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    12262 results match your criteria American Journal of Neuroradiology AJNR[Journal]

    1 OF 246

    Carotid Artery Wall Imaging: Perspective and Guidelines from the ASNR Vessel Wall Imaging Study Group and Expert Consensus Recommendations of the American Society of Neuroradiology.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences (Y.Q., B.A.W.), Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Identification of carotid artery atherosclerosis is conventionally based on measurements of luminal stenosis and surface irregularities using in vivo imaging techniques including sonography, CT and MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. However, histopathologic studies demonstrate considerable differences between plaques with identical degrees of stenosis and indicate that certain plaque features are associated with increased risk for ischemic events. The ability to look beyond the lumen using highly developed vessel wall imaging methods to identify plaque vulnerable to disruption has prompted an active debate as to whether a paradigm shift is needed to move away from relying on measurements of luminal stenosis for gauging the risk of ischemic injury. Read More

    Cerebellar Hypoperfusion in Migraine Attack: Incidence and Significance.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    From the Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging (F.K.-W., M.E.-K., M.J., P.P.K.-G., R.W.), Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology.
    Background And Purpose: Patients diagnosed with migraine with aura have an increased lifetime risk of ischemic stroke. It is not yet clear whether prolonged cortical hypoperfusion during an aura increases the immediate risk of cerebellar infarction because it may induce crossed cerebellar diaschisis and subsequent tissue damage. To address this question, we retrospectively analyzed potential relationships between cortical oligemia and cerebellar hypoperfusion in patients with migraine with aura and their potential relation to small infarct-like cerebellar lesions. Read More

    Expression Changes in Lactate and Glucose Metabolism and Associated Transporters in Basal Ganglia following Hypoxic-Ischemic Reperfusion Injury in Piglets.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    From the Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, PR China.
    Background And Purpose: The neonatal brain has active energy metabolism, and glucose oxidation is the major energy source of brain tissue. Lactate is produced by astrocytes and released to neurons. In the central nervous system, lactate is transported between neurons and astrocytes via the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. Read More

    Using Correlative Properties of Neighboring Pixels to Improve Gray-White Differentiation in Pediatric Head CT Images.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (A.S., C.H., M.P.), Washington University School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.
    Background And Purpose: A lower radiation dose can have a detrimental effect on the quality of head CT images. The aim of this study performed in a pediatric population was to test whether an image-processing algorithm (Correlative Image Enhancement) based on the correlation among intensities of neighboring pixels can improve gray-white differentiation in head CTs.

    Materials And Methods: Sixty baseline head CT images with normal findings obtained from scans of 30 children were processed using Correlative Image Enhancement to produce corresponding enhanced images. Read More

    Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer: Correlation of MRI Parameters with the Histologic Type and Gene Mutation Status.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    From the Departments of Radiology (W.S.J., C.H.P., S.H.S., S.J.A.)
    Background And Purpose: Development of noninvasive imaging biomarkers indicating the histology and the gene mutation status of brain metastasis from lung cancer is important. We aimed to investigate diffusion-weighted imaging parameters as predictors of the histology and gene mutations of brain metastasis from lung cancer.

    Materials And Methods: DWI data for 74 patients with brain metastasis from lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

    Addition of Amide Proton Transfer Imaging to FDG-PET/CT Improves Diagnostic Accuracy in Glioma Grading: A Preliminary Study Using the Continuous Net Reclassification Analysis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    From the Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine (A.S., T.O., Y.F., T.D., K.T.).
    Background And Purpose: Amide proton transfer imaging has been successfully applied to brain tumors, however, the relationships between amide proton transfer and other quantitative imaging values have yet to be investigated. The aim was to examine the additive value of amide proton transfer imaging alongside [18F] FDG-PET and DWI for preoperative grading of gliomas.

    Materials And Methods: Forty-nine patients with newly diagnosed gliomas were included in this retrospective study. Read More

    Multiparametric Analysis of Permeability and ADC Histogram Metrics for Classification of Pediatric Brain Tumors by Tumor Grade.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    From the Departments of Radiology (S.V., D.B., P.R.J., T.Y.P.).
    Background And Purpose: Accurate tumor grading is essential for treatment planning of pediatric brain tumors. We hypothesized that multiparametric analyses of a combination of permeability metrics and ADC histogram metrics would differentiate high- and low-grade tumors with high accuracy.

    Materials And Methods: DTI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging using T1-mapping with flip angles of 2°, 5°, 10°, and 15°, followed by a 0. Read More

    What Have We Learned from Perfusion MRI in Multiple Sclerosis?
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    MRI Research Center (A.R.).
    Using MR imaging, perfusion can be assessed either by dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging or arterial spin-labeling. Alterations of cerebral perfusion have repeatedly been described in multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls. Acute lesions exhibit relative hyperperfusion in comparison with normal-appearing white matter, a finding mostly attributed to inflammation in this stage of lesion development. Read More

