12,453 results match your criteria American Journal of Neuroradiology AJNR[Journal]


Clinically Relevant Imaging Features for Promoter Methylation in Multiple Glioblastoma Studies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 12. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

From the Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: () promoter methylation status has been reported as a prognostic biomarker in clinical trials.

Purpose: Our aim was to systematically evaluate imaging features of promoter methylated glioblastoma and to determine the diagnostic performance of MR imaging for prediction of promoter methylation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

Data Sources: A computerized search of Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE up to February 27, 2018, was conducted. Read More

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Preoperative Mapping of the Supplementary Motor Area in Patients with Brain Tumor Using Resting-State fMRI with Seed-Based Analysis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 12. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

From the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences (J.W., A.E.T., S.A., S.K.G., J.J.P., H.I.S.)

Background And Purpose: The supplementary motor area can be a critical region in the preoperative planning of patients undergoing brain tumor resection because it plays a role in both language and motor function. While primary motor regions have been successfully identified using resting-state fMRI, there is variability in the literature regarding the identification of the supplementary motor area for preoperative planning. The purpose of our study was to compare resting-state fMRI to task-based fMRI for localization of the supplementary motor area in a large cohort of patients with brain tumors presenting for preoperative brain mapping. Read More

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Clinical Utility of a Novel Ultrafast T2-Weighted Sequence for Spine Imaging.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 12. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Medical Imaging (M.B.K., B.W., J.L.B., M.I.A., M.S.)

Background And Purpose: TSE-based T2-weighted imaging of the spine has long scan times. This work proposes a fast imaging protocol using variable refocusing flip angles, optimized for blurring and specific absorption rate.

Materials And Methods: A variable refocusing flip angle echo-train was optimized for the spine to improve the point spread function and minimize the specific absorption rate, yielding images with improved spatial resolution and SNR compared with the constant flip angle sequence. Read More

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Application of 3D Fast Spin-Echo T1 Black-Blood Imaging in the Diagnosis and Prognostic Prediction of Patients with Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 12. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

From the Department of Radiology (J.O., S.H.C., E.L., D.J.S., S.W.J., R.-E.Y., K.M.K., T.J.Y., J.-h.K., C.-H.S.), Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Purpose: Contrast-enhanced 3D fast spin-echo T1 black-blood imaging selectively suppresses the signal of blood flow and could provide a higher contrast-to-noise ratio compared with contrast-enhanced 3D ultrafast gradient recalled echo (contrast-enhanced gradient recalled echo) and 2D spin-echo T1WI (contrast-enhanced spin-echo). The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether black-blood imaging can improve the diagnostic accuracy for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis compared with contrast-enhanced gradient recalled-echo and contrast-enhanced spin-echo and, furthermore, to determine whether the grade of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis evaluated on black-blood imaging is a significant predictor of progression-free survival.

Materials And Methods: Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis ( = 78) and healthy ( = 31) groups were enrolled. Read More

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Ultrafast Brain MRI Can Be Used for Indications beyond Shunted Hydrocephalus in Pediatric Patients.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 12. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Department of Neurosurgery (S.S.S., E.S.A., E.M.J.), Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background And Purpose: Evaluation of shunted hydrocephalus is the most common indication for ultrafast brain MRI. Radiation-/sedation-free imaging capabilities make this protocol more desirable over CT and standard brain MRI. We hypothesized that ultrafast brain MRI can be used for selected indications beyond shunted hydrocephalus without adverse outcomes. Read More

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July 2018
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Celebrating 35 Years of the AJNR: July 1983 edition.

Authors:

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul;39(7):1384

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Primary Angioplasty without Stenting for Symptomatic, High-Grade Intracranial Stenosis with Poor Circulation.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 5. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

From the Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background And Purpose: Although the Stenting versus Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) study demonstrated a high incidence of perioperative complications for Intracranial Atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) treatments with stent placement, some studies have shown that submaximal angioplasty with an undersized balloon limits the risks of perioperative complications, suggesting that intervention may remain an alternative option for ICAD if perioperative complications are minimized. We sought to evaluate clinical and angiographic outcomes after primary angioplasty without stent placement in patients with symptomatic, high-grade intracranial stenosis and poor antegrade flow who were refractory to medical therapy.

