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    12334 results match your criteria American Journal of Neuroradiology AJNR[Journal]

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    Anatomic Malformations of the Middle and Inner Ear in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Case Series and Literature Review.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    From the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (E.V., H.G.X.M.T.).
    Background And Purpose: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is characterized by a heterogenic phenotype, including hearing loss. The underlying cause of hearing loss, especially sensorineural hearing loss, is not yet clear. Read More

    Randomized Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of Intra-Arterial Infusion of Autologous Stem Cells in Subacute Ischemic Stroke.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    From the Departments of Radiodiagnosis (V.B., V.G., N.K.).
    Background And Purpose: Stroke is a debilitating illness for which treatment window is limited. Most patients present to the healthcare facility beyond that window. Autologous stem cells have shown some promise for this group of patients. Read More

    European Multicenter Study for the Evaluation of a Dual-Layer Flow-Diverting Stent for Treatment of Wide-Neck Intracranial Aneurysms: The European Flow-Redirection Intraluminal Device Study.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Department of Neuroradiology (M.M.), Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background And Purpose: Endoluminal reconstruction with flow-diverting stents represents a widely accepted technique for the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms. This European registry study analyzed the initial experience of 15 neurovascular centers with the Flow-Redirection Intraluminal Device (FRED) system.

    Materials And Methods: Consecutive patients with intracranial aneurysms treated with the FRED between February 2012 and March 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

    Brain Diffusion Abnormalities in Children with Tension-Type and Migraine-Type Headaches.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Department of Radiology (K.W.Y.), Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
    Background And Purpose: Tension-type and migraine-type headaches are the most common chronic paroxysmal disorders of childhood. The goal of this study was to compare regional cerebral volumes and diffusion in tension-type and migraine-type headaches against published controls.

    Materials And Methods: Patients evaluated for tension-type or migraine-type headache without aura from May 2014 to July 2016 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

    The Importance of Flexion MRI in Hirayama Disease with Special Reference to Laminodural Space Measurements.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Neurology (B.S.), Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India.
    Background And Purpose: Hirayama disease is a benign focal amyotrophy of the distal upper limbs involving C7, C8, and T1 segmental myotomes with sparing of the brachioradialis and proximal muscles of the upper limb innervated by C5-6 myotomes. The objective of the present study was to study the utility of MR imaging in young patients presenting with weakness and wasting of the distal upper extremity and to evaluate the importance of the laminodural space during flexion cervical MR imaging.

    Materials And Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from January 2014 to July 2017 in a tertiary care center from Northeast India. Read More

    Localized Marked Elongation of the Distal Internal Carotid Artery with or without PHACE Syndrome: Segmental Dolichoectasia of the Distal Internal Carotid Artery.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    From the Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (Z.Y.J., L.B.Z., D.H.L.), Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Background And Purpose: Segmental intracranial dolichoectasia of the distal ICA is a feature of PHACE syndrome or a sporadic phenomenon. We evaluated the relationship between intracranial dolichoectasia of the distal ICA and PHACE syndrome and illustrated the characteristic radiologic findings of the lesions.

    Materials And Methods: Intracranial dolichoectasia of the distal ICA was identified in 20 patients at our institution from 2005 to 2016 through a review of diagnostic cerebral angiography results. Read More

    Endovascular Treatment of Very Large and Giant Intracranial Aneurysms: Comparison between Reconstructive and Deconstructive Techniques-A Meta-Analysis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    From the Neuroradiology Department (F.C., D.M., P.-H.L., C.D., G.G., C.R., A.B., V.C.), University Hospital Güi de Chauliac, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
    Background: The safety and efficacy of reconstructive and deconstructive endovascular treatments of very large/giant intracranial aneurysms are not completely clear.

    Purpose: Our aim was to compare treatment-related outcomes between these 2 techniques.

    Data Sources: A systematic search of 3 data bases was performed for studies published from 1990 to 2017. Read More

    Evaluation of the Normal Cochlear Second Interscalar Ridge Angle and Depth on 3D T2-Weighted Images: A Tool for the Diagnosis of Scala Communis and Incomplete Partition Type II.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Otolaryngology (C.W., J.W.K., M.M., B.I.), Children's Medical Center of Dallas, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.
    Background And Purpose: Cochlear malformations may be be subtle on imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angle and depth of the lateral second interscalar ridge or notch in ears without sensorineural hearing loss (normal ears) and compare them with ears that have a documented incomplete type II partition malformation.