    Cerebrovascular Manifestations of Neurosarcoidosis: An Underrecognized Aspect of the Imaging Spectrum.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    From the Division of Neuroradiology (G.B., P.W., P.N.,T.M.), Department of Radiology.
    Involvement of the central nervous system by sarcoidosis, also referred to as neurosarcoidosis, is seen clinically in about 5% of patients with systemic disease. CNS involvement most frequently affects the leptomeninges and cranial nerves, though the ventricular system, brain parenchyma, and pachymeninges may also be involved. Even though the involvement of the intracranial vascular structures is well-known on postmortem studies, there is scant literature on imaging manifestations secondary to the vessel wall involvement, being confined mostly to isolated case reports and small series. Read More

    Cervical Cord Atrophy and Long-Term Disease Progression in Patients with Primary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    From the Magnetic Resonance Unit (F.X.A., C.A., J.A., M.A., A.R.), Department of Radiology.
    Background And Purpose: Cervical cord atrophy has been associated with clinical disability in multiple sclerosis and is proposed as an outcome measure of neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to quantify the development of cervical cord atrophy and to evaluate its association with disability progression in patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Materials And Methods: Thirty-one patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis underwent 1. Read More

    Clinical and Radiologic Characteristics of Deep Lumbosacral Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    From the Departments of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (F.J., O.N., M.M.)
    Background And Purpose: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas located in the deep lumbosacral region are rare and the most difficult to diagnose among spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas located elsewhere in the spinal dura. Specific clinical and radiologic features of these fistulas are still inadequately reported and are the subject of this study.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all data of patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas treated and/or diagnosed in our institution between 1990 and 2017. Read More

    MR Imaging Criteria for the Detection of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Discrimination of Early-Stage Primary Tumors from Benign Hyperplasia.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (J.K.S.W., A.C.V.).
    Background And Purpose: MR imaging can detect nasopharyngeal carcinoma that is hidden from endoscopic view, but for accurate detection carcinoma confined within the nasopharynx (stage T1) must be distinguished from benign hyperplasia of the nasopharynx. This study aimed to document the MR imaging features of stage T1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to attempt to identify features distinguishing it from benign hyperplasia.

    Materials And Methods: MR images of 189 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma confined to the nasopharynx and those of 144 patients with benign hyperplasia were reviewed and compared in this retrospective study. Read More

    Spinal Arteriovenous Vascular Malformations in Patients with Neural Tube Defects.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Radiology (G.L., W.B.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
    Background And Purpose: Neural tube defects, such as tethered cord, intradural lipoma, or myelomeningocele may coexist with spinal vascular malformations. The coexistence of these 2 rare entities is suggestive of a causal relationship between them, which may lead to further understanding of their pathogenesis. We present a series of 6 patients with epidural spinal arteriovenous fistulas associated with neural tube defects. Read More

    Noninvasive Assessment of Intracranial Pressure Status in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Using Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) MRI: A Prospective Patient Study with Contemporaneous CSF Pressure Correlation.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    MR R&D Collaborations (X.Z.), Siemens Healthineers, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background And Purpose: Intracranial pressure is estimated invasively by using lumbar puncture with CSF opening pressure measurement. This study evaluated displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE), an MR imaging technique highly sensitive to brain motion, as a noninvasive means of assessing intracranial pressure status.

    Materials And Methods: Nine patients with suspected elevated intracranial pressure and 9 healthy control subjects were included in this prospective study. Read More

    Pressure Mapping and Hemodynamic Assessment of Intracranial Dural Sinuses and Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas with 4D Flow MRI.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    From the Departments of Medical Physics (L.A.R.-R., K.M.J., P.A.T., O.W.)
    The feasibility of 4D flow MR imaging to visualize flow patterns and generate relative pressure maps in the dural venous sinus in healthy subjects (n = 60) and patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (n = 7) was investigated. Dural venous drainage was classified based on torcular Herophili anatomy by using 4D flow MR imaging-derived angiograms and magnitude images. Subjects were scanned in a 3T clinical MR imaging system. Read More

    Better Than Nothing: A Rational Approach for Minimizing the Impact of Outflow Strategy on Cerebrovascular Simulations.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    From the Biomedical Simulation Laboratory (C.C., D.A.S.), Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Background And Purpose: Computational fluid dynamics simulations of neurovascular diseases are impacted by various modeling assumptions and uncertainties, including outlet boundary conditions. Many studies of intracranial aneurysms, for example, assume zero pressure at all outlets, often the default ("do-nothing") strategy, with no physiological basis. Others divide outflow according to the outlet diameters cubed, nominally based on the more physiological Murray's law but still susceptible to subjective choices about the segmented model extent. Read More

    Prenatal Factors Associated with Postnatal Brain Injury in Infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Radiology (B.M.K.-F.), Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    Background And Purpose: Approximately 60% of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia have evidence of brain injury on postnatal MR imaging. It is unclear whether any brain injury is present before birth. In this study, we evaluated fetal MR imaging findings of brain injury and the association of congenital diaphragmatic hernia severity with postnatal brain injury. Read More

    White Matter Changes Related to Subconcussive Impact Frequency during a Single Season of High School Football.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    From the Department of Radiology (S.J.K., C.L., K.R.C., J.R.P.).
    Background And Purpose: The effect of exposing the developing brain of a high school football player to subconcussive impacts during a single season is unknown. The purpose of this pilot study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to assess white matter changes during a single high school football season, and to correlate these changes with impacts measured by helmet accelerometer data and neurocognitive test scores collected during the same period.

