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    5178 results match your criteria American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism[Journal]

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    Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Ameliorates Hypertension and Hyperglycemia in a model of Cushing's Syndrome.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 19:ajpendo.00267.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Kyungpook National University
    Cushing's syndrome (CS) caused by hypercortisolism is occasionally accompanied by metabolic disorders such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia and central obesity. Thus, morbidity and mortality, observed in cardiovascular disease, are elevated in patients with CS. We hypothesized that HDAC inhibition (HDACi) decreased transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which ameliorates hypertension and hyperglycemia in patients with CS. Read More

    Testosterone Protects High Fat/Low Carbohydrate Diet Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Castrated Male Rats Mainly via Modulating ER Stress.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 19:ajpendo.00124.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Harbor-UCLA Medical Center and Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute
    We previously showed that testosterone (T) deficiency enhanced high-fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in rats that was independent of insulin resistance, and that T replacement reduced hepatic macrovesicular fat accumulation and inflammation. The present report explores the mechanism of T-protective effects on HFD-induced steatohepatitis. Adult male rats were randomized into four treatment groups for 15 weeks (intact rats on regular chow diet or HFD, and castrated rats on HFD with/without T replacement). Read More

    REDD1 Induction Regulates the Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression Signature following Acute Aerobic Exercise.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 12:ajpendo.00120.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Florida Hospital Translational Research Institute.
    The metabolic stress placed on skeletal muscle by aerobic exercise promotes acute and long-term health benefits in part through changes in gene expression. However, the transducers that mediate altered gene expression signatures have not been completely elucidated. Regulated in Development and DNA Damage 1 (REDD1) is a stress-induced protein whose expression is transiently increased in skeletal muscle following acute aerobic exercise. Read More

    High Fat, High Fructose, High Cholesterol Feeding Causes Severe NASH and Cecal Microbiota Dysbiosis in Juvenile Ossabaw Swine.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 12:ajpendo.00015.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Truman VA and University of Missouri
    Pediatric obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are on the rise in industrialized countries, yet our ability to mechanistically examine this relationship is limited by the lack of a suitable higher animal model. Here, we examined the effects of high fat, high fructose corn syrup, high cholesterol Western style diet (WD)-induced obesity on NASH and cecal microbiota dysbiosis in juvenile Ossabaw swine. Juvenile female Ossabaw swine (5 weeks old) were fed WD (43. Read More

    Postchallenge Hyperglycemia in Subjects with Low Body Weight: Implication for Small Glucose Volume.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 5:ajpendo.00203.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Aizawa Hospital.
    A hypothesis that postchallenge hyperglycemia in subjects with low body weight (BW) may be in part due to small glucose volume (Gv) was tested. We studied 11,411 non-diabetic subjects with a mean BW of 63.3 kg. Read More

    Soluble Interleukin-13rα1: A Circulating Regulator of Glucose.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 5:ajpendo.00168.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Harvard University
    Soluble IL-13 receptor alpha 1, or sIL13rα1, is a soluble protein that binds to Interleukin 13 (IL-13) and that has been previously described in mice. The function of sIL13rα1 remains unclear, but it has been hypothesized to act as a decoy receptor for IL-13. Recent studies have identified a role for IL-13 in glucose metabolism, suggesting that a decoy receptor for IL-13 might increase circulating glucose levels. Read More

    Reduced obesity, diabetes and steatosis upon cinnamon and grape pomace are associated with changes in gut microbiota and markers of gut barrier.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 5:ajpendo.00107.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Université catholique de Louvain
    Increasing evidence suggests that polyphenols have a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to assess the metabolic outcomes of two polyphenol-containing extracts from cinnamon bark (CBE) and grape pomace (GPE) on C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Both CBE and GPE were able to decrease fat mass gain and adipose tissue inflammation in mice fed a HFD without reducing food intake. Read More

    Impact of β-adrenergic signaling in PGC-1α-mediated adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 5:ajpendo.00082.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    University of Copenhagen
    PGC-1α has been suggested to regulate exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations and autophagy in skeletal muscle. The factors regulating PGC-1α are however not fully resolved. The aim was to investigate the impact of β-adrenergic signaling in PGC-1α mediated metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle with exercise training. Read More

