Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017 Sep;152(3):420-425
School of Dental Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:
Introduction: Our objectives were to evaluate and compare the digital dental models generated from 2 commercial intraoral scanners with manual measurements when performing 3-dimensional surface measurements along a curved line (curvilinear).
Methods: Dry mandibles (n = 61) with intact dentition were used. The mandibles were digitized using 2 chair-side intraoral scanners: Cadent iTero (Align Technology, San Jose, Calif) and Lythos Digital Impression system (Ormco, Orange, Calif). Read More
Indirect anchorage is an established form of anchorage provided by orthodontic miniscrews. Although there are different ways to set up the mechanics, rigid indirect anchorage offers the greatest biomechanical versatility but is more difficult to install than conventional, nonrigid indirect anchorage or direct anchorage. The purpose of this article was to introduce readers to the concept of rigid indirect anchorage and provide guidelines as to its use. Read More
The purpose of this study was to illustrate the effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy and fixed functional appliance treatment in a 13-year-old Class II malocclusion patient without GH deficiency. GH has been shown to effectively increase endochondral growth and induce a more prognathic skeletal pattern. Although a major concern in Class II retrognathic patients is chin deficiency, long-term studies have shown that the mandibular growth enhancement effects of functional appliances are clinically insignificant. Read More
Class II Division 2 malocclusion is often characterized by severe, traumatic deepbite with lingually inclined and overerupted incisors. Combined orthodontic-orthopedic treatment of this malocclusion is a challenging issue for orthodontists. This case report describes the combined orthodontic-orthopedic treatment of an adolescent Class II Division 2 patient with an extreme deepbite and a retrognathic mandible using the Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device. Read More
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017 Sep;152(3):382-388
Department of Orthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to extend an association study from chromosome 1 to the whole genome (genome-wide association study) to find susceptibility loci of mandibular prognathism.
Methods: Two hundred forty patients diagnosed with mandibular prognathism and 360 healthy controls of Japanese descent were recruited. The typing of microsatellites covering the whole genome was conducted using a pooled DNA method. Read More
Introduction: Patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) suffer from several esthetic and functional challenges. Comprehensive treatment of these patients involves orthognathic surgery that may lead to velopharyngeal insufficiency or reduction in lower airway. Several cases of airway insufficiency, velopharyngeal incompetence, snoring, hypopnea, and obstructive sleep apnea have been reported in subjects with CLP. Read More
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017 Sep;152(3):364-370
Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
Introduction: The aim of this retrospective study was to find out whether different Class II treatments would affect the airway sizes of patients having maxillary protrusion or mandibular retrusion.
Methods: The study sample comprised 57 Class II patients whose upper airway sizes were not significantly different at the start of treatment and whose sagittal skeletal jaw relationships showed that they had maxillary protrusion or mandibular retrusion. Twenty-two of them were treated with cervical headgear, 16 with activator, and 19 were selected as a control. Read More
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017 Sep;152(3):355-363
School of Orthodontics, Unversity of Detroit Mercy, Detroit, Mich.
Introduction: In this article, we aimed to establish an ideal definition for the craniofacial midsagittal plane (MSP) by first finding an optimal "plane of best fit" and then deriving a simple approximation for clinical use that is highly accurate.
Methods: For 60 adolescent patients, 3-dimensional coordinates of 8 central landmarks and 6 pairs of lateral landmarks were collected. Across all patients, the coplanarity of the central landmarks was compared with that of the midpoints of the lateral landmarks. Read More
Introduction: The hypothesis of this study was that multiple factors are dominant in causing external apical root resorption (EARR). The objective of this investigation was to better understand the clinical factors that may lead to EARR.
Methods: Maxillary cone-beam computed tomography scans of 18 subjects who were treated with bilateral canine retractions during orthodontics were used to calculate EARR. Read More
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017 Sep;152(3):336-347
Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Ill.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the 3-dimensional soft tissue changes in growing Class III patients with maxillary deficiency associated with 2 bone-anchored maxillary protraction protocols in relation to an untreated control group of Class III patients.
Methods: Growing skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 10 and 14 years participated in this study. In group 1 (n = 10), skeletally anchored facemasks were used with miniplates placed at the zygomatic buttress. Read More
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017 Sep;152(3):320-326
Department of Orthodontics, Ingá Dental School, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
Introduction: In this study, we aimed to compare the amount and frequency of extraction space reopening after 2- and 4-premolar extraction treatments in Class II and 4-premolar extractions in Class I malocclusion patients.
Methods: The sample comprised 105 subjects with full-cusp Class II and Class I malocclusions, divided into 3 groups. Group 1 consisted of 33 full-cusp Class II malocclusion patients treated with a 2-premolar extraction protocol. Read More
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017 Sep;152(3):312-319
Orthodontic Unit, Melbourne Dental School, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; private practice, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:
Introduction: Iatrogenic damage to the tooth surface in the form of enamel tearouts can occur during removal of fixed orthodontic appliances. The aim of this study was to assess debonded metal and ceramic brackets attached with a variety of bonding materials to determine how frequently this type of damage occurs.
Methods: Eighty-one patients close to finishing fixed orthodontic treatment were recruited. Read More
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017 Sep;152(3):301-311
Department of Orthodontics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
Introduction: The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the influence of cortical bone thickness on the amount of surface microdamage produced after insertion of orthodontic miniscrews (OM) in porcine tibia bone.
