5,410 results match your criteria American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism[Journal]


Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type-selective Effects of Acute Exercise on Insulin-stimulated Glucose Uptake in Insulin Resistant, High Fat-fed Rats.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Muscle Biology Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Michigan. Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan. Institute of Gerontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) by skeletal muscle is enhanced several hours after acute exercise in rats with normal or reduced insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle is composed of multiple fiber types, but exercise's effect on fiber type-specific insulin-stimulated GU in insulin-resistant muscle was previously unknown. Male rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 2-weeks) and either sedentary (SED) or exercised (2h exercise). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00482.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Deletion of leptin receptors in vagal afferent neurons disrupts estrogen signaling, body weight, food intake and hormonal controls of feeding in female mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, United States.

Deletion of the leptin receptor from vagal afferent neurons (VAN) using a conditional deletion (Nav1.8/LepR) results in an obese phenotype with increased food intake and lack of exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced satiation in male mice. Female mice are partially protected from weight gain and increased food intake in response to ingestion of high-fat (HF) diets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00296.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Amino acid and Fatty Acid Metabolomic Profile during Fasting and Hyperinsulinemia in girls with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Colorado Anschutz. Center for Women's Health Research, Aurora, CO, United States.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and altered muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. IR in adults with obesity and diabetes is associated with changes in amino acid, free fatty acid (FFA) and mitochondrial acylcarnitine (AC) metabolism. We sought to determine if these metabolites are associated with IR and/or androgens in youth-onset PCOS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00532.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

CORRIGENDUM.

Authors:

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb;316(2):E345

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.zh1-8043-corr.2019DOI Listing
February 2019

Liver-specific knockdown of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 reveals its key role in VLDL-TG metabolism and phospholipid synthesis in mice fed a high-fat diet.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, United States.

Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4) has a unique substrate specificity for arachidonic acid (AA). Hepatic ACSL4 is coregulated with the phospholipid remodeling enzyme lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) by PPARd to modulate plasma triglyceride metabolism. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of hepatic ACSL4 deficiency on lipid metabolism in adult mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00503.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of bariatric surgery on plasma GDF15 in humans.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Bariatric surgery results in marked body weight loss and improves type 2 diabetes in most patients with obesity. The growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has recently emerged as a novel satiety factor. To begin to understand whether GDF15 is involved in mediating the effects of bariatric surgery on body weight and glycaemia in humans, we measured plasma GDF15 in patients with obesity (n = 25) and in patients with obesity and diabetes (n = 22) before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00010.2019DOI Listing
February 2019

Low dose infusions of leptin into the nucleus of the solitary tract increase sensitivity to third ventricle leptin.

Authors:
Ruth B S Harris

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Physiology, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, United States.

Previous studies suggest that weight loss occurs when leptin receptors in both the forebrain and hindbrain are activated. Experiments described here tested whether this integration is mediated through a neural connection or by leptin diffusion through the subarachanoid space. If the hypothalamus and hindbrain communicated through a neural pathway, then a very low dose of leptin infused directly into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) would enhance the response to third ventricle (3V) leptin, but would have no effect if infused into the fourth ventricle (4V). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00562.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Lipid and Glucose Metabolism in Hepatocyte Cell Lines and Primary Mouse Hepatocytes: A comprehensive resource for in vitro studies of hepatic metabolism.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences & Bosch Institute, Charles Perkins Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Australia.

The liver is a critical tissue for maintaining glucose, fatty acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Primary hepatocytes represent the gold standard for studying the mechanisms controlling hepatic glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism in vitro. However, access to primary hepatocytes can be limiting and therefore other immortalized hepatocyte models are commonly used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00365.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Glucose-mediated inhibition of calcium-activated potassium channels limits alpha-cell calcium influx and glucagon secretion.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, 7425B MRB IV, United States.