Materials And Methods: All cases with high-grade, symptomatic intracranial stenosis and poor antegrade flow treated with intracranial angioplasty without stent placement at Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January 2010 to December 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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July 2018
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Impact of Focal White Matter Damage on Localized Subcortical Gray Matter Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis: A 5-Year Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 5. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

From the Department of Neurology (T.F., K.C., N.B., D.R., D.J., R.Z., M.G.D.), Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center

Background And Purpose: It is unclear to what extent subcortical gray matter atrophy is a primary process as opposed to a result of focal white matter damage. Correlations between WM damage and atrophy of subcortical gray matter have been observed but may be partly attributable to indirect relationships between co-occurring processes arising from a common cause. Our aim was to cross-sectionally and longitudinally characterize the unique impact of focal WM damage on the atrophy of connected subcortical gray matter regions, beyond what is explainable by global disease progression. Read More

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July 2018
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Noncontrast Head CT in Children: National Variation in Radiation Dose Indices in the United States.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 5. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Radiology (K.E.A.), University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

Background And Purpose: Radiologists should manage the radiation dose for pediatric patients to maintain reasonable diagnostic confidence. We assessed the variation in estimated radiation dose indices for pediatric noncontrast head CT in the United States.

Materials And Methods: Radiation dose indices for single-phase noncontrast head CT examinations in patients 18 years of age and younger were retrospectively reviewed between July 2011 and June 2016 using the American College of Radiology CT Dose Index Registry. Read More

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Brain Perfusion Measurements Using Multidelay Arterial Spin-Labeling Are Systematically Biased by the Number of Delays.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 5. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

From the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva (M.v.d.T., P.G., N.G., D.v.d.V., S.H.), Geneva, Switzerland

Background And Purpose: Multidelay arterial spin-labeling is a promising emerging method in clinical practice. The effect of imaging parameters in multidelay arterial spin-labeling on estimated cerebral blood flow measurements remains unknown. We directly compared 3-delay versus 7-delay sequences, assessing the difference in the estimated transit time and blood flow. Read More

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July 2018
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Prognostic Value of the Metabolic and Volumetric Parameters of C-Methionine Positron-Emission Tomography for Gliomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 28. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Nuclear Medicine (Y.-i.K., J.Y.L., S.J.J.), CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Republic of Korea

Background: Several studies have demonstrated that C-methionine positron-emission tomography provides information on prognosis.

Purpose: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prognostic value of the metabolic and volumetric parameters of C-methionine-PET for gliomas.

Data Sources: A systematic search was performed using the following combination of keywords: "methionine," "PET," "glioma," and "prognosis. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Comparative Study of MRI Biomarkers in the Substantia Nigra to Discriminate Idiopathic Parkinson Disease.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 28. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

From the Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (N.P., B.M., M.M., L.Y.-C., R.V., D.A., M.V., S.L.), Centre de NeuroImagerie de Recherche, Paris, France.

Background And Purpose: Several new MR imaging techniques have shown promising results in patients with Parkinson disease; however, the comparative diagnostic values of these measures at the individual level remain unclear. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of MR imaging biomarkers of substantia nigra damage for distinguishing patients with Parkinson disease from healthy volunteers.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-six patients and 20 healthy volunteers were prospectively included. Read More

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June 2018
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Assessing Corticospinal Tract Asymmetry in Unilateral Polymicrogyria.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 28. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

From the Departments of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy (O.F., K.-H.N., T.T.-W., D.P., G.K.)

Background And Purpose: Asymmetry of the corticospinal tract in congenital lesions is a good prognostic marker for preserved motor function after hemispherectomy. This study aimed to assess this marker and provide a clinically feasible approach in selected cases of unilateral polymicrogyria.