    Materials And Methods: The second interscalar ridge notch angle and depth were measured on MR imaging in normal ears by a single experienced neuroradiologist. Read More

    MRI Characteristics of Primary Tumors and Metastatic Lesions in Molecular Subgroups of Pediatric Medulloblastoma: A Single-Center Study.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    From the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (D.M.-M., S.L., C.R.)
    Background And Purpose: Molecular grouping of medulloblastoma correlates with prognosis and supports the therapeutic strategy. We provide our experience with the imaging features of primary and metastatic disease in relation to the molecular groups.

    Materials And Methods: One hundred nineteen consecutive patients (mean age, 7. Read More

    Arterial Spin-Labeling Improves Detection of Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas with MRI.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    From the Department of Radiology (S.A.A., M.P.M., G.Z., R.B., N.F.), Stanford University, Stanford, California.
    Background And Purpose: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas carry a risk of substantial neurologic complications but can be difficult to detect on structural MR imaging and TOF-MRA. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and added value of 3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling MR imaging for the detection of these lesions.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 39 patients with a dural arteriovenous fistula and 117 controls who had undergone both DSA and MR imaging with pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling. Read More

    Whole-Tumor Histogram and Texture Analyses of DTI for Evaluation of-Mutation and 1p/19q-Codeletion Status in World Health Organization Grade II Gliomas.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Departments of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science (Y.W.P., K.H., S.S.A., Y.S.C., S.-K.L.).
    Background And Purpose: Prediction of the(IDH1)-mutation and 1p/19q-codeletion status of World Health Organization grade ll gliomas preoperatively may assist in predicting prognosis and planning treatment strategies. Our aim was to characterize the histogram and texture analyses of apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy maps to determine-mutation and 1p/19q-codeletion status in World Health Organization grade II gliomas.

    Materials And Methods: Ninety-three patients with World Health Organization grade II gliomas with knownmutation and 1p/19q-codeletion status (18wild-type, 45mutant and no 1p/19q codeletion, 30mutant and 1p/19q codeleted tumors) underwent DTI. Read More

    MRI Features Can Predict 1p/19q Status in Intracranial Gliomas.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Department of Anatomical Pathology (M.G.), The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
    Background And Purpose: The 2016 revision of themandates codeletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q for the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. We studied whether conventional MR imaging features could predict 1p/19q status.

    Materials And Methods: Patients with previous 1p/19q testing were identified through pathology department records, typically performed on the basis of an oligodendroglial component on routine histology; 69 patients met the inclusion criteria. Read More

    Prenatal Brain MR Imaging: Reference Linear Biometric Centiles between 20 and 24 Gestational Weeks.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Department of Paediatric Radiology and Neuroradiology (A.R., G.I., C.D., C.P.), Ospedale dei Bambini "V. Buzzi," Milan, Italy.
    Background And Purpose: Evaluation of biometry is a fundamental step in prenatal brain MR imaging. While different studies have reported reference centiles for MR imaging biometric data of fetuses in the late second and third trimesters of gestation, no one has reported them in fetuses in the early second trimester. We report centiles of normal MR imaging linear biometric data of a large cohort of fetal brains within 24 weeks of gestation. Read More

    Fast and Robust Unsupervised Identification of MS Lesion Change Using the Statistical Detection of Changes Algorithm.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    From the Department of Radiology (T.D.N., S.Z., A.G., Y.W.).
    We developed a robust automated algorithm called statistical detection of changes for detecting morphologic changes of multiple sclerosis lesions between 2 T2-weighted FLAIR brain images. Results from 30 patients showed that statistical detection of changes achieved significantly higher sensitivity and specificity (0.964, 95% CI, 0. Read More

    Congenital Aqueductal Stenosis: Findings at Fetal MRI That Accurately Predict a Postnatal Diagnosis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Department of Radiology (C.V.G., A.R.M.-R., C.I.C., N.K.D., M.J.P.).
    Background And Purpose: Congenital aqueductal stenosis is a common cause of prenatal ventriculomegaly. An accurate diagnosis provides prognostic information and may guide obstetric management. The purpose of this study was to identify specific anatomic findings on prenatal MR imaging that can be used as predictors of congenital aqueductal stenosis. Read More