Pancreatic α-cells exhibit oscillations in cytosolic Ca (Ca), which control pulsatile glucagon (GCG) secretion. However, the mechanism(s) that modulate α-cell Ca oscillations have not been elucidated. As β-cell Ca oscillations are regulated in part by Ca-activated K (K) currents, this work investigated the role of K in α-cell Ca handling and GCG secretion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00342.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

The PERK-EIF2α-ATF4 signaling branch regulates osteoblast differentiation and proliferation by PTH.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Lab of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Wuxi Medical School, Jiangnan University, Public Health Research Center, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China;, China.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its related peptide (PTH related peptide 1-34) are one of FDA-approved bone-promoting drugs for age-related osteoporosis. Treatment with PTH stimulates bone formation. But the molecular mechanisms of PTH-mediated osteoblast differentiation and cell proliferation are still not completely understood. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00371.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00371.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Pioglitazone reversed the fructose-programmed astrocytic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation of female rat offspring.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 83301, Taiwan, Republic of China. Department of Senior Citizen Services, National Tainan Institute of Nursing, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China., Taiwan.

Excessive maternal high fructose diet (HFD) during pregnancy and lactation has been reported to cause metabolic disorders in the offspring. Whether the infant's brain metabolism is disturbed by maternal HFD is largely unknown. Brain energy metabolism is elevated dramatically during fetal and postnatal development, whereby maternal nutrition is a key factor that to determine cellular metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00408.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
3.785 Impact Factor

Progesterone-induced miR-152 interferes Embryonic Implantation by Down-regulating GLUT 3 in Endometrial Epithelium.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Physiology, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, China.

To investigate the role of progesterone-induced miR-152 in early embryonic development and implantation by regulating GLUT3 in endometrial epithelium. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-152, GLUT1 and GLUT3 in the endometrial epithelial cells of female mice. GLUT1 and GLUT3 proteins were detected by immunohistochemical staining in the mouse endometrial epithelium. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00245.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00245.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Dietary feeding pattern does not modulate the loss of muscle mass or the decline in metabolic health during short-term bed rest.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Human Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Netherlands.

Short periods of bed rest lead to the loss of muscle mass and quality. It has been speculated that dietary feeding pattern may impact upon muscle protein synthesis rates and, therefore, modulate the loss of muscle mass and quality. We subjected 20 healthy men (age: 25±1 y, BMI: 23. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00378.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Loss of Nmp4 optimizes osteogenic metabolism and secretion to enhance bone quality.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, United States.

A goal of osteoporosis therapy is to restore lost bone with structurally sound tissue. Mice lacking the transcription factor Nuclear Matrix Protein 4 (Nmp4, Zfp384, Ciz, ZNF384) respond to several classes of osteoporosis drugs with enhanced bone formation compared to wild type (WT) animals. Nmp4 mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) exhibit an accelerated and enhanced mineralization during osteoblast differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00343.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Physical activity counteracts metabolic syndrome-induced hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction in the rabbit.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

University of Florence, Italy.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) clusters cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, along with hypogonadism (HG) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Lifestyle modifications including physical exercise (PhyEx) are well-known treatments for this condition. In this study, we analyzed the effect of PhyEx on hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis and erectile function using an animal MetS model, previously established in rabbits fed a high fat diet (HFD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00377.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Increased Mast Cell Abundance in Adipose Tissue of Nascent Metabolic Syndrome: Relevance to the Pro-Inflammatory State and Increased Adipose Tissue Fibrosis.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

California Northstate University, United States.

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) affects 35% of American adults > 40 years and portends an increased risk for both cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and diabetes. The role of mast cells in the pro-inflammatory state of MetS is not well elucidated. We propose that mast cells in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of MetS (no diabetes or ASCVD) patients contribute to insulin resistance and inflammation. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00462.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00462.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Chronic Maternal Cortisol Excess During Late Gestation Leads to Metabolic Alterations in the Newborn Heart.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Pharmacodynamics, University of Florida, United States.

Our laboratory has previously shown in an ovine model of pregnancy that abnormal elevations in maternal cortisol during late gestation lead to increased fetal cardiac arrhythmias and mortality during peripartum. Furthermore, transcriptomic analysis of the fetal heart suggested alterations in TCA cycle intermediates and lipid metabolites in animals exposed to excess cortisol in utero. Therefore, we utilized a sheep model of pregnancy to determine how chronic increases in maternal cortisol alter maternal and fetal serum prior to birth and neonatal cardiac metabolites and lipids at term. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00386.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Calcium signaling and secretory granule pool dynamics underlie biphasic insulin secretion and its amplification: experiments and modeling.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Unit of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Louvain, Belgium.

Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is controlled by a triggering pathway culminating in calcium influx and regulated exocytosis of secretory granules, and a less understood amplifying pathway that augments calcium-induced exocytosis. In response to an abrupt increase in glucose concentration, insulin secretion exhibits a first peak followed by a lower sustained second phase. This biphasic secretion pattern is disturbed in diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00380.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The islet-expressed Lhx1 transcription factor interacts with Islet-1 and contributes to glucose homeostasis.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States.

The LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factor Islet-1 (Isl1) interacts with the LIM domain binding protein 1 (Ldb1) co-regulator to control expression of key pancreatic β-cell genes. However, Ldb1 also has Isl1-independent effects, supporting that another LIM-HD factor interacts with Ldb1 to impact β-cell development and/or function. LIM homeobox 1, or Lhx1, is an Isl1-related LIM-HD transcription factor that appears to be expressed in the developing mouse pancreas and in adult islets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00235.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) directly modulates skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in humans.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, United States.

Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is negatively related to insulin sensitivity, but a causal role of IMAT in the development of insulin resistance is unknown. IMAT was sampled in humans to test for the ability to induce insulin resistance in vitro, and characterize gene expression to uncover how IMAT may promote skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Human primary muscle cells were incubated with conditioned media from IMAT, visceral (VAT), or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to evaluate changes in insulin sensitivity. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00243.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00243.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

ER stress contributes to high fat diet induced decrease of thyroglobulin and hypothyroidism.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Scientific Center, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, China.

Recent studies revealed the emerging role of excess uptake of lipids in the development of hypothyroidism. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on thyroid function and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in HFD induced hypothyroidism. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00194.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00194.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Phospholamban Deficiency Does Not Alter Skeletal Muscle SERCA Pumping Efficiency or Predispose Mice to Diet-Induced Obesity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Canada.

The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) pump is a major contributor to skeletal muscle Ca homeostasis and metabolic rate. SERCA activity can become adaptively uncoupled by its regulator sarcolipin (SLN) to increase the energy demand of Ca pumping, preventing excessive obesity and glucose intolerance in mice. Several other SERCA regulators bear structural and functional resemblance to SLN, including phospholamban (PLN). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00288.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Obesity Leads to Distinct Metabolomic Signatures in the Follicular Fluid of Women Undergoing in vitro Fertilization.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Pediatrics, USDA-Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center.

While obesity negatively influences the metabolic homeostasis of cells within a broad range of tissues, its impact on oocyte metabolism is not fully understood. Prior evidence suggests obesity increases expression of oocyte genes associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism; however, the metabolic impact of these genetic differences is not known. To address this gap, we conducted an exploratory assessment of the follicular fluid (FF) metabolome in 8 overweight/obese (OW) and 9 normal weight (NW) women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00401.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: an organ-based analysis.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 2;316(2):E268-E285. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Division of Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University School of Medicine , Morgantown, West Virginia.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a systemic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and organismic insulin resistance. This pathological shift in both circulating fuel levels and energy substrate utilization by central and peripheral tissues contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction across organ systems. The mitochondrion lies at the intersection of critical cellular pathways such as energy substrate metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00314.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

All-trans retinoic acid suppresses bone morphogenetic protein 4 in mouse diabetic nephropathy through a unique retinoic acid response element.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Nephrology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Japan.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) causes mesangial matrix expansion, which results in glomerulosclerosis and renal failure. Collagen IV (COL4) is a major component of the mesangial matrix that is positively regulated by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)/suppressor of mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad1) signaling. Because previous studies showed that retinoid treatment had a beneficial effect on kidney disease, we investigated the therapeutic potential of retinoids in DN, focusing especially on the regulatory mechanism of BMP4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00218.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Hepatic STAT3 inhibition amplifies the inflammatory response in obese mice during sepsis.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 21;316(2):E286-E292. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Division of Critical Care Medicine , Cincinnati, Ohio.