Materials And Methods: Corticospinal tract asymmetry of 9 patients with unilateral polymicrogyria substantially affecting the central region was retrospectively assessed on axial T1WI and DTI. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Morphology-Specific Discrimination between MS White Matter Lesions and Benign White Matter Hyperintensities Using Ultra-High-Field MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

From the Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program (Z.H., R.S.M., M.D.)

Background And Purpose: Recently published North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis guidelines call for derivation of a specific radiologic definition of MS WM lesions and mimics. The purpose of this study was to use SWI and magnetization-prepared FLAIR images for sensitive differentiation of MS from benign WM lesions using the morphologic characteristics of WM lesions.

Materials And Methods: Seventeen patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 18 healthy control subjects were enrolled retrospectively. Read More

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C1 Posterior Arch Flare Point: A Useful Landmark for Fluoroscopically Guided C1-2 Puncture.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

From the Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences (M.E.P., L.M.S., A.T., E.P.Q., T.A.H.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Background And Purpose: The C1-2 intrathecal puncture is routinely performed when lumbar puncture is not feasible. Usage has steadily decreased in part because of the perceived high risk of injury to the cervical cord. Up to this point, vague fluoroscopic guidelines have been used, creating uncertainty about the actual needle location relative to the spinal cord. Read More

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Time Course of Cerebral Perfusion Changes in Children with Migraine with Aura Mimicking Stroke.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Division of Pediatric Neuroradiology (G.Z.), Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Hemiplegic migraine is a common cause of acute brain attack in pediatrics. MR imaging sequences useful in differentiating hemiplegic migraine from other entities include arterial spin-labeling, SWI, MRA, and DWI. There has been limited exploration on the simultaneous use of these sequences in pediatrics. Read More

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Zonally Magnified Oblique Multislice and Non-Zonally Magnified Oblique Multislice DWI of the Cervical Spinal Cord.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

From the Department of Radiology (M.A., M.M.P., J.F., R.J.T.G., A.D., F.B.M., A.E.F.), Jefferson Integrated Magnetic Resonance Imaging Center

Background And Purpose: The zonally magnified oblique multislice EPI (ZOOM-EPI) diffusion-weighted sequence has been visually shown to provide superior MR diffusion image quality compared with the full-FOV single-shot EPI sequence (non-ZOOM-EPI) in the adult cervical spinal cord. The purpose of this study was to examine the diffusion tensor imaging indices in the normal human cervical spinal cord between ZOOMED and non-ZOOMED DTI acquisitions and determine whether DTI values are comparable between direct and indirect age-matched groups.

Materials And Methods: Fifty-four subjects 23-58 years of age (9 direct age-matched and 45 indirect age-matched) were scanned using a 1. Read More

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Prognostic Implications of Gadolinium Enhancement of Skull Base Chordomas.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

From the Departments of Radiology (E.L., C.D.P.).

Background And Purpose: Skull base chordomas often demonstrate variable MR imaging characteristics, and there has been limited prior research investigating the potential clinical relevance of this variability. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the prognostic implications of signal intensity on standard imaging techniques for the biologic behavior of skull base chordomas.

Materials And Methods: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for 22 patients with pathologically confirmed skull base chordomas. Read More

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Detection and Characteristics of Temporal Encephaloceles in Patients with Refractory Epilepsy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Radiology and Radiologic Science (M.Y., M.V.S.), Neuroradiology.

Background And Purpose: Temporal encephaloceles are increasingly visualized during neuroimaging assessment of individuals with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, and their identification could indicate an intracranial abnormality that may be related to a potential seizure focus. Careful review by an experienced neuroradiologist may yield improved detection of TEs, and other clinical, neurophysiologic, and radiologic findings may predict their presence.

Materials And Methods: Data were reviewed retrospectively in patients at our institution who were presented at a multidisciplinary conference for refractory epilepsy between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2016. Read More

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MR Imaging Features of Anaplastic Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma Mimicking High-Grade Astrocytoma.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Siemens Healthcare Ltd (Z.Z.), Shanghai, P.R. China.

