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    12196 results match your criteria American Journal of Neuroradiology AJNR[Journal]

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    Semiautomated Evaluation of the Primary Motor Cortex in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis at 3T.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    From the Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery (G.D., P.C., M. Cosottini).
    Background And Purpose: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease involving the upper and lower motor neurons. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, pathologic changes in the primary motor cortex include Betz cell depletion and the presence of reactive iron-loaded microglia, detectable on 7T MR images as atrophy and T2*-hypointensity. Our purposes were the following: 1) to investigate the signal hypointensity-to-thickness ratio of the primary motor cortex as a radiologic marker of upper motor neuron involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with a semiautomated method at 3T, 2) to compare 3T and 7T results, and 3) to evaluate whether semiautomated measurement outperforms visual image assessment. Read More

    MR Imaging of the Superior Cervical Ganglion and Inferior Ganglion of the Vagus Nerve: Structures That Can Mimic Pathologic Retropharyngeal Lymph Nodes.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    From Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Oncology (H.Y., H.M., S.H., T.U.), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Background And Purpose: The superior cervical ganglion and inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve can mimic pathologic retropharyngeal lymph nodes. We studied the cross-sectional anatomy of the superior cervical ganglion and inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve to evaluate how they can be differentiated from the retropharyngeal lymph nodes.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study consists of 2 parts. Read More

    Prediction of IDH1-Mutation and 1p/19q-Codeletion Status Using Preoperative MR Imaging Phenotypes in Lower Grade Gliomas.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Departments of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science (Y.W.P., K.H., S.-K.L., S.B., Y.S.C., S.S.A.).
    Background And Purpose: WHO grade II gliomas are divided into three classes: isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype, IDH-mutant and no 1p/19q codeletion, and IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted. Different molecular subtypes have been reported to have prognostic differences and different chemosensitivity. Our aim was to evaluate the predictive value of imaging phenotypes assessed with the Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images lexicon for molecular classification of lower grade gliomas. Read More

    Long-Term Effectiveness of Direct CT-Guided Aspiration and Fenestration of Symptomatic Lumbar Facet Synovial Cysts.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    From the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Background And Purpose: Lumbar facet synovial cysts are commonly seen in facet degenerative arthropathy and may be symptomatic when narrowing the spinal canal or compressing nerve roots. The purpose of this study was to analyze the safety, effectiveness, and long-term outcomes of direct CT-guided lumbar facet synovial cyst aspiration and fenestration for symptom relief and for obviating an operation.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging studies of 64 consecutive patients between 2006 and 2016 who underwent 85 CT-guided lumbar facet synovial cyst fenestration procedures in our department. Read More

    Effect of an Arm Traction Device on Image Quality and Radiation Exposure during Neck CT: A Prospective Study.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    From the Departments of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (Y.J.C., J.H.L., K.J.S., K.-H.D., J.H.B.).
    Background And Purpose: The image quality of neck CT is frequently disturbed by streak artifact from the shoulder girdles. Our aim was to determine the effects of an arm traction device on image quality and radiation exposure in neck CT.

    Materials And Methods: Patients with lymphoma with complete remission who were scheduled to undergo 2 consecutive follow-up neck CT scans for surveillance within a 1-year interval were enrolled in this prospective study. Read More

    Spinal Cord Gray Matter Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Sorbonne Universités (M.M.E.M., P.-F.P.) UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, INSERM, Laboratoire d'Imagerie Biomédicale, Paris, France.
    Background And Purpose: There is an emerging need for biomarkers to better categorize clinical phenotypes and predict progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to quantify cervical spinal gray matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and investigate its association with clinical disability at baseline and after 1 year.

