathetic innervation is not required for body weight loss induced by central leptin delivery.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 31:ajpendo.00219.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    University of Florida
    We evaluated the contribution of brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathetic innervation on central leptin mediated weight loss. In a short and long-term study, F344BN rats submitted to either a denervation of interscapular BAT (Denervated) or a sham operation (Sham). Animals from each group received Ob (Leptin) or GFP (Control) gene through a single injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus delivered centrally. Read More

    Electrical pulse stimulation induces GLUT4 glucose transporter translocation in C2C12 myotubes that depends on Rab8A, Rab13 and Rab14.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 31:ajpendo.00103.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Tianjin Medical University
    The signals mobilizing GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in response to muscle contraction are less known than those elicited by insulin. This disparity is undoubtedly due to lack of suitable in vitro models to study skeletal muscle contraction. We generated C2C12 myotubes stably expressing HA-tagged GLUT4 (C2C12-GLUT4HA) that contract in response to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) and investigated molecular mechanisms regulating GLUT4HA EPS (60min, 20V, 1Hz, 24ms pulses at 976ms intervals) elicited a gain in surface GLUT4HA (GLUT4 translocation) comparably to insulin or 5-amino imidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR). Read More

    Angiotensin 1-7 stimulates brown adipose tissue and reduces diet-induced obesity.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 24:ajpendo.00192.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine.
    The renin-angiotensin system is a key regulator of metabolism with beneficial effects of the angiotensin 1-7 peptide. We hypothesized that the anti-obesity effect of Ang 1-7 is related to the stimulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). We administered Ang 1-7 (0. Read More

    Genetic ablation of Cyp8b1 preserves host metabolic function by repressing steatohepatitis and altering gut microbiota composition.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 24:ajpendo.00172.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    University of British Columbia.
    Both, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are associated with a reduced hepatic mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Cholic acid (CA) is the predominant 12α-hydroxylated bile acid that regulates hepatic lipid metabolism and its circulating levels are negatively correlated with insulin resistance. Abolishing CA synthesis via the genetic disruption of the enzyme sterol 12α-hydroxylase (Cyp8b1-/-) leads to a resistance from diabetes and hepatic steatosis. Read More

    Inactivation of SPAK kinase reduces body weight gain in mice fed a High-fat diet by improving energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 24:ajpendo.00108.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Escuela de Medicina y de Ciencias de la Salud
    The STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) controls the activity of the electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters (SLC12 family) and thus physiological processes such as modulation of cell volume, intracellular chloride concentration [Cl-]i and transepithelial salt transport. Modulation of SPAK kinase activity may have an impact on hypertension and obesity as STK39, the gene encoding SPAK has been suggested as a hypertension and obesity susceptibility gene. In fact, the absence of SPAK activity in mice in which the activating threonine in the T-loop was substituted by alanine (SPAK-KI mice) is associated with decreased blood pressure; however its consequences in metabolism have not been explored. Read More

    Free fatty acid flux measured using [1-11C]palmitate positron emission tomography and [U-13C]palmitate in humans.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 18:ajpendo.00284.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Mayo Clinic
    PET radiopharmaceuticals can non-invasively measure free fatty acid (FFA) tissue uptake. Investigators often use PET scan-derived data to calculate FFA flux. We tested whether the [1-11C]palmitate PET measures of palmitate flux provide results equivalent to a continuous infusion of [U-13C]palmitate. Read More

    Glucose Uptake Inhibition Decreases Expressions of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B Ligand (RANKL) and Osteocalcin in Osteocytic MLO-Y4-A2 Cells.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 10:ajpendo.00159.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Shimane University Faculty of Medicine.
    Bone and glucose metabolism are closely associated with each other. Both osteoblast and osteoclast functions are important for the action of osteocalcin, which plays pivotal roles as an endocrine hormone regulating glucose metabolism. However, it is unknown whether osteocytes are involved in the interaction between bone and glucose metabolism. Read More

    Validation of the doubly labeled water method using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy and isotope ratio mass spectrometry.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 3:ajpendo.00241.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Los Gatos Research/ABB.
    When the doubly-labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), isotope measurements are typically performed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). New technologies, such as off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) provide comparable isotopic measurements of standard waters and human urine samples, but the accuracy of carbon dioxide production (VCO2) determined with OA-ICOS has not been demonstrated. We compared simultaneous measurement of VCO2 obtained using whole-room indirect calorimetry (IC) with DLW-based measurements from IRMS and OA-ICOS. Read More

    Subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue is responsive to, but dispensable for, the metabolic health benefits of exercise.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 3:ajpendo.00226.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    University of Guelph
    Exercise training has robust effects on subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), characterized by a shift to a brown adipose tissue (BAT) like phenotype. Consistent with this, transplantation of exercise-trained iWAT into sedentary rodents activates thermogenesis and improves glucose homeostasis, suggesting that iWAT metabolism may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. However, it is yet to be determined if adaptations in iWAT are necessary for the beneficial systemic effects of exercise. Read More

    Disruption of glucagon receptor signaling causes hyperaminoacidemia exposing a possible liver - alpha-cell axis.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 3:ajpendo.00198.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    University of Copenhagen
    Glucagon secreted from the pancreatic alpha-cells is essential for regulation of blood glucose levels. However, glucagon may play an equally important role in the regulation of amino acid metabolism by promoting ureagenesis. We hypothesized that disruption of glucagon receptor signaling would lead to an increased plasma concentration of amino acids, which in a feedback manner stimulates the secretion of glucagon, eventually associated with compensatory proliferation of the pancreatic alpha-cells. Read More

    Intramuscular triglyceride synthesis - importance in partitioning muscle lipids in humans.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Oct 3:ajpendo.00142.2017. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    University of Colorado Health Sciences.
    Intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) concentration is elevated in insulin resistant individuals, and was once thought to promote insulin resistance. However, endurance trained athletes have equivalent concentration of IMTG compared to individuals with type 2 diabetes, and have very low risk of diabetes, termed the "athlete's paradox". We now know that IMTG synthesis is positively related to insulin sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms for this are unclear. Read More

    Effects of meal ingestion on intramyocellular ceramide concentrations and fractional de novo synthesis in humans.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 26:ajpendo.00153.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Mayo Clinic
    We investigated the effects of meal ingestion on intramyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) ceramide metabolism in volunteers ranging from lean to obese. Thirty-eight women and men underwent a steady-state meal ingestion protocol that included a 6.5 h infusion of [U-13C] palmitate and muscle biopsies 1. Read More

    Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Ameliorates Hypertension and Hyperglycemia in a model of Cushing's Syndrome.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 19:ajpendo.00267.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Kyungpook National University
    Cushing's syndrome (CS) caused by hypercortisolism is occasionally accompanied by metabolic disorders such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia and central obesity. Thus, morbidity and mortality, observed in cardiovascular disease, are elevated in patients with CS. We hypothesized that HDAC inhibition (HDACi) decreased transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which ameliorates hypertension and hyperglycemia in patients with CS. Read More

    Testosterone Protects High Fat/Low Carbohydrate Diet Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Castrated Male Rats Mainly via Modulating ER Stress.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 19:ajpendo.00124.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Harbor-UCLA Medical Center and Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute
    We previously showed that testosterone (T) deficiency enhanced high-fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in rats that was independent of insulin resistance, and that T replacement reduced hepatic macrovesicular fat accumulation and inflammation. The present report explores the mechanism of T-protective effects on HFD-induced steatohepatitis. Adult male rats were randomized into four treatment groups for 15 weeks (intact rats on regular chow diet or HFD, and castrated rats on HFD with/without T replacement). Read More

    REDD1 induction regulates the skeletal muscle gene expression signature following acute aerobic exercise.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 12;313(6):E737-E747. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, Orlando, Florida.
    The metabolic stress placed on skeletal muscle by aerobic exercise promotes acute and long-term health benefits in part through changes in gene expression. However, the transducers that mediate altered gene expression signatures have not been completely elucidated. Regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) is a stress-induced protein whose expression is transiently increased in skeletal muscle following acute aerobic exercise. Read More