Methods: Aarhus OMs (Medicon, Tuttlingen, Germany; diameter, 1.5 mm; length, 6 mm) were inserted into 1. Read More
Our objective was to report the orthodontic and surgical retreatment of a patient who had undergone a prolonged orthodontic treatment with extractions, but who had unsatisfactory results and persistent side effects. The man, aged 25 years 3 months, sought treatment with major complaints of facial and smile asymmetries. The clinical examination showed a mandibular deviation to the right and a maxillary occlusal cant. Read More
This case report describes a surgical orthodontic case that used the recently introduced surgery-first approach to correct a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion. A 19-year-old woman presented with severe mandibular prognathism and facial asymmetry; she had been waiting for growth completion in order to pursue surgical correction. After prediction of the postsurgical tooth movement and surgical simulation, 2-jaw surgery that included maxillary advancement and differential mandibular setback was performed using a surgery-first approach. Read More
Introduction: The purposes of the study were to investigate and evaluate the differences detected by the patients between the traditional orthognathic approach and the surgery-first one in terms of level of satisfaction and quality of life.
Methods: A total of 30 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for correction of malocclusions were selected and included in this study. Fifteen patients were treated with the conventional orthognathic surgery approach, and 15 patients with the surgery-first approach. Read More
Introduction: The Frankfort horizontal (FH) is a plane that intersects both porions and the left orbitale. However, other combinations of points have also been used to define this plane in 3-dimensional cephalometry. These variations are based on the hypothesis that they do not affect the cephalometric analysis. Read More
Introduction: A retrospective study evaluating posttreatment symmetry in dental arch form and midlines was carried out in Class II subdivision patients treated with unilateral and bilateral maxillary premolar extractions.
Methods: Using Geomagic (version 14; Geomagic, Research Triangle Park, NC) and MATLAB (version 8.4; MathWorks, Natick, Mass) software, best-fit curves expressed as quartic polynomials were generated for 13 Class II subdivisions treated with unilateral extractions and 20 treated with bilateral maxillary premolar extractions. Read More
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017 Aug;152(2):224-231
Department of Orthodontic Science, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
Introduction: Although the success of using orthodontic miniscrews for primary insertion has been reported in the literature, few studies have followed up on secondary insertions after failure of the first insertion. In this study, we investigated not only the primary but also secondary success rates of miniscrews and considered the risk factors influencing their stability.
Methods: Five hundred miniscrews were inserted for orthodontic anchorage in 240 patients. Read More
Introduction: Our aim was to describe 3-dimensional condylar deformation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and symptoms and signs of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) in patients with idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR).
Methods: We included 25 patients with ICR and 25 controls. We performed cone-beam computed tomographic scans and analyzed condylar width, length, and height as well as the condylar axial angle and the condylar neck angle. Read More
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to test the null hypothesis that duration of orthodontic treatment can be significantly reduced by accelerating canine retraction using dentoalveolar distraction (DAD).
Methods: Thirty-six maxillary canines of 19 patients comprised the DAD group, and 28 canines of 14 patients were included in the distalization group (DG). The initial mean ages were 15. Read More
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017 Aug;152(2):193-203
Department of Orthodontics, Gangnam Severance Dental Hospital, Institute of Craniofacial Deformity, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:
Introduction: We investigated the long-term success of orthopedic treatment in skeletal Class III malocclusions, established a model to predict its long-term success, and verified previously reported success rates and prediction models.
Methods: Fifty-nine patients who underwent successful facemask treatment and were followed until growth completion were evaluated. After completion of growth, the patients were divided into successful and unsuccessful groups according to overjet, overbite, and facial profile. Read More
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of using the transverse analysis developed at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. The hypotheses were based on the following: (1) Does following CWRU's transverse analysis improve the orthodontic results? (2) Does following CWRU's transverse analysis minimize the active treatment duration?
Methods: A retrospective cohort research study was conducted on a randomly selected sample of 100 subjects. The sample had CWRU's analysis performed retrospectively, and the sample was divided according to whether the subjects followed what CWRU's transverse analysis would have suggested. Read More
Introduction: Tobacco use is related to increased periodontal disease, tooth loss, and decreased success of orthodontic appliances, and it may inhibit orthodontic tooth movement. Most smokers start during adolescence. Since most cessation attempts fail, prevention appears necessary. Read More
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017 Aug;152(2):161-170
School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China; Discipline of Orthodontics, Oral Health Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Introduction: In this study, we used Q methodology to assess the concerns of adults seeking orthodontic treatment and to determine individualized interventions to reduce their anxiety.
Methods: Statements of concern were derived by in-depth interviews with 70 adult patients. Q sorting methodology was then used to identify the main factors associated with anxiety in a cohort of 40 adults who had not been involved in the first part of the study. Read More
Introduction: Patient decision-making aids (PDAs) are instruments that facilitate shared decision making and enable patients to reach informed, individual decisions regarding health care. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a PDA compared with traditional information provision for adolescent patients considering fixed appliance orthodontic treatment.
Methods: Before treatment, orthodontic patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups: the intervention group received the PDA and standard information regarding fixed appliances, and the control group received the standard information only. Read More