    Materials And Methods: Twenty-nine patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 healthy controls were scanned with 3T MR imaging. Read More

    Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Head and Neck: Influence of Fat-Suppression Technique and Multishot 2D Navigated Interleaved Acquisitions.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    From the Department of Radiology (Y.J.B., B.S.C., L.S., C.J., J.H.K.), Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.
    Background And Purpose: DWI of the head and neck can reveal valuable information, but the effects of fat suppression and multishot acquisition on image quality have not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to comprehensively compare the quality of head and neck DWI at 3T using 2 fat-suppression techniques, STIR, and spectral presaturation with inversion recovery, which were used with both single- and multishot EPI.

    Materials And Methods: Sixty-five study participants underwent 3 DWI sequences of single-shot EPI-STIR, single-shot EPI-spectral presaturation with inversion recovery, and multishot EPI-spectral presaturation with inversion recovery of the head and neck. Read More

    Hemodynamic Changes Caused by Multiple Stenting in Vertebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysms: A Patient-Specific Computational Fluid Dynamics Study.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    From the Department of Neurosurgery (N.V., W.C., D.Z., Y.F., Q.H., J.L.), Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
    Background And Purpose: The multiple stent placement technique has largely improved the long-term outcomes of intracranial fusiform aneurysms, but the hemodynamic mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed the hemodynamic changes caused by different stent-placement strategies in patient-specific models using the computational fluid dynamics technique, aiming to provide evidence for clinical decision-making.

    Materials And Methods: Ten vertebral artery fusiform aneurysms were included, and their patient-specific computational fluid dynamics models were reconstructed. Read More

    Gadolinium DTPA Enhancement Characteristics of the Rat Sciatic Nerve after Crush Injury at 4.7T.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    From the Departments of Radiology (B.J.H., K.R.P., B.B., P.P., R.Q.).
    Background And Purpose: Traumatic peripheral nerve injury is common and results in loss of function and/or neuropathic pain. MR neurography is a well-established technique for evaluating peripheral nerve anatomy and pathology. However, the Gd-DTPA enhancement characteristics of acutely injured peripheral nerves have not been fully examined. Read More

    Spatial Correlation of Pathology and Perfusion Changes within the Cortex and White Matter in Multiple Sclerosis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Departments of Medical Imaging (L.Z., R.I.A.)
    Background And Purpose: The spatial correlation between WM and cortical GM disease in multiple sclerosis is controversial and has not been previously assessed with perfusion MR imaging. We sought to determine the nature of association between lobar WM, cortical GM, volume and perfusion.

    Materials And Methods: Nineteen individuals with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 19 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 19 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Read More

    Brain Structural Changes following HIV Infection: Meta-Analysis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Neurometrika (Timothy A. Zeffiro, Thomas A. Zeffiro), Potomac, Maryland.
    Background: Numerous studies have used structural neuroimaging to measure HIV effects on brain macroarchitecture. While many have reported changes in total brain volume, gray matter volume, white matter volume, CSF volume, and basal ganglia volume following HIV infection, quantitative inconsistencies observed across studies are large.

    Purpose: Our aim was to evaluate the consistency and temporal stability of serostatus effects on a range of structural neuroimaging measures. Read More

    Association between Carotid Plaque Features on CTA and Cerebrovascular Ischemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    From the Department of Radiology (H.B., K.A.-D., A.K.-G., E.J.E., A.G.)
    Background: CTA is a widely available imaging examination that may allow the evaluation of high-risk carotid plaque features.

    Purpose: Our aim was to evaluate the association between specific carotid plaque features on CTA and ipsilateral cerebrovascular ischemia.

    Data Sources: We performed a systematic review of Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library from inception to March 2016 for articles that evaluated the relationship between CTA-detected carotid plaque features and ischemic events, defined as ipsilateral ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Read More

    MR Elastography Analysis of Glioma Stiffness and IDH1-Mutation Status.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Departments of Radiology (K.P.M., A.A., D.S.L., K.J.G., A.M., R.L.E., J.H.)
    Background And Purpose: Our aim was to noninvasively evaluate gliomas with MR elastography to characterize the relationship of tumor stiffness with tumor grade and mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene.