    Long-Term Outcomes of Patients with Stent Tips Embedded into Internal Carotid Artery Branches during Aneurysm Coiling.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    From the Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
    Background And Purpose: During stent-assisted coiling of ICA aneurysms, stent tips are sometimes unintentionally embedded into ICA branches. Stent tips can be visualized because they have radiopaque markers. Concerns regarding stent tip misplacement include risks of artery perforation and occlusion. Read More

    Quantitative Phase-Contrast MR Angiography to Measure Hemodynamic Changes in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    From the Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology (J.J., T.L., C.R., O.J., A.R.).
    Background And Purpose: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a syndrome of raised intracranial pressure of unknown etiology. Few MR imaging-based studies have investigated arterial and venous blood flow in these patients. Results are inconclusive, and to our knowledge, no comparison of the hemodynamic parameters before and after CSF pressure reduction has been published. Read More

    Utility of Repeat Head CT in Patients with Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury Presenting with Small Isolated Falcine or Tentorial Subdural Hematomas.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 1. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Department of Neurological Surgery (G.M., M.C.H.), Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California.
    Background And Purpose: In blunt traumatic brain injury with isolated falcotentorial subdural hematoma not amenable to neurosurgical intervention, the routinely performed, nonvalidated practice of serial head CT scans frequently necessitates increased hospital resources and exposure to ionizing radiation. The study goal was to evaluate clinical and imaging features of isolated falcotentorial subdural hematoma at presentation and short-term follow-up.

    Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients presenting to a level 1 trauma center from January 2013 to March 2015 undergoing initial and short-term follow-up CT with initial findings positive for isolated subdural hematoma along the falx and/or tentorium. Read More

    Radiation Dosimetry of 3D Rotational Neuroangiography and 2D-DSA in Children.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 1. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    From the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (N.A.S., M.M.S., P.M.), The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Background And Purpose: The benefit-risk assessment concerning radiation use in pediatric neuroangiography requires an extensive understanding of the doses delivered. This work evaluated the effective dose of 3D rotational angiography in a cohort of pediatric patients with complex neurovascular lesions and directly compared it with conventional 2D-biplane DSA.

    Materials And Methods: Thirty-three 3D rotational angiography acquisitions were acquired in 24 pediatric patients (mean age, 10. Read More

    Altered Regional Homogeneity in Chronic Insomnia Disorder with or without Cognitive Impairment.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 1. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    From the Departments of Radiology (R.P., M.L., Z.W., K.L.)
    Background And Purpose: Many studies have shown that insomnia is an independent factor in cognitive impairment, but the involved neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. We used regional homogeneity to explore the specific neurobiologic indicators of chronic insomnia disorder with mild cognitive impairment.

    Materials And Methods: Thirty-nine patients with insomnia were divided into a group with and without cognitive impairment; we also included a control group (= 28). Read More

    Normal Values of Magnetic Relaxation Parameters of Spine Components with the Synthetic MRI Sequence.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Mar 1. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    From the Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (M.D.-P., J.B., A.F., K.-O.L., M.I.V.), Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    Background And Purpose: SyMRI is a technique developed to perform quantitative MR imaging. Our aim was to analyze its potential use for measuring relaxation times of normal components of the spine and to compare them with values found in the literature using relaxometry and other techniques.

    Materials And Methods: Thirty-two spine MR imaging studies (10 cervical, 5 dorsal, 17 lumbosacral) were included. Read More

    HARMless: Transient Cortical and Sulcal Hyperintensity on Gadolinium-Enhanced FLAIR after Elective Endovascular Coiling of Intracranial Aneurysms.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    From the Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging (S.S., C.C.-T.H., A.B.).
    Background And Purpose: Cortical and sulcal hyperintensity on gadolinium-enhanced FLAIR has been increasingly recognized after iodinated contrast medium exposure during angiographic procedures. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship of cortical and sulcal hyperintensity on gadolinium-enhanced FLAIR against various variables in patients following elective endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms.

    Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 58 patients with 62 MR imaging studies performed within 72 hours following endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Read More

    Quantification of Intracranial Aneurysm Volume Pulsation with 7T MRI.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.K., B.S., E.K., Y.M.R., L.R., G.J.E.R., B.H.V.), Brain Center Rudolf Magnus.
    Background And Purpose: Aneurysm volume pulsation is a potential predictor of intracranial aneurysm rupture. We evaluated whether 7T MR imaging can quantify aneurysm volume pulsation.