The purpose of this study was to better understand the role obesity plays in the inflammatory response during sepsis, specifically regarding the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in the liver. We hypothesized that inhibiting STAT3 would lead to an increase in the inflammatory response and that obesity would amplify this effect. To investigate this, we inhibited STAT3 in two ways: pharmacological systemic inhibition and genetic hepatic-specific inhibition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00341.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Intact innervation is essential for diet-induced recruitment of brown adipose tissue.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Dept. of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden.

The possibility that recruitment and activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis could be beneficial for curtailing obesity development in humans prompts a need for a better understanding of the control of these processes (that are often referred to collectively as diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT)). Dietary conditions are associated with large changes in blood-borne factors that could be responsible for BAT recruitment, but BAT is also innervated by the sympathetic nervous system. To examine the significance of the innervation for DIT recruitment, we surgically denervated the interscapular BAT depot in mice and exposed the mice at thermoneutrality to a high-fat diet versus a chow diet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00443.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Growth hormone signaling and action in obese versus lean human subjects.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 21;316(2):E333-E344. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Medical Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital , Denmark.

Growth hormone (GH) levels are blunted in obesity, but it is not known whether this relates to altered GH sensitivity and whether this influences the metabolic adaptation to fasting. Therefore, we investigated the effect of obesity on GH signal transduction and fasting-induced changes in GH action. Nine obese (BMI 35. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00431.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Increased circulating miR-370-3p regulates Steroidogenic Factor 1 in Endometriosis.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, United States.

Endometriosis is a gynecological disease among reproductive-aged women caused by the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Altered expression of genes and microRNAs has been reported in endometriosis. Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), an essential transcriptional regulator of multiple genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis; is aberrantly increased and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00244.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Clodronate-Liposome treatment results in neutrophilia, anemia, and is not effective in limiting obesity-linked metabolic impairments.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Pathology, Microbiology & Immunology, University of South Carolina, United States.

Objective: Depletion of macrophages is thought to be a therapeutic option for obesity-induced inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. However, whether the therapeutic effect is a direct result of reduced macrophage-derived inflammation or secondary to decreases in fat mass is controversial as macrophage depletion has been shown to disrupt energy homeostasis. This study was designed to determine if macrophage depletion via clodronate-liposome (CLD) treatment could serve as an effective intervention to reduce obesity-driven inflammatory and metabolic impairments independent of changes in energy intake. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00438.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00438.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Oxidative modifications of mitochondrial complex II are associated with insulin resistance of visceral fat in obesity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 21;316(2):E168-E177. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Evans Department of Medicine and Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine , Boston, Massachusetts.

Obesity, particularly visceral adiposity, has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, which have been suggested as mechanisms of insulin resistance. The mechanism(s) behind this remains incompletely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that mitochondrial complex II dysfunction plays a role in impaired insulin sensitivity in visceral adipose tissue of subjects with obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00227.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads
3.785 Impact Factor

Myostatin / miR-124-3p / GR signaling pathway regulates intramuscular fat deposition in mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, China.

The mechanism of how adipocytes is tissue-specifically regulated in muscle remains uncertain. Our previous study showed that myostatin can inhibit adipogenesis by downregulating glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in porcine intramuscular adipocytes. However, the pathways of this process are not yet clear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00405.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

MiRNA-451a regulates RPE function through promoting mitochondrial function in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Eye Hospital, Eye Institute & School of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of microRNA-451a (miR-451a) in diabetic retinopathy through activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2).

Methods: The epiretinal membrane samples from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) were immunolabeled with an antibody for ki-67 to identify the proliferative cells. The expression of miR-451a was measured by qRT-PCR in the retina of Akita mice and in RPE cells under diabetic conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00360.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Youth with type 2 diabetes have hepatic, peripheral, and adipose insulin resistance.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 18;316(2):E186-E195. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus , Aurora, Colorado.

Adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have severe insulin resistance (IR) secondary to obesity, genetics, and puberty, and IR predicts metabolic comorbidities. Adults with T2D have multitissue IR, which has guided therapeutic developments, but this is not established in youth. We sought to assess adipose, hepatic, and peripheral insulin sensitivity in adolescents with and without T2D. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00258.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00258.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Microbial fermentation of flaxseed fibers modulates the transcriptome of GPR41-expressing enteroendocrine cells and protects mice against diet-induced obesity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Dietary fibers, an integral part of the human diet, require the enzymatic activity of the gut microbiota for complete metabolism into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). SCFAs are important modulators of host metabolism and physiology and act in part as signaling molecules by activating G-protein coupled receptors (GPR) such as GPR41. Flaxseed fibers improve metabolism in rodents and mice, but their fermentation profiles, effects on enteroendocrine cells and associated metabolic benefits are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00391.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

EP4 receptor-associated protein (EPRAP) regulates gluconeogenesis in the liver and is associated with hyperglycemia in diabetic mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Clinical Innovative Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4 receptor)-associated protein (EPRAP) is a key molecule in suppressing inflammatory responses in macrophages. EPRAP is expressed not only in macrophages, but also in hepatocytes; however, the role of EPRAP in hepatocytes has not yet been defined. In order to we examined the physiological role of hepatic EPRAP in mice, we performed the glucose tolerance test (GTT) and the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp were performed in high-fat sucrose diet (HFSD)-fed wild-type (WT) and Eprap-null mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00035.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Arsenic modifies serotonin metabolism through glucuronidation in pancreatic β-cells.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Division of Molecular and Metabolic Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

In arsenic-endemic regions of the world, arsenic exposure correlates with diabetes mellitus. Multiple animal models of inorganic arsenic (iAs, As) exposure have revealed that iAs-induced glucose intolerance manifests as a result of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. To define the mechanisms responsible for this β-cell defect, the MIN6-K8 mouse β-cell line was exposed to environmentally-relevant doses of iAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00302.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Transgene-associated human growth hormone expression in pancreatic β-cells impairs identification of sex-based gene expression differences.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 11;316(2):E196-E209. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University , Nashville, Tennessee.

Fluorescent protein reporter genes are widely used to identify and sort murine pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we compared use of the MIP-GFP transgene, which exhibits aberrant expression of human growth hormone (hGH), with a newly derived Ins2 allele that lacks hGH expression on the expression of sex-specific genes. β-Cells from MIP-GFP transgenic mice exhibit changes in the expression of 7,733 genes, or greater than half of their transcriptome, compared with β-cells from Ins2 mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00229.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
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Inhibition of PAI-1 attenuates perirenal fat inflammation and the associated nephropathy in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 11;316(2):E260-E267. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Faculty of Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau, People's Republic of China.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is increasingly recognized as a mediator in extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in diabetic nephropathy. Previous studies have implicated PAI-1 in adipose tissue (AT) expansion, while also contributing to insulin resistance. As inflammation is also known to occur in perirenal AT during obesity, we hypothesized that in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model, PAI-1 contributes to macrophage-mediated inflammation and diabetic nephropathy. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00387.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00387.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Impact of hepatic HSP72 on insulin signaling.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 11;316(2):E305-E318. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University , Kumamoto , Japan.

Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is a major inducible molecule in the heat shock response that enhances intracellular stress tolerance. Decreased expression of HSP72 is observed in type 2 diabetes, which may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. We used HSP72 knockout (HSP72-KO) mice to investigate the impact of HSP72 on glucose metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, particularly in the liver. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00215.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00215.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
15 Reads

The E3 ligase MARCH5 is a PPARγ target gene that regulates mitochondria and metabolism in adipocytes.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 4;316(2):E293-E304. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute , Melbourne, Victoria , Australia.

Mitochondrial dynamics refers to the constant remodeling of mitochondrial populations by multiple cellular pathways that help maintain mitochondrial health and function. Disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics often lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is frequently associated with disease in rodents and humans. Consistent with this, obesity is associated with reduced mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue, partly via alterations in mitochondrial dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00394.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Effects of obesity and exercise on colon cancer induction and hematopoiesis in mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 4;316(2):E210-E220. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana, Illinois.

Obesity-induced inflammation is associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The role of diet and exercise in modulating increased CRC risk in obesity and the potential role of altered hematopoiesis as a contributor to these effects remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine how weight loss induced during CRC induction with or without exercise alters CRC initiation and its relationship to altered hematopoiesis. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00237.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00237.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Postexercise skeletal muscle signaling responses to moderate- to high-intensity steady-state exercise in the fed or fasted state.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 4;316(2):E230-E238. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham , Birmingham , United Kingdom.