    Materials And Methods: Tumor stiffness properties were prospectively quantified in 18 patients (mean age, 42 years; 6 women) with histologically proved gliomas using MR elastography from 2014 to 2016. Images were acquired on a 3T MR imaging unit with a vibration frequency of 60 Hz. Read More

    Patterns of Sonographically Detectable Echogenic Foci in Pediatric Thyroid Carcinoma with Corresponding Histopathology: An Observational Study.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    From the Departments of Radiology (I.E.T., J.E.L.-D.)
    Background And Purpose: Small echogenic foci within pediatric thyroid nodules are commonly seen by ultrasound and are one of the features used to determine the level of suspicion for malignancy. These are sometimes termed "microcalcifications," but their relation with malignancy is controversial due to the lack of standard terminology. Our aim was to evaluate sonographic patterns of echogenic foci in malignant pediatric thyroid nodules and describe the distribution of corresponding psammoma bodies and other histopathologic findings in thyroidectomy specimens. Read More

    Do Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Vascular Hyperintensities Represent Good Collaterals before Reperfusion Therapy?
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    From the Departments of Radiology (E.M., L.L., J.B., M.E., S.C., W.B.H., O.N., J.-F.M., C.O.)
    Background And Purpose: In acute ischemic stroke, whether FLAIR vascular hyperintensities represent good or poor collaterals remains controversial. We hypothesized that extensive FLAIR vascular hyperintensities correspond to good collaterals, as indirectly assessed by the hypoperfusion intensity ratio.

    Materials And Methods: We included 244 consecutive patients eligible for reperfusion therapy with MCA stroke and pretreatment MR imaging with both FLAIR and PWI. Read More

    Comparison between the Prebolus T1 Measurement and the Fixed T1 Value in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging for the Differentiation of True Progression from Pseudoprogression in Glioblastoma Treated with Concurrent Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide Chemotherapy.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    From the Department of Radiology (J.G.N., K.M.K., S.H.C., W.H.L., R.-E.Y., J.-H.K., T.J.Y., C.-H.S.), Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
    Background And Purpose: Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain malignancy and differentiation of true progression from pseudoprogression is clinically important. Our purpose was to compare the diagnostic performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced pharmacokinetic parameters using the fixed T1 and measured T1 on differentiating true from pseudoprogression of glioblastoma after chemoradiation with temozolomide.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 37 patients with histopathologically confirmed glioblastoma with new enhancing lesions after temozolomide chemoradiation defined as true progression (n = 15) or pseudoprogression (n = 22). Read More

    Improved Spatiotemporal Resolution of Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion MRI in Brain Tumors Using Simultaneous Multi-Slice Echo-Planar Imaging.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    From the UCLA Brain Tumor Imaging Laboratory (A.C., K.L., B.M.E.), Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California
    DSC perfusion MR imaging in brain tumors requires a trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution, resulting in less spatial coverage to meet the temporal resolution requirements for accurate relative CBV estimation. DSC-MR imaging could potentially benefit from the advantages associated with simultaneous multi-slice imaging, including increased spatiotemporal resolution. In the current article, we demonstrate how simultaneous multi-slice EPI can be used to improve DSC-MR imaging spatiotemporal resolution in patients with glioblastoma. Read More

    Redefining the Pulvinar Sign in Fabry Disease.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    From the Departments of Advanced Biomedical Sciences (S.C., C.R., G.O., A.C., G.P., M.I., A.B., E.T.).
    Background And Purpose: The pulvinar sign refers to exclusive T1WI hyperintensity of the lateral pulvinar. Long considered a common sign of Fabry disease, the pulvinar sign has been reported in many pathologic conditions. The exact incidence of the pulvinar sign has never been tested in representative cohorts of patients with Fabry disease. Read More

    Two-Center Experience in the Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured and Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms Using the WEB Device: A Retrospective Analysis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    From the Institut für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Neuroradiologie, Nuklearmedizin (J.P., W.W., S.F.), Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum-Langendreer, Universitätsklinik, Bochum, Germany
    Background And Purpose: The safety and efficacy of the Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms has been investigated in several studies. Our objective was to report the experience of 2 neurovascular centers with the WEB device in the treatment of broad-based intracranial aneurysms, including the technical feasibility and safety as well as short- and midterm angiographic and clinical follow-up-results.

    Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all ruptured and unruptured aneurysms treated with a WEB device (WEB Single-Layer and Single-Layer Sphere) between August 2014 and February 2017. Read More

    Imaging Appearances and Pathologic Characteristics of Spinal Epidural Meningioma.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    From the Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Background And Purpose: Spinal epidural meningioma is an uncommon tumor. This study aimed to analyze the imaging and pathologic characteristics of this rare tumor.

    Materials And Methods: Fourteen confirmed cases of epidural meningioma were retrospectively reviewed, and imaging characteristics and pathologic findings were analyzed to identify the typical features. Read More

    Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke Associated with Atherosclerotic Lesions of the Cervical ICA: A Nosologic Entity Apart.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 19;38(11):2138-2145. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    From the Service de Neuroradiologie (O.F.E., P.P., C.D., P.M., G.G., E.L.B., V.C., A.B.).
    Background And Purpose: Mechanical thrombectomy for patients with acute ischemic stroke with tandem occlusions has been shown to present varying reperfusion successes and clinical outcomes. However, the heterogeneity of tandem occlusion etiology has been strongly neglected in previous studies. We retrospectively investigated patients with acute ischemic stroke atherothrombotic tandem occlusion. Read More

    Health Care Economics: A Study Guide for Neuroradiology Fellows, Part 2.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    From the Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology, George Washington University Hospital, Washington, DC.
    In this second article, we continue the review of current health care economics as it relates to radiologists, specifically framed by topics defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in the evaluation of neuroradiology fellows. The discussion in this article is focused on topics pertaining to levels 4 and 5, which are the more advanced levels of competency defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Neuroradiology Milestones on Health Care Economics and System Based Practice. Read More

    Necessary Catheter Diameters for Mechanical Thrombectomy with ADAPT.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    From the Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (O.N., M.W.), University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Background And Purpose: Large-bore catheters allow mechanical thrombectomy in ischemic stroke by engaging and retrieving clots without additional devices (direct aspiration first-pass technique [ADAPT]). The purpose of this study was to establish a model for minimal catheter diameters needed for ADAPT.

    Materials And Methods: We established a theoretic model for the calculation of minimal catheter diameters needed for ADAPT. Read More

    CT Texture Analysis Potentially Predicts Local Failure in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated with Chemoradiotherapy.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    From the Departments of Radiology (H.K., M.M.Q., M.N.C., B.L., V.C.A.A., K.O., M.T.T., O.S.)
    Background And Purpose: The accurate prediction of prognosis and failure is crucial for optimizing treatment strategies for patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of pretreatment CT texture analysis for the prediction of treatment failure in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 62 patients diagnosed with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who underwent contrast-enhanced CT examinations for staging, followed by chemoradiotherapy. Read More

    Gestational Age at Birth and Brain White Matter Development in Term-Born Infants and Children.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Pediatrics (X.O., C.M.G., R.T.P., A.A., M.A.C., T.M.B.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas.
    Background And Purpose: Studies on infants and children born preterm have shown that adequate gestational length is critical for brain white matter development. Less is known regarding how variations in gestational age at birth in term infants and children affect white matter development, which was evaluated in this study.