Background And Purpose: Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, which has been recently defined as a distinct entity in the 2016 World Health Organization classification, may exhibit aggressive clinical behavior and relatively worse prognosis than pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. This study aimed to investigate whether there were any differences in MR imaging characteristics between these 2 tumors.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 9 patients with anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma and 10 patients with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma who underwent MR imaging before an operation. Read More

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Contextual Radiology Reporting: A New Approach to Neuroradiology Structured Templates.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

From the Department of Radiology (M.D.M., R.R.S.), The Permanente Medical Group, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California.

Structured reporting has many advantages over conventional narrative reporting and has been advocated for standard usage by radiologic societies and literature. Traditional structured reports though are often not tailored to the appropriate clinical situation, are generic, and can be overly constraining. Contextual reporting is an alternative method of structured reporting that is specifically related to the disease or examination indication. Read More

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Improved Detection of New MS Lesions during Follow-Up Using an Automated MR Coregistration-Fusion Method.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 7;39(7):1226-1232. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

From the Departments of Radiology (A.G.P., A.C., L.D., J.C.S., J.S., A.L.)

Background And Purpose: MR imaging is the key examination in the follow-up of patients with MS, by identification of new high-signal T2 brain lesions. However, identifying new lesions when scrolling through 2 follow-up MR images can be difficult and time-consuming. Our aim was to compare an automated coregistration-fusion reading approach with the standard approach by identifying new high-signal T2 brain lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis during follow-up MR imaging. Read More

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July 2018
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Neurodevelopmental Correlates of Fetal Motor Behavior Assessed Using Cine MR Imaging.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

From the Centre for the Developing Brain (T.T.A.H., V.K., J.V.H., M.A.R.), Perinatal Imaging and Health, Imaging Sciences & Biomedical Engineering Division, King's College London, London, UK.

Background And Purpose: Fetal motor behavior is widely used as a clinical indicator for healthy development; however, our understanding of its potential as a marker for neurologic integrity is underdeveloped. MR imaging allows complete views of the whole fetus, which, combined with brain imaging, may improve the characterization of this relationship. This study aimed to combine an analysis of fetal motor behavior, brain MR imaging, and postnatal outcome, to provide insight into neurodevelopmental correlates of motor behavior. Read More

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Thalamocortical Connections and Executive Function in Pediatric Temporal and Frontal Lobe Epilepsy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Diagnostic Imaging (E.W.)

Background And Purpose: Largely accepted in the literature is the role the interconnections between the thalamus and cortex play in generalized epilepsy. However, thalamocortical involvement is less understood in focal epilepsy in terms of the effect of seizures on thalamocortical circuitry in the developing brain and subsequent cognitive outcome. We investigated thalamocortical pathway microstructure in pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy and examined the associations between pathway microstructure and measures of executive function. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

William G. Bradley Jr, MD, PhD, FACR.

Authors:
A Norbash

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

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Risk of Branch Occlusion and Ischemic Complications with the Pipeline Embolization Device in the Treatment of Posterior Circulation Aneurysms.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 7;39(7):1303-1309. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

From the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (N.A., C.J.G., A.A.D., R.G., J.M., C.S.O., A.J.T.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

Background And Purpose: Flow diversion with the Pipeline Embolization Device is increasingly used for endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms due to high reported obliteration rates and low associated morbidity. While obliteration of covered branches in the anterior circulation is generally asymptomatic, this has not been studied within the posterior circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between branch coverage and occlusion, as well as associated ischemic events in a cohort of patients with posterior circulation aneurysms treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device. Read More

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July 2018
5 Reads

Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping after Sports-Related Concussion.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 7;39(7):1215-1221. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Neurosurgery (T.B.M., L.T.M., M.M.), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Background And Purpose: Quantitative susceptibility mapping using MR imaging can assess changes in brain tissue structure and composition. This report presents preliminary results demonstrating changes in tissue magnetic susceptibility after sports-related concussion.