    Cholesterol metabolism and Cx43, Cx46, Cx50 gap junction protein expression and localisation in normal and diabetic and obese ob/ob and db/db mouse testes.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 29:ajpendo.00215.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Universite de Montreal.
    Decreased fertility and birth rates are afflictions arising from metabolic disorders. This study assesses cholesterol metabolism and Cx46, Cx50, Cx43 expression in interstitium- and seminiferous tubule-enriched fractions of leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice, two type 2 diabetes and obesity models associated with infertility. Testosterone decreased, glucose, free and esterified cholesterol increased in serum whereas in interstitium, free and esterified cholesterol decreased in ob/ob and db/db. Read More

    Short-term changes in diet composition do not affect in vivo hepatic protein synthesis in rats.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 29:ajpendo.00209.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Colorado State University
    Protein synthesis is critical to protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and modifications in protein synthesis influence lifespan and the development of co-morbidities associated with obesity. In the present study, we examined the acute response of liver protein synthesis to either high fat or high sucrose diets in order to elucidate nutrient-mediated regulation of hepatic protein synthesis in the absence of body fat accumulation. Total and endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein synthesis were assessed by use of the stable isotope, deuterium oxide ((2)H2O), in rats provided a control diet or diets enriched in polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, or sucrose for 2, 4, or 7 days. Read More

    Oleate increases SREBP-1 signaling activity in SCD1 deficient hepatocytes.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 29:ajpendo.00151.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    University of Quebec in Montreal
    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is a key player in lipid metabolism. SCD1 catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). MUFA are then incorporated into triacylglycerols and phospholipids. Read More

    Cardiac overexpression of perilipin 2 induces dynamic steatosis: Prevention by hormone-sensitive lipase.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 29:ajpendo.00098.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    University of Fukui.
    Cardiac intracellular lipid accumulation (steatosis) is a pathophysiological phenomenon observed in starvation and diabetes mellitus. Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) is a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein expressed in non-adipose tissues, including the heart. To explore the pathophysiological function of myocardial PLIN2, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice by cardiac-specific overexpression of PLIN2. Read More

    Brown adipose tissue activation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 29:ajpendo.00049.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Capital Medical University
    Loss of body weight and fat mass is one of the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Weight loss is primarily due to reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure. While inadequate energy intake in PD patients is mainly caused by appetite loss and impaired gastrointestinal absorption, the underlying mechanisms for increased energy expenditure remain largely unknown. Read More

    Anesthesia and bariatric surgery gut preparation alter plasma acylcarnitines reflective of mitochondrial fat and branched-chain amino acid oxidation.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 22:ajpendo.00222.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center
    The period around bariatric surgery offers a unique opportunity to characterize metabolism responses to dynamic shifts in energy, gut function, and anesthesia. We analyzed plasma acylcarnitines in obese women (n=17) sampled in the overnight fasted/postabsorptive state ca. 1-2 weeks prior to surgery (Condition A), the morning of surgery (prior restriction to a 48 hr. Read More

    A novel D2O tracer method to quantify RNA turnover as a biomarker of de novo ribosomal biogenesis, in vitro, in animal models, and in human skeletal muscle.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 15:ajpendo.00157.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    University of Nottingham
    Current methods to quantify RNA dynamics are beset with limitations. Here, we developed a novel stable isotope (D2O)-methodology to quantify RNA synthesis (i.e. Read More

    Circulating Soluble RAGE Isoforms are Attenuated in Obese, Impaired Glucose Tolerant Individuals and are Associated with the Development of Type 2 Diabetes.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 15:ajpendo.00146.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    University of Illinois Chicago
    The soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGE) may be protective against inflammation associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of sRAGE isoforms, and whether sRAGE isoforms are associated with risk of T2DM development in subjects spanning the glucose tolerance continuum. In this retrospective analysis, circulating total sRAGE and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) were quantified via ELISA and cleaved RAGE (cRAGE) was calculated in 274 individuals stratified by glucose tolerance status (GTS) and obesity. Read More