    Materials And Methods: Using DTI tract-based spatial statistics methods, we evaluated white matter microstructures in 2 groups of term-born (≥37 weeks of gestation) healthy subjects: 2-week-old infants (n = 44) and 8-year-old children (n = 63). Read More


    Correlation between Clinical Outcomes and Baseline CT and CT Angiographic Findings in the SWIFT PRIME Trial.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Departments of Radiology and Clinical Neurosciences (M.G.)
    Background And Purpose: Patient selection for endovascular therapy remains a great challenge in clinic practice. We sought to determine the effect of baseline CT and angiography on outcomes in the Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke (SWIFT PRIME) trial and to identify patients who would benefit from endovascular stroke therapy.

    Materials And Methods: The primary end point was a 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2. Read More

    Setting the Stage for 2018: How the Changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control Cancer Staging Manual Eighth Edition Impact Radiologists.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Surgery, Head and Neck Oncology (W.M.L.), Estabrook Cancer Center, Nebraska Methodist Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska.
    The updated eighth edition of the Cancer Staging Manual of the American Joint Committee on Cancer will be implemented in January 2018. There are multiple changes to the head and neck section of the manual, which will be relevant to radiologists participating in multidisciplinary head and neck tumor boards and reading pretreatment head and neck cancer scans. Human papillomavirus-related/p16(+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma will now be staged separately; this change reflects the markedly better prognosis of these tumors compared with non-human papillomavirus/p16(-) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

    Blunt Cerebrovascular Injuries: Advances in Screening, Imaging, and Management Trends.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Trauma Services (D.S.), Department of Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa.
    Blunt cerebrovascular injury is a relatively uncommon but sometimes life-threatening injury, particularly in patients presenting with ischemic symptoms in that vascular territory. The decision to pursue vascular imaging (generally CT angiography) is based on clinical and imaging findings. Several grading scales or screening criteria have been developed to guide the decision to pursue vascular imaging, as well as to recommend different treatment options for various injuries. Read More

    Predictive Models in Differentiating Vertebral Lesions Using Multiparametric MRI.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Neurosurgery (A.C.), King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Background And Purpose: Conventional MR imaging has high sensitivity but limited specificity in differentiating various vertebral lesions. We aimed to assess the ability of multiparametric MR imaging in differentiating spinal vertebral lesions and to develop statistical models for predicting the probability of malignant vertebral lesions.

    Materials And Methods: One hundred twenty-six consecutive patients underwent multiparametric MRI (conventional MR imaging, diffusion-weighted MR imaging, and in-phase/opposed-phase imaging) for vertebral lesions. Read More

    Health Care Economics: A Study Guide for Neuroradiology Fellows, Part 1.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    From the Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology, George Washington University Hospital, Washington, DC.
    Few resources are available in the medical literature for a comprehensive review of current health care economics as it relates to radiologists, specifically framed by topics defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in the evaluation of neuroradiology fellows. Therefore, we present a comprehensive review article as a study guide for fellows to learn from and gain competence in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education neuroradiology milestones on health care economics. Read More

    Photon-Counting CT of the Brain: In Vivo Human Results and Image-Quality Assessment.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    From the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences (A.P., R.S., D.S.R., M.B., T.E.C., D.A.B.), National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland
    Background And Purpose: Photon-counting detectors offer the potential for improved image quality for brain CT but have not yet been evaluated in vivo. The purpose of this study was to compare photon-counting detector CT with conventional energy-integrating detector CT for human brains.

    Materials And Methods: Radiation dose-matched energy-integrating detector and photon-counting detector head CT scans were acquired with standardized protocols (tube voltage/current, 120 kV(peak)/370 mAs) in both an anthropomorphic head phantom and 21 human asymptomatic volunteers (mean age, 58. Read More

    Prevalence of Internal Auditory Canal Diverticulum and Its Association with Hearing Loss and Otosclerosis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 5;38(11):2167-2171. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    From the Departments of Radiology (K.J.P, J.H., J.L., L.N.L.)
    Background And Purpose: Focal low-attenuation outpouching or diverticulum at the anterolateral internal auditory canal is an uncommon finding on CT of the temporal bone. This finding has been described as cavitary otosclerosis in small case reports and histology series. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of internal auditory canal diverticulum and its association with classic imaging findings of otosclerosis and/or hearing loss. Read More

    Radiomics in Brain Tumor: Image Assessment, Quantitative Feature Descriptors, and Machine-Learning Approaches.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Radiology (J.S., B.C., S.N., R. Gillies, R. Gatenby), Moffitt Cancer Research Center, Tampa, Florida
    Radiomics describes a broad set of computational methods that extract quantitative features from radiographic images. The resulting features can be used to inform imaging diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy response in oncology. However, major challenges remain for methodologic developments to optimize feature extraction and provide rapid information flow in clinical settings. Read More

    Basion-Cartilaginous Dens Interval: An Imaging Parameter for Craniovertebral Junction Assessment in Children.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.
    Background And Purpose: Widening of the basion-dens interval is an important sign of cranioverterbral junction injury. The current literature on basion-dens interval in children is sparse and based on bony measurements with variable values. Our goal was to establish the normal values of a recently described new imaging parameter, the basion-cartilaginous dens interval in children. Read More

    Endovascular Treatment of Vein of Galen Malformations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology (D.M.), Klinikum Duisburg, Duisburg, Germany.
    Background: Outcomes after endovascular embolization of vein of Galen malformations remain relatively poorly described.

    Purpose: We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine outcomes and predictors of good outcomes following endovascular treatment of vein of Galen malformations.

    Data Sources: We used Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and the Web of Science. Read More

    Quantitative Synthetic MRI in Children: Normative Intracranial Tissue Segmentation Values during Development.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    From the Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    Background And Purpose: Synthetic MR imaging is a new technique to create absolute R1 relaxivity (1/T1), R2 relaxivity (1/T2), and proton-density maps using a single multiple-spin-echo saturation recovery sequence. These relaxivity maps allow rapid automated intracranial segmentation of tissue types. To assess its utility in children, we created a normative data base of intracranial volume and brain parenchymal, GM, WM, CSF, and myelin volumes in a pediatric population with normal brain MRI findings using synthetic MR imaging. Read More

    Hemodynamic Characteristics of Ruptured and Unruptured Multiple Aneurysms at Mirror and Ipsilateral Locations.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    From the Bioengineering Department (R.D., B.J.C., F.M., J.R.C.), George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia
    Background And Purpose: Different hemodynamic patterns have been associated with aneurysm rupture. The objective was to test whether hemodynamic characteristics of the ruptured aneurysm in patients with multiple aneurysms were different from those in unruptured aneurysms in the same patient.

    Materials And Methods: Twenty-four mirror and 58 ipsilateral multiple aneurysms with 1 ruptured and the others unruptured were studied. Read More

    Preoperative Cerebral Oxygen Extraction Fraction Imaging Generated from 7T MR Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Predicts Development of Cerebral Hyperperfusion following Carotid Endarterectomy.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    From the Department of Neurosurgery (J.-i.N., S.F., M.K., K.O.)
    Background And Purpose: Preoperative hemodynamic impairment in the affected cerebral hemisphere is associated with the development of cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy. Cerebral oxygen extraction fraction images generated from 7T MR quantitative susceptibility mapping correlate with oxygen extraction fraction images on positron-emission tomography. The present study aimed to determine whether preoperative oxygen extraction fraction imaging generated from 7T MR quantitative susceptibility mapping could identify patients at risk for cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy. Read More

    Treatment of Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms with Flow-Diverter Stents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    From the Neuroradiology Department, University Hospital Güi-de-Chauliac, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
    Background: The safety and efficacy of flow-diversion treatment of MCA aneurysms have not been well-established.

    Purpose: Our aim was to evaluate angiographic and clinical outcomes after flow diversions for MCA aneurysms.

    Data Sources: A systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase was performed for studies published from 2008 to May 2017. Read More

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