    Materials And Methods: In Stage I of the study, 10 unruptured aneurysms in 9 patients were studied using a high-resolution (0. Read More

    Revenue Increase following 2017 Multiple Procedures Payment Reduction Modification: Differential Impact on Neuroradiology-Report from an Academic Medical Center.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Radiology (D.M.Y.), Division of Neuroradiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Background And Purpose: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services imposed a 25% professional component multiple procedure payment reduction for the professional component of advanced diagnostic imaging modalities in January 2012. In 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services rolled back the multiple procedure payment reduction to 5% for subsequent imaging. To evaluate the effect of this change, we analyzed 5 months of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services procedures at Johns Hopkins Medical Institution. Read More

    An Automated Statistical Technique for Counting Distinct Multiple Sclerosis Lesions.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    From the Departments of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics (J.D.D., K.A.L., R.T.S.).
    Background And Purpose: Lesion load is a common biomarker in multiple sclerosis, yet it has historically shown modest association with clinical outcome. Lesion count, which encapsulates the natural history of lesion formation and is thought to provide complementary information, is difficult to assess in patients with confluent (ie, spatially overlapping) lesions. We introduce a statistical technique for cross-sectionally counting pathologically distinct lesions. Read More

    Evaluation of the Sensitivity of Inhomogeneous Magnetization Transfer (ihMT) MRI for Multiple Sclerosis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    From Aix-Marseille Université (E.V.O., S.M., A.l.T., V.H.P., P.V., M.G., J.-P.R., J.P., O.G., G.D.), Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale (CRMBM), UMR 7339 Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Marseille, France
    Background And Purpose: Inhomogeneous magnetization transfer is a new endogenous MR imaging contrast mechanism that has demonstrated high specificity for myelin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhomogeneous magnetization transfer is sensitive to pathology in a population of patients with relapsing-remitting MS in a way that both differs from and complements conventional magnetization transfer.

    Materials And Methods: Twenty-five patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled in a prospective MR imaging research study, whose protocol included anatomic imaging, standard magnetization transfer, and inhomogeneous magnetization transfer imaging. Read More

    Sonographic Development of the Pericallosal Vascularization in the First and Early Second Trimester of Pregnancy.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Fetal Medicine (L.D.C.), University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Background And Purpose: Anomalies of the corpus callosum are rare. Routine scanning in midtrimester of the pregnancy often fails to identify defective development. The purpose of the study was to identify the pericallosal artery and all its main branching arteries during early gestation from the first trimester onward, to measure the length of the pericallosal artery during its development, and to establish a normal vascular map for each week of development. Read More

    Intraoperative Conebeam CT for Assessment of Intracochlear Positioning of Electrode Arrays in Adult Recipients of Cochlear Implants.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    From the Unité de Réhabilitation Chirurgicale Mini-Invasive Robotisée de l'Audition (H.J., R.T., Y.N., D.D.S., E.F., O.S., D.B., I.M.), Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris, France
    Background And Purpose: Intraoperative conebeam CT has been introduced into the operating room and provides quick radiologic feedback. This study aimed to investigate its utility in the assessment of the positioning of the electrode array after cochlear implantation.

    Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective study of 51 patients (65 ears) with intraoperative imaging by conebeam CT (O-arm) after cochlear implantation between 2013 and 2017. Read More

    Brain Injury Lesion Imaging Using Preconditioned Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping without Skull Stripping.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering (Z.L., Y.W.), Cornell University, New York, New York.
    Background And Purpose: Identifying cerebral microhemorrhage burden can aid in the diagnosis and management of traumatic brain injury, stroke, hypertension, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. MR imaging susceptibility-based methods are more sensitive than CT for detecting cerebral microhemorrhage, but methods other than quantitative susceptibility mapping provide results that vary with field strength and TE, require additional phase maps to distinguish blood from calcification, and depict cerebral microhemorrhages as bloom artifacts. Quantitative susceptibility mapping provides universal quantification of tissue magnetic property without these constraints but traditionally requires a mask generated by skull-stripping, which can pose challenges at tissue interphases. Read More