    Dihydrocapsiate improved age-associated impairments in mice by increasing energy expenditure.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 15:ajpendo.00132.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Ajinomoto Co., Inc.
    Metabolic dysfunction is associated with aging and results in age-associated chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Hence, there has been a focus on increasing energy expenditure in aged populations to protect them from age-associated diseases. Dihydrocapsiate (DCT) is a compound that belongs to the capsinoid family. Read More

    The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Reduces Short-Term Food Intake in Male Mice by Regulating Nutrient Sensor Activity.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 15:ajpendo.00113.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute.
    Pharmacological activation of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reduces food intake. Here, we assessed whether suppression of food intake by GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) in this region is dependent upon AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). We found that pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and, thus, activation of AMPK, in the VMH attenuates the anorectic effect of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), indicating that glucose metabolism and inhibition of AMPK are both required for this effect. Read More

    Dapagliflozin slows the progression of the renal and liver fibrosis associated with type 2 diabetes.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 15:ajpendo.00086.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    University of Utah School of Medicine
    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic oral agents indicating promising effects on cardiovascular and renal end points. However, the renoprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors are not fully understood. Also, metabolic effects of SGLT2 inhibition on other organ systems such as effects on hepatic steatosis are not fully understood. Read More

    Increased mitochondrial calcium uniporter in adipocytes underlies mitochondrial alterations associated with insulin resistance.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 8:ajpendo.00143.2016. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    University of Padova
    Intracellular calcium influences an array of pathways and affects cellular processes. With the rapidly progressing research investigating the molecular identity and the physiological roles of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU) complex, we now have the tools to understand the functions of mitochondrial Ca(2+) in the regulation of pathophysiological processes. Herein, we describe the role of key MCU complex components in insulin resistance in mouse and human adipose tissue. Read More

    Cross-sex testosterone therapy in ovariectomized mice: addition of low-dose estrogen preserves bone architecture.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 1:ajpendo.00161.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Yale University School of Medicine.
    Cross-sex hormone therapy (XHT) is widely used by transgender people to alter secondary sex characteristics to match their desired gender presentation. Here we investigate the long-term effects of XHT on bone health, using a murine model. Female mice underwent ovariectomy at either 6 or 10 weeks, and began weekly testosterone or vehicle injections. Read More

    "Calories in, calories out" and macronutrient intake: The Hope, Hype, and Science of Calories.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 1:ajpendo.00156.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    The Cardiometabolic Research Institute.
    One of the central tenets in obesity prevention and management is caloric restriction. This perspective presents salient features of how calories and energy balance matter, also called the "calories in, calories out paradigm." Determinants of energy balance and relationships to dietary macronutrient content are reviewed. Read More

    SIRT6 regulates metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle through activation of AMPK.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 1:ajpendo.00122.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
    Due to the mass and functions in metabolism, skeletal muscle is one of major organs regulating whole-body metabolic homeostasis. SIRT6, a histone deacetylase, has been shown to regulate metabolism in liver and brain, however, its specific role in skeletal muscle is undetermined. In the present study we explored physiological function of SIRT6 in muscle. Read More

    Lipid droplet size and location in human skeletal muscle fibers are associated with insulin sensitivity.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul 25:ajpendo.00062.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Aarhus University Hospital.
    In skeletal muscle, an accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) in the subsarcolemmal space is associated with insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. We aimed to investigate how the size, number and location of LDs are associated with insulin sensitivity and muscle fiber types, and are regulated by aerobic training and treatment with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) in healthy young untrained males. LD analyses were performed by quantitative transmission electron microscopy and insulin sensitivity was assessed by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Read More

    Protein Kinase N2 Regulates AMP-Kinase Signaling and Insulin Responsiveness of Glucose Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul 18:ajpendo.00147.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Karolinska Institutet
    Insulin resistance is central to the development of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. As skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, regulation of glucose metabolism in this tissue is of particular importance. While Rho GTPases and many of their affecters influence skeletal muscle metabolism, there is a paucity of information on the protein kinase N (PKN) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. Read More

    Central Effects of Insulin Detemir on Feeding, Body Weight and Metabolism in Rats.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul 18:ajpendo.00111.2016. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Reed College.
    Insulin detemir (DET) is a basal insulin analog that, in contrast to other long-acting forms of insulin, has significant weight-gain sparing effects in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that this effect of DET may be due to its enhanced catabolic action in the CNS. We investigated the long-term effects of single third ventricular (3V) microinjections of equimolar doses of DET and regular insulin in normal male rats on feeding, body weight, energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory quotient (RQ). Read More

    Long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis are increased in mouse skeletal muscle with high fat feeding regardless of insulin sensitizing treatment.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul 11:ajpendo.00144.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Oregon State University
    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated in part by insulin. The development of insulin resistance with diet-induced obesity may therefore contribute to impairments to protein synthesis and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Yet, the impact of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance on mitochondrial energetics is controversial with reports varying from decreases to increases in mitochondrial respiration. Read More

    Circulating Sex Steroids Co-regulate Adipose Tissue Immune Cell Populations in Healthy Men.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul 11:ajpendo.00075.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    University of Washington.
    Male hypogonadism results in changes in body composition characterized by increases in fat mass. Resident immune cells influence energy metabolism in adipose tissue and could promote increased adiposity through paracrine effects. We hypothesized that manipulation of circulating sex steroid levels in healthy men would alter adipose tissue immune cell populations. Read More

    MiR-27b augments bone marrow progenitor cell survival via suppressing the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in type 2 diabetes.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul 11:ajpendo.00073.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Wayne State University
    Introduction: Bone marrow derived progenitor cells (BMPCs) are potential candidates for autologous cell therapy in tissue repair because of their high angiogenic potential. However, increased progenitor cell apoptosis in diabetes directly limits their success in the clinic. MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, but their roles in BMPC-mediated angiogenesis are incompletely understood. Read More

    Glycemic control after metabolic surgery: a Granger causality and graph analysis.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul 11:ajpendo.00042.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Catholic University, Rome
    To examine the contribution of Non-Esterified Fatty-Acids (NEFA) and incretin to insulin-resistance and diabetes amelioration after malabsorptive metabolic-surgery that dramatically reduces circulating NEFA. In fact, NEFA infusion reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and high-fat diets predict diabetes development. Six healthy-controls, 11 obese and 10 Type-2-Diabetic (T2D) subjects were studied before and 1 month after Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion (BPD). Read More

    The bradykinin-cGMP-PKG pathway augments insulin sensitivity via upregulation of MAPK phosphatase-5 and inhibition of JNK.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 5;313(3):E321-E334. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada;
    Bradykinin (BK) promotes insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in adipocytes and other cell types. We demonstrated that in rat adipocytes BK enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport via endothelial nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and decreased activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase). In endothelial cells, NO increases soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activity, which, in turn, activates protein kinase G (PKG) by increasing cGMP levels. Read More

    Adaptive Facultative Diet-Induced Thermogenesis in Wild-type but not in UCP1-ablated Mice.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul 5:ajpendo.00097.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Stockholm University
    The significance of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) for metabolic control is still debated. Although obesogenic diets recruit UCP1 and adrenergically inducible thermogenesis, and although the absence of UCP1 may promote the development of obesity, no actual UCP1-related thermogenesis identifiable as diet-induced thermogenesis has to date been unambiguously demonstrated. Examining mice living at thermoneutrality, we have identified a process of facultative (directly elicited by acute eating), adaptive (magnitude develops over weeks on an obesogenic diet) and fully UCP1-dependent thermogenesis. Read More