Exercise performed in the fasted state acutely increases fatty acid availability and utilization. Furthermore, activation of energy-sensing pathways and fatty acid metabolic genes can be augmented by fasting and fasted exercise. However, whether a similar effect occurs at higher exercise intensities remains poorly understood. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00311.2018
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February 2019
13 Reads

Noninvasive evaluation of fat-carbohydrate metabolic switching in heart and contracting skeletal muscle.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 4;316(2):E251-E259. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts.

The ability of heart and skeletal muscle (SM) to switch between fat and carbohydrate oxidation is of high interest in the study of metabolic diseases and exercise physiology. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the glucose analog 2-[F]fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (F-FDG) provides a noninvasive means to quantitate glucose metabolic rates. However, evaluation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rates by PET has been limited by the lack of a suitable FAO probe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00323.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Estrogen receptor-α signaling maintains immunometabolic function in males and is obligatory for exercise-induced amelioration of nonalcoholic fatty liver.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 4;316(2):E156-E167. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri , Columbia, Missouri.

The role of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) signaling in immunometabolic function is established in females. However, its necessity in males, while appreciated, requires further study. Accordingly, we first determined whether lower metabolic function in male mice compared with females is related to reduced ERα expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00259.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
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Involvement of the STAT5-cyclin D/CDK4-pRb pathway in β-cell proliferation stimulated by prolactin during pregnancy.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 4;316(1):E135-E144. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University , Nanjing , China.

During pregnancy, maternal pancreatic β-cells undergo a compensatory expansion in response to the state of insulin resistance, where prolactin (PRL) plays a major role. Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) has been shown to critically regulate islet proliferation and function. The aim of the study was to explore the role of Rb in β-cell mass expansion during pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00242.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Short-term low-calorie diet remodels skeletal muscle lipid profile and metabolic gene expression in obese adults.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 27;316(2):E178-E185. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.

Diet intervention in obese adults is the first strategy to induce weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that improvements in insulin sensitivity after weight loss from a short-term dietary intervention tracks with alterations in expression of metabolic genes and abundance of specific lipid species. Eight obese, insulin-resistant, nondiabetic adults were recruited to participate in a 3-wk low-calorie diet intervention cohort study (1,000 kcal/day). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00253.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
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The effect of PPARγ inhibition on bone marrow adipose tissue and bone in C3H/HeJ mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 20;316(1):E96-E105. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Research Laboratory Bone and Calcium Metabolism, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam University Medical Center , Amsterdam , The Netherlands.

Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) increases after menopause, and increased BMAT is associated with osteoporosis and prevalent vertebral fractures. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activation promotes adipogenesis and inhibits osteoblastogenesis; therefore, PPARγ is a potential contributor to the postmenopausal increase in BMAT and decrease in bone mass. The aim of this study is to determine if PPARγ inhibition can prevent ovariectomy-induced BMAT increase and bone loss in C3H/HeJ mice. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00265.2018
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January 2019
13 Reads

Impact of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D on hepatic diacylglycerol accumulation, steatosis, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 20;316(2):E239-E250. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University , Suita , Japan.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD) is an enzyme that specifically cleaves GPI anchors. Previous human studies suggested the relationship of GPI-PLD to insulin resistance, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the biological roles of GPI-PLD have not been elucidated. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00319.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00319.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
11 Reads

Adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates lipodystrophy-associated metabolic disorders in seipin-deficient mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jan 20;316(1):E54-E62. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Ministry of Education, Peking University Health Science Center , Beijing , China.

Seipin deficiency is responsible for type 2 congenital generalized lipodystrophy with severe loss of adipose tissue and can lead to hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance (IR), and dyslipidemia in humans. Adipose tissue secretes many adipokines that are central to the regulation of metabolism. In this study, we investigated whether transplantation of normal adipose tissue could ameliorate severe hepatic steatosis, IR, and dyslipidemia in lipoatrophic seipin knockout (SKO) mice. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00180.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00180.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads