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    5274 results match your criteria American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism[Journal]

    1 OF 106

    Chromosomal architecture and placental expression of the human growth hormone gene family are targeted by pre-pregnancy maternal obesity.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Physiology & Pathophysiology, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    The human (h) placental lactogenic hormone chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) is highly produced during pregnancy and acts as a metabolic adaptor in response to maternal insulin resistance. Maternal obesity can exacerbate this "resistance" and a >75% decrease in CS RNA levels was observed in term placentas from obese versus lean women. The genes coding for hCS (hCS-A and hCS-B) and placental growth hormone (hGH-V) as well as the hCS-L pseudogene and pituitary growth hormone (GH) gene (hGH-N) are located at a single locus on chromosome 17. Read More

    Transgenic overexpression of CTRP3 prevents alcohol-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Health Sciences, East Tennessee State University, United States.
    This study tested the ability of a novel adipose tissue derived cytokine, C1q TNF Related Protein 3 (CTRP3), to prevent alcohol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, or alcoholic fatty liver disease (ALD). Previous work has demonstrated that CTRP3 is effective at preventing high fat diet-induced fatty liver, however, the potential of CTRP3 to inhibit ALD has not been explored. To test the potential protective effects of CTRP3, transgenic mice overexpressing CTRP3 (Tg) or wildtype littermates (WT) were subjected to one of two different models of ALD. Read More

    Oral Glucose Challenge Impairs Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Blood Flow in Healthy People.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Deakin University, Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Australia.
    Skeletal muscle microvascular (capillary) blood flow increases in the post-prandial state or during insulin infusion due to dilation of pre-capillary arterioles to augment glucose disposal. This effect occurs independent of changes in large artery function. However, acute hyperglycemia impairs vascular function, causes insulin to vasoconstrict pre-capillary arterioles, and causes muscle insulin resistance in vivo. Read More

    Acetyl-CoA from Inflammation-Induced Fatty Acids Oxidation Promotes Hepatic Malate-Aspartate Shuttle Activity and Glycolysis.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, China.
    Hepatic metabolic syndrome is associated with inflammation, as it stimulates the reprogramming of nutrient metabolism and hepatic mitochondria-generated acetyl-CoA. But how acetyl-CoA affects the reprogramming of nutrient metabolism, especially glucose and fatty acids, in the condition of inflammation is still unclear. Here, we used an acute inflammation model in which pigs were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and found that hepatic glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation are both promoted. Read More

    IL6 and LIF mRNA expression in skeletal muscle is regulated by AMPK and the transcription factors NFYC, ZBTB14 and SP1.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    AMPK controls glucose- and lipid- metabolism and modulates inflammatory responses to maintain metabolic and inflammatory homeostasis during low cellular energy levels. The AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) interferes with inflammatory pathways in skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms are undefined. We hypothesized that AMPK activation reduces cytokine mRNA levels by blocking transcription through one or several transcription factors. Read More

    SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis of the livers of spontaneous obese and diabetic rhesus monkeys.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Kunming Institute of Zoology, China.
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a severely metabolic disorder that affects above 10% worldwide population. Obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance and contributes to the development of T2DM. Liver is an essential metabolic organ that plays crucial roles in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. Read More

    A mathematical analysis of adaptations to the metabolic fate of fructose in essential fructosuria subjects.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Internal Medicine Research Unit, Pfizer, Inc.
    Fructose is a major component of Western diets and is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In response to an oral challenge, the majority of fructose is cleared during "first-pass" liver metabolism, primarily via phosphorylation by ketohexokinase (KHK). A rare benign genetic deficiency in KHK, called essential fructosuria (EF), leads to altered fructose metabolism. Read More

    Knockout of glucose transporter GLUT6 has minimal effects on whole-body metabolic physiology in mice.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Glucose transporter 6 (GLUT6) is a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family. GLUT6 is up-regulated in several cancers, but is not widely expressed in normal tissues. Previous studies have shown that GLUT6 knockdown kills endometrial cancer cells that express elevated levels of the protein. Read More

    Plasma fatty acid ethanolamides are associated with postprandial triglycerides, ApoCIII and ApoE in humans consuming high fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverage.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    University of California, Riverside, School of Medicine, United States.
    Epidemiological and clinical research studies have provided ample evidence demonstrating that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) increases risk factors involved in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our previous study demonstrated that when compared to aspartame (Asp), two weeks of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverages provided at 25% of daily energy requirement (Ereq) was associated with increased body weight, postprandial (pp) triglycerides (TG), and fasting and pp CVD risk factors in young adults. The fatty acid ethanolamide, anandamide (AEA), and the monoacylglycerol, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG), are two primary endocannabinoids (ECs) that play a role in regulating food intake, increasing adipose storage, and regulating lipid metabolism. Read More

    Pioglitazone improves hepatic mitochondrial function in a mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Animal & Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, United States.
    Pioglitazone is effective in improving insulin resistance and liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Because dysfunctional mitochondrial metabolism is a central feature of NASH, we hypothesized that an important target of pioglitazone would be alleviating mitochondrial oxidative dysfunction. To this end, we studied hepatic mitochondrial metabolism in mice fed high-fructose high trans-fat diet (TFD) supplemented with pioglitazone for 20 weeks, using nuclear magnetic resonance based C-isotopomer analysis. Read More

    NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT3 in adipocytes is dispensable for maintaining normal adipose tissue mitochondrial function and whole-body metabolism.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, United States.
    Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue is involved in the pathophysiology of obesity-induced systemic metabolic complications, such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. However, the mechanisms responsible for obesity-induced adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction are not clear. The aim of present study was to test the hypothesis that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase SIRT3 in adipocytes plays a critical role in adipose tissue mitochondrial biology and obesity. Read More

    HDAC3 inhibition in diabetic mice may activate Nrf2 preventing diabetes-induced liver damage and FGF21 synthesis and secretion leading to aortic protection.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    University of Louisville, Department of Pediatrics, United States.
    Vascular complications are common pathologies associated with type 1 diabetes. In recent years, histone deacetylation enzyme (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to be successful in preventing atherosclerosis. To investigate the mechanism for HDAC3 inhibition in preventing diabetic aortic pathologies, male OVE26 type 1 diabetic mice and age-matched wild-type (FVB) mice were given the HDAC3 specific inhibitor RGFP966 or vehicle for three months. Read More

    Cysteine and Glycine-Rich Protein 3 Regulates Glucose Homeostasis in Skeletal Muscle.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, United States.
    Skeletal muscle is the major site of postprandial peripheral glucose uptake but in obesity-induced insulin resistant states insulin-stimulated glucose disposal is markedly impaired. Despite the importance of skeletal muscle in regulating glucose homeostasis, the specific transcriptional changes associated with insulin sensitive vs. resistant states in muscle remain to be fully elucidated. Read More

    The role of the saturated fatty acid palmitate in the interconnected hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis and biological rhythms.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Department of Physiology/Division of Cell & Molecular Biology, University of Toronto, Canada.
    The brain, specifically the hypothalamus, controls whole body energy and glucose homeostasis through neurons that synthesize specific neuropeptides, whereas hypothalamic dysfunction is linked directly to insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrient excess, through over-consumption of a Western or high fat diet, exposes the hypothalamus to high levels of free fatty acids, which induces neuroinflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and dysregulation of neuropeptide synthesis. Further, exposure to a high fat diet also disrupts normal circadian rhythms, and conversely, clock gene knockout models have symptoms of metabolic disorders. Read More

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist in premenopausal women does not alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to corticotropin-releasing hormone.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Colorado - Anschutz Medical Campus, United States.
    Context: Sex hormones appear to play a role in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Objective/Outcome Measures. The objective was to isolate the effects of estradiol (E) on central activation of the HPA axis. Read More

    The insulin receptor is expressed and functional in cultured blood-brain barrier endothelial cells, but does not mediate insulin entry from blood-to-brain.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 27. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, Denmark.
    Insulin and its receptor are known to be present and functional in the brain. Insulin cerebrospinal fluid concentrations have been shown to correlate with plasma levels of insulin in a non-linear fashion, indicative of a saturable transport pathway from the blood to the brain interstitial fluid. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether insulin was transported across brain endothelial cells in vitro via an insulin receptor-dependent pathway. Read More

    Protectin DX attenuates LPS-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes via AMPK-mediated suppression of the NFκB pathway.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 27. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Korea (South), Republic of.
    Several studies have demonstrated that protectins, which are ω-3 fatty acid-derived proresolution mediators, may ameliorate inflammation. Recently, protectin DX (PDX) was also reported to attenuate inflammation and insulin resistance in several cell types. However, the effects of PDX on inflammation in adipocytes remain unclear. Read More

    Low dose brain estrogen prevents menopausal syndrome while maintaining the diversity of the gut microbiomes in estrogen-deficient rats.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 20. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Hoseo University.
    We evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular administration(ICV) of brain estrogen and progesterone on menopausal symptoms and their effects on the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone(LH) in estrogen-deficient rats. Three weeks after ovariectomy(OVX) or Sham-operation, OVX rats were given ICV infusions of either 17β-estradiol(4 μg/day; ICV-E), progesterone(0.8 μg/day; ICV-P), or vehicle(control) for 4 weeks. Read More

    Dose-dependent quantitative effects of acute fructose administration on hepatic de novo lipogenesis in healthy humans.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 20. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    UCSF, United States.
    Fructose feeding increases hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Little is known, however, about individual variation in susceptibility to fructose stimulation of DNL. In this three-period, cross-over study, seventeen healthy male subjects were enrolled to evaluate the within and between subject variability of acute fructose feeding on hepatic fractional DNL. Read More

    Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Does Not Directly Influence Skeletal Muscle Cell Proliferation and Differentiation or Ex Vivo Muscle Contractility.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 20. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Department of Basic Medical Science, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, United States.
    Skeletal muscle dysfunction accompanies the clinical disorders of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets. In both disorders fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone regulating phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, becomes chronically elevated. FGF23 has been shown to play a direct role in cardiac muscle dysfunction; however, it is unknown whether FGF23 signaling can also directly induce skeletal muscle dysfunction. Read More

    Myeloid-specific Acat1 ablation attenuates inflammatory responses in macrophages, improves insulin sensitivity, and suppresses diet-induced obesity.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, United States.
    Macrophages are phagocytes that play important roles in health and diseases. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 [ACAT1] converts cellular cholesterol to cholesteryl esters, and is expressed in many cell types. Unlike global Acat1 knockout [KO], myeloid-specific Acat1 KO [Acat1] does not cause overt abnormalities in mice. Read More

    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Medicine, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Australia.
    Recent studies indicate that SIRT1, an important metabolic sensor and regulator of lifespan, plays a mechanistic role in maternal obesity-induced programming of metabolic disorders in the offspring. In this study we investigate whether SIRT1 activation in early childhood can mitigate metabolic disorders due to maternal and postnatal high-fat feeding in mice. Male offspring born to chow-fed (MC) or high-fat diet-fed dams (MHF) were weaned onto postnatal chow or high-fat diet and treated with SRT1720 (SRT, 25mg/kg/2days i. Read More

    β-actin shows limited mobility and is only required for supraphysiological insulin-stimulated glucose transport in young adult soleus muscle.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Studies in skeletal muscle cell cultures suggest that the cortical actin cytoskeleton is a major requirement for insulin-stimulated glucose transport, implicating the β-actin isoform which, in many cell types, is the main actin isoform. However, it is not clear that β-actin plays such a role in mature skeletal muscle. Neither dependency of glucose transport on β-actin nor actin reorganization upon glucose transport have been tested in mature muscle. Read More

    Intragastric nutrient infusion reduces motivation for food in male and female rats.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Psychology & Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, United States.
    The idea that gut-derived satiation signals influence food reward has recently gained traction, but this hypothesis is largely based on studies focused on neural circuitry, not the peripherally released signals. Here, we directly tested the hypothesis that intragastric (IG) nutrient infusion can suppress motivation for food. In a series of experiments, IG sucrose infusion (15 kcal) significantly and reliably reduced operant responding for a sucrose reward on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Read More

    Quantifying ceramide kinetics in vivo using stable isotope tracers and LC-MS/MS.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Merck & Co., Inc., United States.
    Numerous studies have implicated dyslipidemia as a key factor in mediating insulin resistance. Ceramides have received special attention since their levels are inversely associated with normal insulin signaling and positively associated with factors that are involved in cardiometabolic disease. Despite the growing literature surrounding ceramide biology, there are limited data regarding the activity of ceramide synthesis and turnover in vivo. Read More

    Impact of Estrogens and Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ESR1) in Brain Lipid Metabolism.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Biomedical Research, Cedars-Sinai Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute, United States.
    Estrogens and their receptors play key roles in regulating body weight, energy expenditure, and metabolic homeostasis. It is known that lack of estrogens promotes increased food intake and induces the expansion of adipose tissues, for which much is known. An area of estrogenic research that has received less attention is the role of estrogens and their receptors in influencing intermediary lipid metabolism in organs such as the brain. Read More

    Developmental origins of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as a risk factor for exaggerated metabolic and cardiovascular-renal disease.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    University of Mississippi Medical Center.
    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is linked to increased risk for chronic disease. Placental ischemia and insufficiency in the mother are implicated in predisposing IUGR offspring to metabolic dysfunction, including hypertension, insulin resistance, abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether these metabolic disturbances contribute to the developmental origins of exaggerated cardiovascular-renal disease (CVRD) risk accompanying IUGR is unclear. Read More

    Insulin uptake and action in microvascular endothelial cells of lymphatic and blood origin.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Canada.
    Whereas the blood microvasculature constitutes a biological barrier to the action of blood-borne insulin on target tissues, the lymphatic microvasculature might act as a barrier to subcutaneously administrated insulin reaching the circulation. Here, we evaluate the interaction of insulin with primary microvascular endothelial cells of lymphatic (HDLEC) and blood (HAMEC) origin, derived from human dermal and adipose tissues, respectively. HDLEC express higher levels of insulin receptor (IR) and signal in response to insulin as low as 2. Read More

    Assessment of hepatic insulin extraction from in vivo surrogate methods of insulin clearance measurement.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, California, United States.
    Hyperinsulinemia, accompanied by reduced first-pass hepatic insulin extraction (FPE) and increased secretion, is a primary response to insulin resistance. Different in vivo methods are used to estimate the clearance of insulin, which is assumed to reflect FPE. We compared two methodologically different but commonly used indirect estimates with directly measured FPE in healthy dogs (n = 9). Read More

    Reduced Skeletal Muscle Phosphocreatine Concentration in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Quantitative Image-Based Phosphorus-31 MR Spectroscopy Study.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    The Diabetes Division, Mail Code 7886, UTHSCSA, United States.
    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been described in insulin resistant (IR) states including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies using P-MRS in T2DM reported results as relative concentrations of metabolite ratios, which could obscure changes in phosphocreatine [PCr] and [ATP] and attenuate differences between T2DM and NGT individuals. We used a novel image-guided P-MRS method to quantitate phosphorus metabolites in vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in 11 T2DM and 14 NGT subjects. Read More

    Myeloid-Specific Deletion of Zfp36 Protects Against Insulin Resistance and Fatty Liver in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Shady Grove Fertility, United States.
    Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation that contributes to insulin resistance. Zinc Finger Protein 36 (Zfp36) is an mRNA-binding protein that reduces inflammation by binding to cytokine transcripts and promoting their degradation. We hypothesized that myeloid-specific deficiency of Zfp36 would lead to increased adipose tissue inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice. Read More

    Severe Hypoglycemia-Induced Sudden Death is Mediated by Both Cardiac Arrhythmias and Seizures.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Utah School of Medicine, United States.
    We previously demonstrated that insulin induced severe hypoglycemia associated sudden death is largely mediated by fatal cardiac arrhythmias. In the current study, a pharmacological approach was taken to explore the potential contribution of hypoglycemic seizures and the sympathoadrenergic system in mediating severe hypoglycemia associated sudden death. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into one of four treatment groups: 1) saline (SAL), 2) anti-arrhythmic (β1 blocker atenolol), 3) anti-seizure (Levetiracetam), and 4) combination anti-arrhythmic+anti-seizure (β1 blocker+Levetiracetam). Read More

    Microbiota and Metabolism -- What's New in 2018.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Neuroscience Institute & Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, United States.
    The concept that the gut microbiota plays a broadly important role in health and disease in general, and metabolic health in particular, is now well established. Yet, many of the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, while approaches to reliably manipulate the microbiota to promote health have not yet been clearly defined. Nonetheless, progresses in these areas are steadily accelerating. Read More

    Nrf2 deletion from adipocytes, but not hepatocytes, potentiates systemic metabolic dysfunction after long-term high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, United States.
    Nrf2 is a canonical regulator of cytoprotective gene expression but evidence of its crosstalk with other pathways, including metabolic ones, is ever increasing. Pharmacologic or systemic genetic activation of the Nrf2 pathway partially protects from obesity in mice and ameliorates fasting hyperglycemia in mice and humans. However, systemic Nrf2 deletion also protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Read More

    Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gastric Bypass Surgery Regulate Serum And Hepatic Levels of Pyruvate Kinase Isoenzyme M2.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Endocrinology, Boston Children's Hospital, United States.
    Treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) focuses on the underlying metabolic syndrome, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains one of the most effective options. In rodents and human patients, RYGB induces an increase in the gene and protein expression levels of the M2 isoenzyme of Pyruvate Kinase (PKM2) in the jejunum. Since PKM2 can be secreted in the circulation, our hypothesis was that the circulating levels of PKM2 increase after RYGB. Read More

    Pycnogenol protects against diet-induced hepatic steatosis in Apolipoprotein-E deficient mice.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Endocrine Institute and The Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, The First Hospital of China Medical University, China.
    Pycnogenol (PYC), a combination of active flavonoids derived from French maritime pine bark, is a natural antioxidant that has various pharmacological activities. Here, we investigated the beneficial effect of PYC on diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient male mice were administered PYC at oral doses of 30 or 100 mg•kg-1 •day-1 for two weeks in advance and were then fed a high cholesterol and fat diet (HCD) for eight weeks. Read More

    Neonatal Nutritional Programming Impairs Adiponectin Effects On Energy Homeostasis In Adult Life Of Male Rats.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Physiology, Ribeirao Preto Medical School University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Neonatal nutritional changes induce long-lasting effects on energy homeostasis. Adiponectin influences food intake and body weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of neonatal nutritional programming on the central stimulation of adiponectin. Read More

    Plasma endocannabinoid levels in lean, overweight and obese humans: relationships with intestinal permeability markers, inflammation and incretin secretion.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    University of Adelaide, Nerve-Gut Research Laboratory, Hanson Institute, Australia.
    Introduction/aims: Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion. Read More

    Isoform-specific role of Na/K-ATPase α1 in skeletal muscle.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Marshall University, United States.
    The distribution of Na/K-ATPase α isoforms in skeletal muscle is unique, with α1 as the minor (15%) isoform and α2 comprising the bulk of the Na/K-ATPase pool. The acute and isoform-specific role of α2 in muscle performance and resistance to fatigue is well known, but the isoform-specific role of α1 has not been as thoroughly investigated. In vitro, we reported that α1 has a role in promoting cell growth that is not supported by α2. Read More

    Resistance training recovers attenuated APPL1 expression and improves insulin-induced Akt signal activation in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic rats.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Japan.
    Adapter protein containing PH domain, PTB domain, and leucine zipper motif 1 (APPL1) has been reported as a positive regulator of insulin-stimulated Akt activation. The expression of APPL1 is reduced in skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic (T2D) animals, implying that APPL1 may be an important factor affecting insulin sensitivity. However, the regulation of APPL1 expression and the physiological interventions modulating these effects are unclear. Read More

    WNT16 Overexpression Partly Protects Against Glucocorticoid-induced Bone Loss.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Institute of Medicine, Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research.
    Therapeutic use of glucocorticoids (GCs) is a major cause of secondary osteoporosis but the molecular mechanisms responsible for the deleterious effects of GCs in bone are only partially understood. WNT16 is a crucial physiological regulator of bone mass and fracture susceptibility and we hypothesize that disturbed WNT16 activity might be involved in the deleterious effects of GC in bone. Twelve-week-old female Obl-Wnt16 mice (WNT16 expression driven by the rat procollagen type I α 1 promoter) and WT littermates were treated with prednisolone (7. Read More

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide is required for moderate high fat diet, but not high carbohydrate diet-induced weight gain.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
    Both high fat diet and high carbohydrate diet are known to induce weight gain. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is secreted mainly from intestinal K-cells upon stimuli by nutrients such as fat and glucose, and it potentiates glucose-induced insulin secretion. GIP is well-known to contribute to high fat diet-induced obesity. Read More

    Epigenetics and Developmental Origins of Diabetes: Correlation or Causation?
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    University of Pennsylvania, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia/University of Pennsylvania, United States.
    The incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity continue to increase. While it is evident that the increasing incidence of diabetes confers a global societal and economic burden, the mechanisms responsible for the increased incidence of T2D are not well understood. Extensive efforts to understand the association of early life perturbations with later onset of metabolic diseases, the founding principle of DOHaD, have been crucial in determining the mechanisms that may be driving the pathogenesis of T2D. Read More

    Acute activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase increases glucose oxidation in muscle without changing glucose uptake.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia.
    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity is a key component of the glucose/fatty acid cycle hypothesis for the regulation of glucose uptake and metabolism. We have investigated whether acute activation of PDH in muscle can alleviate the insulin resistance caused by feeding animals a high fat diet. The importance of PDH activity in muscle glucose disposal under insulin-stimulated conditions was determined by infusing the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA) into high fat diet-fed (HFD) Wistar rats during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Read More

    Humans with obesity have disordered brain responses to food images during physiological hyperglycemia.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 May 30;314(5):E522-E529. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Section of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine , New Haven, Connecticut.
    Blood glucose levels influence brain regulation of food intake. This study assessed the effect of mild physiological hyperglycemia on brain response to food cues in individuals with obesity (OB) versus normal weight individuals (NW). Brain responses in 10 OB and 10 NW nondiabetic healthy adults [body mass index: 34 (3) vs. Read More

    Impact of weight loss achieved through a multidisciplinary intervention on appetite in patients with severe obesity.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    The impact of lifestyle-induced weight loss (WL) on appetite in patients with obesity remains controversial. This study aimed was to assess the short- and long-term impact of WL achieved by diet and exercise, on appetite in patients with obesity. Thirty-five (22 females) adults with severe obesity (BMI: 42. Read More

    A novel rodent model of pregnancy complications associated with genetically determined angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University, United States.
    Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis (LW) inbred rat strains harbor different angiotensin converting enzyme (Ace) polymorphisms that result in higher ACE activity in BN than LW rats. Thus, we hypothesized that pregnant BN rats would show pregnancy complications linked to angiotensin II activity. We performed longitudinal and cross-sectional studies in pregnant LW and BN rats. Read More

    Significant improvement in cardiometabolic health in healthy nonobese individuals during caloric restriction-induced weight loss and weight loss maintenance.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 12;314(4):E396-E405. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Pennington Biomedical Research Center , Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
    Calorie restriction (CR) triggers benefits for healthspan including decreased risk of cardiometabolic disease (CVD). In an ancillary study to CALERIE 2, a 24-mo 25% CR study, we assessed the cardiometabolic effects of CR in 53 healthy, nonobese (BMI: 22-28 kg/m) men ( n = 17) and women ( n = 36). The aim of this study was to investigate whether CR can reduce risk factors for CVD and insulin resistance in nonobese humans and, moreover, to assess whether improvements are exclusive to a period of weight loss or continue during weight maintenance. Read More

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