    Factors regulating subcutaneous adipose tissue storage, fibrosis, and inflammation may underlie low fatty acid mobilization in insulin sensitive obese adults.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul 5:ajpendo.00084.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    University of Michigan
    Although the rate of fatty acid release from adipose tissue into the systemic circulation is very high in most obese adults, some obese adults maintain relatively low rates of fatty acid release, which helps protect them against the development of systemic insulin resistance. The primary aim of this study was to identify factors in adipose tissue that may underlie low vs. high rates of fatty acid mobilization in a relatively homogeneous cohort of obese adults. Read More

    High, but not low exercise volume, shifts the balance of renin angiotensin system towards ACE2/Mas receptor axis in skeletal muscle in obese rats.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul 5:ajpendo.00078.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Oswaldo Cruz Institute.
    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic risk factors which is linked to central obesity, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia, where the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) may provide a link among them. This study aimed to evaluate volume exercise effects comparing low versus high volume of chronic aerobic exercise on RAS axes in skeletal muscle in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model. For this, male Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a standard chow diet (SC) or a high-fat diet (HF) for 32 weeks. Read More

    Extra-Ovarian Gonadotropin Negative Feedback Revealed by Aromatase Inhibition in Female Marmoset Monkeys.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul 5:ajpendo.00058.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    University of Wisconsin.
    While the ovary produces the majority of estradiol (E2) in mature female primates, extra-ovarian sources contribute to E2 synthesis and action, including brain E2 regulating hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In ovary-intact female rodent models, aromatase inhibition (AI) induces a PCOS-like hypergonadotropic hyperandrogenism due to absent E2-mediated negative feedback. In order to examine the role of extra-ovarian E2 on nonhuman primate gonadotropin regulation, the present study employs letrozole to elicit AI in adult female marmoset monkeys. Read More

    Maternal methyl donor and cofactor supplementation in late pregnancy increases β-cell numbers at 16 days of life in growth-restricted twin lambs.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul 5:ajpendo.00033.2017. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    University of Adelaide.
    Restricted growth before birth (IUGR) increases adult risk of Type 2 diabetes by impairing insulin sensitivity and secretion. Altered fetal one-carbon metabolism is implicated in developmental programming of adult health and disease by IUGR. We therefore evaluated effects of maternal dietary supplementation with methyl donors and cofactors (MMDS), designed to increase fetal supply, on insulin action in the spontaneously IUGR twin lamb. Read More

    Lipid remodelling and an altered membrane proteome may drive the effects of EPA and DHA treatment on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and protein accretion.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jun 27:ajpendo.00438.2015. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    University of Stirling
    In striated muscle, EPA and DHA have differential effects on the metabolism of glucose and differential effects on the metabolism of protein. We have shown that, despite similar incorporation, treatment of C2C12 myotubes (CM) with EPA but not DHA improves glucose uptake and protein accretion. We hypothesized that these differential effects of EPA and DHA may be due to divergent shifts in lipidomic profiles leading to altered proteomic profiles. Read More

    Deletion of UCP1 enhances ex vivo aortic vasomotor function in female but not male mice despite similar susceptibility to metabolic dysfunction.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jun 27:ajpendo.00096.2017. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    University of Missouri
    Females are typically more insulin sensitive than males which may be partly attributed to greater brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) content. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that UCP1 deletion would abolish sex differences in insulin sensitivity and that whitening of thoracic periaortic BAT caused by UCP1 loss would be accompanied with impaired thoracic aortic function. Furthermore, because UCP1 exerts antioxidant effects, we examined whether UCP1 deficiency-induced metabolic dysfunction was mediated by oxidative stress. Read More

    Increased adipose tissue aromatase activity improves insulin sensitivity and reduces adipose tissue inflammation in male mice.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jun 27:ajpendo.00093.2017. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    University of GothenburgCentre for Bone and Arthritis Research
    Females are in general more insulin sensitive than males. To investigate if this is a direct effect of sex-steroids (SS) in white adipose tissue (WAT), we developed a male mouse model over expressing the aromatase enzyme, converting testosterone (T) to estradiol (E2), specifically in WAT (Ap2-arom mice). Adipose tissue E2 levels were increased while circulating SS levels were unaffected in male Ap2-arom mice. Read More