    High Fat, High Fructose, High Cholesterol Feeding Causes Severe NASH and Cecal Microbiota Dysbiosis in Juvenile Ossabaw Swine.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 12:ajpendo.00015.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Truman VA and University of Missouri
    Pediatric obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are on the rise in industrialized countries, yet our ability to mechanistically examine this relationship is limited by the lack of a suitable higher animal model. Here, we examined the effects of high fat, high fructose corn syrup, high cholesterol Western style diet (WD)-induced obesity on NASH and cecal microbiota dysbiosis in juvenile Ossabaw swine. Juvenile female Ossabaw swine (5 weeks old) were fed WD (43. Read More

    Postchallenge hyperglycemia in subjects with low body weight: implication for small glucose volume.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 5;313(6):E748-E756. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Diabetes Center, Aizawa Hospital, Matsumoto City, Nagano, Japan.
    A hypothesis that postchallenge hyperglycemia in subjects with low body weight (BW) may be due, in part, to small glucose volume (GV) was tested. We studied 11,411 nondiabetic subjects with a mean BW of 63.3 kg; 5,282 of them were followed for a mean of 5. Read More

    Soluble interleukin-13rα1: a circulating regulator of glucose.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 5;313(6):E663-E671. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts;
    Soluble IL-13 receptor-α1, or sIL13rα1, is a soluble protein that binds to interleukin-13 (IL-13) that has been previously described in mice. The function of sIL13rα1 remains unclear, but it has been hypothesized to act as a decoy receptor for IL-13. Recent studies have identified a role for IL-13 in glucose metabolism, suggesting that a decoy receptor for IL-13 might increase circulating glucose levels. Read More

    Reduced obesity, diabetes and steatosis upon cinnamon and grape pomace are associated with changes in gut microbiota and markers of gut barrier.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 5:ajpendo.00107.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Université catholique de Louvain
    Increasing evidence suggests that polyphenols have a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to assess the metabolic outcomes of two polyphenol-containing extracts from cinnamon bark (CBE) and grape pomace (GPE) on C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Both CBE and GPE were able to decrease fat mass gain and adipose tissue inflammation in mice fed a HFD without reducing food intake. Read More

    Impact of β-adrenergic signaling in PGC-1α-mediated adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 5:ajpendo.00082.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    University of Copenhagen
    PGC-1α has been suggested to regulate exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations and autophagy in skeletal muscle. The factors regulating PGC-1α are however not fully resolved. The aim was to investigate the impact of β-adrenergic signaling in PGC-1α mediated metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle with exercise training. Read More

    Cholesterol metabolism and Cx43, Cx46, Cx50 gap junction protein expression and localisation in normal and diabetic and obese ob/ob and db/db mouse testes.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 29:ajpendo.00215.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Universite de Montreal.
    Decreased fertility and birth rates are afflictions arising from metabolic disorders. This study assesses cholesterol metabolism and Cx46, Cx50, Cx43 expression in interstitium- and seminiferous tubule-enriched fractions of leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice, two type 2 diabetes and obesity models associated with infertility. Testosterone decreased, glucose, free and esterified cholesterol increased in serum whereas in interstitium, free and esterified cholesterol decreased in ob/ob and db/db. Read More

    Short-term changes in diet composition do not affect in vivo hepatic protein synthesis in rats.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 29:ajpendo.00209.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Colorado State University
    Protein synthesis is critical to protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and modifications in protein synthesis influence lifespan and the development of co-morbidities associated with obesity. In the present study, we examined the acute response of liver protein synthesis to either high fat or high sucrose diets in order to elucidate nutrient-mediated regulation of hepatic protein synthesis in the absence of body fat accumulation. Total and endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein synthesis were assessed by use of the stable isotope, deuterium oxide (2H2O), in rats provided a control diet or diets enriched in polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, or sucrose for 2, 4, or 7 days. Read More

    Oleate activates SREBP-1 signaling activity in SCD1-deficient hepatocytes.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 29;313(6):E710-E720. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    BioMed Research Center, Biological Sciences Department, University of Quebec in Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada;
    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is a key player in lipid metabolism. SCD1 catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). MUFA are then incorporated into triacylglycerols and phospholipids. Read More

    Cardiac overexpression of perilipin 2 induces dynamic steatosis: prevention by hormone-sensitive lipase.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 29;313(6):E699-E709. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Third Department of Internal Medicine, University of Fukui, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui, Japan.
    Cardiac intracellular lipid accumulation (steatosis) is a pathophysiological phenomenon observed in starvation and diabetes mellitus. Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) is a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein expressed in nonadipose tissues, including the heart. To explore the pathophysiological function of myocardial PLIN2, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice by cardiac-specific overexpression of PLIN2. Read More

    Brown adipose tissue activation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 29;313(6):E731-E736. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of Human Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China;
    Loss of body weight and fat mass is one of the nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Weight loss is due primarily to reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure. Whereas inadequate energy intake in PD patients is caused mainly by appetite loss and impaired gastrointestinal absorption, the underlying mechanisms for increased energy expenditure remain largely unknown. Read More

    Anesthesia and bariatric surgery gut preparation alter plasma acylcarnitines reflective of mitochondrial fat and branched-chain amino acid oxidation.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 22;313(6):E690-E698. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, Arkansas;
    The period around bariatric surgery offers a unique opportunity to characterize metabolism responses to dynamic shifts in energy, gut function, and anesthesia. We analyzed plasma acylcarnitines in obese women (n = 17) sampled in the overnight fasted/postabsorptive state approximately 1-2 wk before surgery (condition A), the morning of surgery (prior restriction to a 48-h clear liquid diet coupled in some cases a standard polyethylene glycol gut evacuation: condition B), and following induction of anesthesia (condition C). Comparisons tested if 1) plasma acylcarnitine derivatives reflective of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and xenometabolism would be significantly increased and decreased, respectively, by preoperative gut preparation/negative energy balance (condition A vs. Read More

    A novel D2O tracer method to quantify RNA turnover as a biomarker of de novo ribosomal biogenesis, in vitro, in animal models, and in human skeletal muscle.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 15;313(6):E681-E689. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Medical Research Council-Arthritis Research UK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, Derby, United Kingdom;
    Current methods to quantify in vivo RNA dynamics are limited. Here, we developed a novel stable isotope (D2O) methodology to quantify RNA synthesis (i.e. Read More

    Circulating soluble RAGE isoforms are attenuated in obese, impaired-glucose-tolerant individuals and are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 15;313(6):E631-E640. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois;
    The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) may be protective against inflammation associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of sRAGE isoforms and whether sRAGE isoforms are associated with risk of T2DM development in subjects spanning the glucose tolerance continuum. In this retrospective analysis, circulating total sRAGE and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) were quantified via ELISA, and cleaved RAGE (cRAGE) was calculated in 274 individuals stratified by glucose tolerance status (GTS) and obesity. Read More

    Dihydrocapsiate improved age-associated impairments in mice by increasing energy expenditure.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 15;313(5):E586-E597. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Frontier Research Laboratories, Institute for Innovation, Ajinomoto Company, Incorporated, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Metabolic dysfunction is associated with aging and results in age-associated chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Hence, there has been a focus on increasing energy expenditure in aged populations to protect them from age-associated diseases. Dihydrocapsiate (DCT) is a compound that belongs to the capsinoid family. Read More

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor in the ventromedial hypothalamus reduces short-term food intake in male mice by regulating nutrient sensor activity.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 15;313(6):E651-E662. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Integrative Metabolism Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute at Lake Nona, Orlando, Florida.
    Pharmacological activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reduces food intake. Here, we assessed whether suppression of food intake by GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) in this region is dependent on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We found that pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis, and thus activation of AMPK, in the VMH attenuates the anorectic effect of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), indicating that glucose metabolism and inhibition of AMPK are both required for this effect. Read More

    Dapagliflozin slows the progression of the renal and liver fibrosis associated with type 2 diabetes.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 15;313(5):E563-E576. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah;
    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic oral agents indicating promising effects on cardiovascular and renal end points. However, the renoprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors are not fully understood. Also, metabolic effects of SGLT2 inhibition on other organ systems, such as effects on hepatic steatosis, are not fully understood. Read More

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