    Clinical Validation of a Predictive Model for the Presence of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Division of Endocrinology (B.H.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.
    Background And Purpose: Ultrasound is a standard technique to detect lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer. Cystic changes and microcalcifications are the most specific features of metastasis, but with low sensitivity. This prospective study compared the diagnostic accuracy of a predictive model for sonographic evaluation of lymph nodes relative to the radiologist's standard assessment in detecting papillary thyroid cancer metastasis in patients after thyroidectomy. Read More

    A Patient Dose-Reduction Technique for Neuroendovascular Image-Guided Interventions: Image-Quality Comparison Study.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    From the Departments of Neurosurgery (A.S., V.S.F., L.R.-C., C.N.I., K.V.S., L.N.H., D.R.B., S.R., A.H.S., E.I.L.)
    Background And Purpose: The ROI-dose-reduced intervention technique represents an extension of ROI fluoroscopy combining x-ray entrance skin dose reduction with spatially different recursive temporal filtering to reduce excessive image noise in the dose-reduced periphery in real-time. The aim of our study was to compare the image quality of simulated neurointerventions with regular and reduced radiation doses using a standard flat panel detector system.

    Materials And Methods: Ten 3D-printed intracranial aneurysm models were generated on the basis of a single patient vasculature derived from intracranial DSA and CTA. Read More

    MRI Features of Aquaporin-4 Antibody-Positive Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis: Insights into the Diagnosis of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    From the Departments of Radiology (C.G.C., J.W.L., H.W.A., E.L., Y.K., H.S.K.).
    Background And Purpose: Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis is a well-documented spinal manifestation of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, however, other forms of nontumorous myelopathy can also manifest as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Our aim was to evaluate the MR imaging features of aquaporin-4 antibody-positive longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, which is strongly associated with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Materials And Methods: We evaluated cervicomedullary junction involvement, cord expansion ratios, bright spotty lesions, the number of involved segments, skipped lesions, enhancement patterns, and axial distribution patterns using spinal MR imaging of 41 patients with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis who underwent aquaporin-4 antibody testing. Read More

    Prediction of the Multisegment Clot Sign on Dynamic CT Angiography of Cardioembolic Stroke.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    From the Department of Neurology (Z.C., F.S., M.Z., X.G., M.L.), the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China
    Background And Purpose: The multisegment clot sign has been observed at the site of large-artery occlusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This study aimed to assess its occurrence rate and relationship with stroke etiologies in patients with acute intracranial large-artery occlusion.

    Materials And Methods: We included consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who had acute intracranial large-artery occlusion and underwent perfusion CT within 8 hours after stroke onset. Read More

    MRI with DWI for the Detection of Posttreatment Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Why Morphologic MRI Criteria Matter.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    From the Division of Radiology (A.A., P.M., T.D.P., P.-A.P., M.B.), Department of Imaging and Medical Informatics
    Background And Purpose: Although diffusion-weighted imaging combined with morphologic MRI (DWIMRI) is used to detect posttreatment recurrent and second primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, the diagnostic criteria used so far have not been clarified. We hypothesized that precise MRI criteria based on signal intensity patterns on T2 and contrast-enhanced T1 complement DWI and therefore improve the diagnostic performance of DWIMRI.

    Materials And Methods: We analyzed 1. Read More

    7T Brain MRS in HIV Infection: Correlation with Cognitive Impairment and Performance on Neuropsychological Tests.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Departments of Neurology (R.L.S., N.S.).
    Background And Purpose: Validated neuroimaging markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in patients on antiretroviral therapy are urgently needed for clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain metabolism in older subjects with HIV infection. It was hypothesized that MR spectroscopy measurements related to neuronal health and function (particularly-acetylaspartate and glutamate) would be lower in HIV-positive subjects with worse cognitive performance. Read More

    Modeling Early Postnatal Brain Growth and Development with CT: Changes in the Brain Radiodensity Histogram from Birth to 2 Years.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    From the Department of Radiology (K.A.C., S.W.F.).
    Background And Purpose: The majority of brain growth and development occur in the first 2 years of life. This study investigated these changes by analysis of the brain radiodensity histogram of head CT scans from the clinical population, 0-2 years of age.