    Incretin secretion in humans is under the influence of cannabinoid receptors.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 27;313(3):E359-E366. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland.
    The mechanisms regulating incretin secretion are not fully known. Human obesity is associated with altered incretin secretion and elevated endocannabinoid levels. Since cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) are expressed on incretin-secreting cells in rodents, we hypothesized that endocannabinoids are involved in the regulation of incretin secretion. Read More

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Restoration Rescues the Fatty Liver Regeneration in Mice.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jun 27:ajpendo.00032.2017. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Indiana University School of Medicine
    Background: Hepatic steatosis is a common histological finding in obese patients. Even mild steatosis is associated with delayed hepatic regeneration and poor outcomes following liver resection or transplantation. We sought to identify and target molecular pathways that mediate this dysfunction. Read More

    Interrelations between 3-hydroxypropionate and propionate metabolism in rat liver: Relevance to disorders of propionyl-CoA metabolism.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jun 20:ajpendo.00105.2017. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Duke University.
    Propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), methylcitrate, related compounds and ammonium accumulate in body fluids of patients with disorders of propionyl-CoA metabolism, such as propionic acidemia. Although liver transplantation alleviates hyperammonemia, high concentrations of propionate, 3HP and methylcitrate persist in body fluids. We hypothesized that conserved metabolic perturbations occurring in transplanted patients result from the simultaneous presence of propionate and 3HP in body fluids. Read More

    The intestinal-renal axis for arginine synthesis is present and functional in the neonatal pig.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 13;313(2):E233-E242. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    US Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
    The intestinal-renal axis for endogenous arginine synthesis is an interorgan process in which citrulline produced in the small intestine is utilized by the kidney for arginine synthesis. The function of this axis in neonates has been questioned because during this period the enzymes needed for arginine synthesis argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) and lyase (ASL) are present in the gut. However, evidence of high plasma citrulline concentrations in neonates suggests otherwise. Read More

    Map4k4 impairs energy metabolism in endothelial cells and promotes insulin resistance in obesity.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 13;313(3):E303-E313. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts.
    The blood vasculature responds to insulin, influencing hemodynamic changes in the periphery, which promotes tissue nutrient and oxygen delivery and thus metabolic function. The lymphatic vasculature regulates fluid and lipid homeostasis, and impaired lymphatic function can contribute to atherosclerosis and obesity. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as atherosclerosis. Read More

    High-intensity interval training and calorie restriction promote remodeling of glucose and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obesity.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Aug 6;313(2):E243-E256. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Department of Human Studies, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama;
    Calorie restriction (CR) decreases adiposity, but the magnitude and defense of weight loss is less than predicted due to reductions in total daily energy expenditure (TEE). The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would increase markers of sympathetic activation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and rescue CR-mediated reductions in EE to a greater extent than moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training (MIT). Thirty-two 5-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice were placed on ad libitum HFD for 11 wk, followed by randomization to one of four groups (n = 8/group) for an additional 15 wk: 1) CON (remain on HFD), 2) CR (25% lower energy intake), 3) CR + HIIT (25% energy deficit created by 12. Read More

    CNS β3-adrenergic receptor activation regulates feeding behavior, white fat browning, and body weight.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 6;313(3):E344-E358. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Department of Physiology/Metabolic Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden; and
    Pharmacological β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) activation leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process commonly referred to as "browning", and transiently increased insulin release. These effects are associated with improved metabolic function and weight loss. It is assumed that this impact of β3AR agonists is mediated solely through activation of β3ARs in adipose tissue. Read More

    Fibroblast growth factor 21: a regulator of metabolic disease and health span.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep 30;313(3):E292-E302. Epub 2017 May 30.
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China.
    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a potent endocrine regulator with physiological effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and thus garners much attention for its translational potential for the management of obesity and related metabolic syndromes. FGF21 is mainly expressed in several metabolically active tissue organs, such as the liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, with profound effects and therapeutic relevance. Emerging experimental and clinical data point to the demonstrated metabolic benefits of FGF21, which include, but are not limited to, weight loss, glucose and lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Read More

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