Materials And Methods: Longitudinal quantitative susceptibility mapping metrics were produced from imaging data acquired from cohorts of concussed and control football athletes. Read More

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Visualization and Classification of Deeply Seated Collateral Networks in Moyamoya Angiopathy with 7T MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 7;39(7):1248-1254. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

From the Department of Neurosurgery (T.M., T.S., R.J., U.S., K.H.W.), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

Background And Purpose: Collateral networks in Moyamoya angiopathy have a complex angioarchitecture difficult to comprehend on conventional examinations. This study aimed to evaluate morphologic patterns and the delineation of deeply seated collateral networks using ultra-high-field MRA in comparison with conventional DSA.

Materials And Methods: Fifteen white patients with Moyamoya angiopathy were investigated in this prospective trial. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Radiology Asan Medical Center University of Ulsan College of Medicine Seoul, Korea.

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Detection of the Stellate and Thoracic Sympathetic Chain Ganglia with High-Resolution 3D-CISS MR Imaging.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.

Radiology and Radiologic Sciences (A.M.B.), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

Background And Purpose: Despite the importance of the sympathetic nervous system in homeostasis and its putative role in various disease states, little is known regarding our ability to image the sympathetic chain and sympathetic chain ganglia, perhaps owing to their small size. In this retrospective study, we sought to evaluate the normal anatomy of the sympathetic chain ganglia and assess the detectability of the sympathetic chain and sympathetic chain ganglia on high-resolution 3D-CISS images.

Materials And Methods: This study included 29 patients who underwent 3D-CISS MR imaging of the thoracic spine for reasons unrelated to abnormalities of the sympathetic nervous system. Read More

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Reversible Dilation of the Superior Ophthalmic Vein in Intubated Patients.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.

From the Department of Neuroradiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background And Purpose: Superior ophthalmic vein enlargement has typically been associated with increased intracranial or orbital pressure. This study evaluates the incidence of superior ophthalmic vein enlargement in intubated patients without pre-existing intracranial or intraorbital pathologies.

Materials And Methods: Two cohorts (patients with trauma and epilepsy patients undergoing stereotactic intracranial lead placement) who underwent CT while intubated and shortly following extubation and a cohort of 30 outpatients with a history of headache and normal head CT findings (healthy controls) were included. Read More

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Global and Widespread Local White Matter Abnormalities in Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 31;39(7):1349-1354. Epub 2018 May 31.

From the Department of Radiology (U.R., T.J.R., A.H., A.T., M.H.B., T.A.), HUS Medical Imaging Center.

Background And Purpose: Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a progressive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease of childhood. It manifests with loss of vision, seizures, and loss of cognitive and motor functions leading to premature death. Previous MR imaging studies have reported cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, progressive hippocampal atrophy, thalamic signal intensity alterations, and decreased white matter volume in the corona radiata. Read More

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Multisite Concordance of DSC-MRI Analysis for Brain Tumors: Results of a National Cancer Institute Quantitative Imaging Network Collaborative Project.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 24;39(6):1008-1016. Epub 2018 May 24.

Division of Imaging Research (L.B., C.C.Q.), Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona.

Background And Purpose: Standard assessment criteria for brain tumors that only include anatomic imaging continue to be insufficient. While numerous studies have demonstrated the value of DSC-MR imaging perfusion metrics for this purpose, they have not been incorporated due to a lack of confidence in the consistency of DSC-MR imaging metrics across sites and platforms. This study addresses this limitation with a comparison of multisite/multiplatform analyses of shared DSC-MR imaging datasets of patients with brain tumors. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Percutaneous Microwave Ablation and Cementoplasty in the Treatment of Painful Spinal Metastases and Myeloma.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 24;39(7):1376-1383. Epub 2018 May 24.

Orthopedics (J.S.B.), University of Mississippi Medical Centre, Jackson, Mississippi.

Background And Purpose: Painful spinal metastases are a common cause of cancer-related morbidity. Percutaneous ablation presents an attractive minimally invasive alternative to conventional therapies. We performed a retrospective review of 69 patients with 102 painful spinal metastases undergoing microwave ablation and cementoplasty to determine the efficacy and safety of this treatment. Read More

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Abnormal Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Fluctuations in Focal Cortical Dysplasia and the Perilesional Zone: Initial Findings.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 24;39(7):1310-1315. Epub 2018 May 24.