    Materials And Methods: One hundred twenty consecutive head CTs with normal findings meeting the inclusion criteria from children from birth to 2 years were retrospectively identified from 3 different CT scan platforms. Read More

    Evaluation of Leptomeningeal Contrast Enhancement Using Pre-and Postcontrast Subtraction 3D-FLAIR Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Neurology (R.Z., C.K., D.H.), Jacobs Comprehensive MS Treatment and Research Center, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York.
    Background And Purpose: Leptomeningeal contrast enhancement is found in patients with multiple sclerosis, though reported rates have varied. The use of 3D-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery pre- and postcontrast subtraction imaging may more accurately determine the frequency of leptomeningeal contrast enhancement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of leptomeningeal contrast enhancement using the pre- and postcontrast subtraction approach and to evaluate 3 different methods of assessing the presence of leptomeningeal contrast enhancement. Read More

    Dual-Energy CT in Hemorrhagic Progression of Cerebral Contusion: Overestimation of Hematoma Volumes on Standard 120-kV Images and Rectification with Virtual High-Energy Monochromatic Images after Contrast-Enhanced Whole-Body Imaging.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    From the Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (U.K.B., K.S., G.I., D.D., L.G., T.R.F.), R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Background And Purpose: In patients with hemorrhagic contusions, hematoma volumes are overestimated on follow-up standard 120-kV images obtained after contrast-enhanced whole-body CT. We aimed to retrospectively determine hemorrhagic progression of contusion rates on 120-kV and 190-keV images derived from dual-energy CT and the magnitude of hematoma volume overestimation.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed admission and follow-up CT studies in 40 patients with hemorrhagic contusions. Read More

    Endovascular Thrombectomy in Wake-Up Stroke and Stroke with Unknown Symptom Onset.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Neuroradiological Clinic (M.A.P., V.H., M.A., H.H.), Klinikum Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Background And Purpose: Mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke within 6 hours of symptom onset is effective and safe. However, in many patients, information on the beginning of symptoms is not available. Patients can be divided into those with wake-up stroke and daytime-unwitnessed stroke. Read More

    Iron-Insensitive Quantitative Assessment of Subcortical Gray Matter Demyelination in Multiple Sclerosis Using the Macromolecular Proton Fraction.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Multiple Sclerosis Center (P.R., A.M., P.Q., L.K.J.H., B.G., J.D.B.), Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, Washington.
    Background And Purpose: Fast macromolecular proton fraction mapping is a recent quantitative MR imaging method for myelin assessment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the macromolecular proton fraction as a measure of demyelination in subcortical GM structures in multiple sclerosis and assess a potential relationship between demyelination and excess iron deposition using the macromolecular proton fraction and T2* mapping.

    Materials And Methods: Macromolecular proton fraction and T2* maps were obtained from 12 healthy controls, 18 patients with relapsing-remitting MS, and 12 patients with secondary-progressive MS using 3T MR imaging. Read More

    Brain Imaging in Cases with Positive Serology for Dengue with Neurologic Symptoms: A Clinicoradiologic Correlation.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    From the Departments of Radiology (H.A.V., P.M., S.M.)
    Background And Purpose: Dengue is a common arboviral disease, which uncommonly involves the brain. There has been a recent surge in dengue cases and dengue-related deaths in tropical countries. The aim of this study was to describe brain imaging findings in patients with dengue infection having neurologic symptoms. Read More

    Improved Visualization of Cortical Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis Using 7T MP2RAGE.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    From the Translational Neuroradiology Section (E.S.B., P.S., V.S., B.D., G.N., D.S.R.)
    Background And Purpose: Cortical lesions are common and often extensive in multiple sclerosis but are difficult to visualize by MRI, leaving important questions about their clinical implications and response to therapy unanswered. Our aim was to determine whether cortical lesions are better visualized using magnetization prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echoes (MP2RAGE) than T2*-weighted imaging on 7T MR imaging.

    Materials And Methods: Brain MR imaging using T1-weighted MP2RAGE at 500-μm isotropic resolution, T2*-weighted gradient-echo, and T2*-weighted segmented echo-planar imaging sequences were collected for 13 patients with MS and 5 age-matched neurologically healthy controls on a 7T research system. Read More

    Quantitative Analysis of Conebeam CT for Delineating Stents in Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    From the Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences (T.K., H. Isoda), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
    Background And Purpose: Innovative techniques and device-related advances have improved the outcomes of neuroendovascular treatment. 3D imaging has previously used 2 × 2 binning, but 1 × 1 binning has recently been made available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative ability of conebeam CT for stent delineation and to investigate its effectiveness in the clinical environment. Read More

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