From the Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (L.G., P.A.M.H., R.M.H.B., J.F.A.J., W.H.B.)

Background And Purpose: Focal cortical dysplasia is a common cause of intractable epilepsy for which neurosurgery is an option. Delineations of a focal cortical dysplasia lesion on structural brain images may not necessarily reflect the functional borders of normal tissue. Our objective was to determine whether abnormalities in spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations arise in focal cortical dysplasia lesions and proximal regions. Read More

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Clinical Significance of Intraplaque Hemorrhage in Low- and High-Grade Basilar Artery Stenosis on High-Resolution MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 24;39(7):1286-1292. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Radiology (X.T., Z.S., X.Z., L.C., J.L., Q.L.), Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, China

Background And Purpose: Intraplaque hemorrhage within intracranial atherosclerotic plaques identified by high-resolution MR imaging has been studied as a potential marker of stroke risk. However, previous studies only examined intracranial arteries with high-grade stenosis (degree of stenosis, >50%). This study aimed to ascertain the clinical relevance of intraplaque hemorrhage in patients with low- and high-grade stenotic basilar artery plaques. Read More

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Prevalence of Cerebral Microhemorrhage following Chronic Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Military Service Members Using Susceptibility-Weighted MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 24;39(7):1222-1225. Epub 2018 May 24.

From the Departments of Radiology (E.L., C.M., Y.W.L.)

Background And Purpose: Cerebral microhemorrhages are a known marker of mild traumatic brain injury. Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury relates to a propagating pressure wave, and there is evidence that the mechanism of injury in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury may be different from that in blunt head trauma. Two recent reports in mixed cohorts of blunt and blast-related traumatic brain injury in military personnel suggest that the prevalence of cerebral microhemorrhages is lower than in civilian head injury. Read More

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Hematocrit Measurement with R2* and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in Postmortem Brain.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 24;39(7):1260-1266. Epub 2018 May 24.

From the Departments of Biomedical Engineering (A.J.W., H.S., A.H.W.)

Background And Purpose: Noninvasive venous oxygenation quantification with MR imaging will improve the neurophysiologic investigation and the understanding of the pathophysiology in neurologic diseases. Available MR imaging methods are limited by sensitivity to flow and often require assumptions of the hematocrit level. In situ postmortem imaging enables evaluation of methods in a fully deoxygenated environment without flow artifacts, allowing direct calculation of hematocrit. Read More

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MSVAT-SPACE-STIR and SEMAC-STIR for Reduction of Metallic Artifacts in 3T Head and Neck MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 24;39(7):1322-1329. Epub 2018 May 24.

From the Department of Neuroradiology, (T.H., M.P., M.B., S.H., A.J.)

Background And Purpose: The incidence of metallic dental restorations and implants is increasing, and head and neck MR imaging is becoming challenging regarding artifacts. Our aim was to evaluate whether multiple-slab acquisition with view angle tilting gradient based on a sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolution (MSVAT-SPACE)-STIR and slice-encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC)-STIR are beneficial regarding artifact suppression compared with the SPACE-STIR and TSE-STIR in vitro and in vivo.

Materials And Methods: At 3T, 3D artifacts of 2 dental implants, supporting different single crowns, were evaluated. Read More

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Mobile Stroke Unit Reduces Time to Image Acquisition and Reporting.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 17;39(7):1293-1295. Epub 2018 May 17.

Neurology (R.G.K., D.V.D., B.S., W.J.J.), University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.

Timely administration of thrombolytic therapy is critical to maximizing the likelihood of favorable outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Although emergency medical service activation overall improves the timeliness of acute stroke treatment, the time from emergency medical service dispatch to hospital arrival unavoidably decreases the timeliness of thrombolytic administration. Our mobile stroke unit, a new-generation ambulance with on-board CT scanning capability, reduces key imaging time metrics and facilitates in-the-field delivery of IV thrombolytic therapy. Read More

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Radiation-Induced Myelitis: Initial and Follow-Up MRI and Clinical Features in Patients at a Single Tertiary Care Institution during 20 Years.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 May 17. Epub 2018 May 17.

Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology (M.K., I.I.), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

Myelitis is a rare complication of radiation exposure to the spinal cord and is often a diagnosis of exclusion. A retrospective review of clinical records and serial imaging was performed to identify subjects with documented myelitis and a history of prior radiation. Eleven patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Read More

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Balanced Steady-State Free Precession Sequence (CISS/FIESTA/3D Driven Equilibrium Radiofrequency Reset Pulse) Increases the Diagnostic Yield for Spinal Drop Metastases in Children with Brain Tumors.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 17;39(7):1355-1361. Epub 2018 May 17.

From the Department of Neuroradiology (K.B., P.C., S.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

Background And Purpose: Identification of spinal drop metastases is important in the staging and management of pediatric patients with primary brain tumors. Our aim was to assess the diagnostic utility of the balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence (CISS/FIESTA/3D driven equilibrium radiofrequency reset pulse) for the detection of spinal drop metastases in pediatric patients with primary intracranial tumors.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective study of 44 pediatric patients with primary intracranial tumors undergoing MR imaging spine evaluation for drop metastases before radiation treatment. Read More

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Another Important Pitfall in the Diagnosis of Dural Sinus Thrombosis in Neonates.

Authors:
A Hakim F Wagner

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 May 17. Epub 2018 May 17.

University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology Bern University Hospital, Inselspital, University of Bern Bern, Switzerland.

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May 2018
3 Reads

Rapid-Sequence MRI of the Brain: A Distinct Imaging Study.

Authors:
C M Pfeifer

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 May 17. Epub 2018 May 17.

Department of Radiology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, Texas.

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Prediction of Borderzone Infarction by CTA in Patients Undergoing Carotid Embolization for Carotid Blowout.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jul 17;39(7):1280-1285. Epub 2018 May 17.

Research Center for Adaptive Data Analysis (A.H.), National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan.

Background And Purpose: Permanent common carotid artery and/or ICA occlusion is an effective treatment for carotid blowout syndrome. Besides postoperative thromboembolic infarction, permanent common carotid artery and/or ICA occlusion may cause borderzone infarction when the collateral flow to the deprived brain territory is inadequate. In this study, we aimed to test the predictive value of CTA for post-permanent common carotid artery and/or ICA occlusion borderzone infarction in patients with carotid blowout syndrome. Read More

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Neuroimaging Findings of Zika Virus-Associated Neurologic Complications in Adults.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 May 17. Epub 2018 May 17.

Department of Neurological Sciences (I.R.F.d.S.), Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

When the first suspected cases of neurologic disorders associated with the Zika virus were noticed in Brazil in late 2015, several studies had been conducted to understand the pathophysiology of the disease and its associated complications. In addition to its well-established association with microcephaly in neonates, the Zika virus infection has also been suggested to trigger other severe neurologic complications in adults, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, radiculomyelitis, and meningoencephalitis. Hence, the Zika virus should be deemed a global threat that can cause devastating neurologic complications among individuals in all age ranges. Read More

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May 2018
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Postnatal Brain Growth Assessed by Sequential Cranial Ultrasonography in Infants Born <30 Weeks' Gestational Age.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jun 17;39(6):1170-1176. Epub 2018 May 17.

From the Victorian Infant Brain Studies research group (R.C., A.J.S., K.J.L., L.W.D., J.L.Y.C.), Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Background And Purpose: Brain growth in the early postnatal period following preterm birth has not been well described. This study of infants born at <30 weeks' gestational age and without major brain injury aimed to accomplish the following: 1) assess the reproducibility of linear measures made from cranial ultrasonography, 2) evaluate brain growth using sequential cranial ultrasonography linear measures from birth to term-equivalent age, and 3) explore perinatal predictors of postnatal brain growth.

Materials And Methods: Participants comprised 144 infants born at <30 weeks' gestational age at a single center between January 2011 and December 2013. Read More

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