    Materials And Methods: Seventeen male athletes (mean age, 16 ± 0. Read More

    MR Imaging-Based Evaluations of Olfactory Bulb Atrophy in Patients with Olfactory Dysfunction.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Departments of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (W.R.C., H.-Y.J., J.H.K.)
    Background And Purpose: Although the olfactory bulb volume as assessed with MR imaging is known to reflect olfactory function, it is not always measured during olfactory pathway assessments in clinical settings. We aimed to evaluate the utility of visual olfactory bulb atrophy and neuropathy analyses using MR imaging in patients with olfactory dysfunction.

    Materials And Methods: Thirty-four patients who presented with subjective olfactory loss between March 2016 and February 2017 were included. Read More

    Systematic Radiation Dose Reduction in Cervical Spine CT of Human Cadaveric Specimens: How Low Can We Go?
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    From the Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (M.T., C.R., D.H., J.L., U.S., S.S., A.H.), University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.
    Background And Purpose: While the use of cervical spine CT in trauma settings has increased, the balance between image quality and dose reduction remains a concern. The purpose of our study was to compare the image quality of CT of the cervical spine of cadaveric specimens at different radiation dose levels.

    Materials And Methods: The cervical spine of 4 human cadavers (mean body mass index; 30. Read More

    Improved Precision of Automatic Brain Volume Measurements in Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Multiple Sclerosis Using Edema Correction.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine (J.E.).
    Background And Purpose: The presence of edema will result in increased brain volume, which may obscure progressing brain atrophy. Similarly, treatment-induced edema reduction may appear as accelerated brain tissue loss (pseudoatrophy). The purpose of this study was to correlate brain tissue properties to brain volume, to investigate the possibilities for edema correction and the resulting improvement of the precision of automated brain volume measurements. Read More

    Optimal Fat Suppression in Head and Neck MRI: Comparison of Multipoint Dixon with 2 Different Fat-Suppression Techniques, Spectral Presaturation and Inversion Recovery, and STIR.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Radiology (Y.A.), University of Utah Health Center, Salt Lake City, Utah.
    Background And Purpose: Uniform complete fat suppression is essential for identification and characterization of most head and pathology. Our aim was to compare the multipoint Dixon turbo spin-echo fat-suppression technique with 2 different fat-suppression techniques, including a hybrid spectral presaturation with inversion recovery technique and an inversion recovery STIR technique, in head and neck fat-suppression MR imaging.

    Materials And Methods: Head and neck MR imaging datasets of 72 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

    Diagnostic Accuracy of Amino Acid and FDG-PET in Differentiating Brain Metastasis Recurrence from Radionecrosis after Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    From the Department of Neurology (H.L., L.D., L.Y.), Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China
    Background: Current studies that analyze the usefulness of amino acid and FDG-PET in distinguishing brain metastasis recurrence and radionecrosis after radiation therapy are limited by small cohort size.

    Purpose: Our aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of amino acid and FDG-PET in differentiating brain metastasis recurrence from radionecrosis after radiation therapy.

    Data Sources: Studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Read More

    Feasibility of Permanent Stenting with Solitaire FR as a Rescue Treatment for the Reperfusion of Acute Intracranial Artery Occlusion.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    From the Departments of Radiology (H.G.W., L.S., C.J., Y.J.B., B.S.C., J.H.K.).
    Background And Purpose: The Solitaire FR can be used not only as a tool for mechanical thrombectomy but also as a detachable permanent stent. Our aim was to assess the feasibility and safety of permanent stent placement with the Solitaire FR compared with other self-expanding stents for intracranial artery recanalization for acute ischemic stroke.

    Materials And Methods: From January 2011 through January 2016, we retrospectively selected 2979 patients with acute ischemic stroke. Read More

    Measuring Cerebral and Cerebellar Glutathione in Children Using 1H MEGA-PRESS MRS.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre (R.A.D., D.P.A.), University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Background And Purpose: Glutathione is an important antioxidant in the human brain and therefore of interest in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of measuring glutathione in healthy nonsedated children by using the 1H Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) sequence at 3T and to compare glutathione levels between the medial parietal gray matter and the cerebellum.

    Materials And Methods: Glutathione was measured using MEGA-PRESS MRS (TR = 1. Read More

    Imaging of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    From the Departments of Diagnostic Radiology (S.A., T.V., D.F.S., J.M.D.).
    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is fatal if unresectable. However, improved survival has been reported after gross total resection and multimodality therapy. In this report, we describe the contrast-enhanced high-resolution CT characteristics of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in 57 patients. Read More

    Combining Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping with Automatic Zero Reference (QSM0) and Myelin Water Fraction Imaging to Quantify Iron-Related Myelin Damage in Chronic Active MS Lesions.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Neurology (S.A.G.), Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York
    Background And Purpose: A hyperintense rim on susceptibility in chronic MS lesions is consistent with iron deposition, and the purpose of this study was to quantify iron-related myelin damage within these lesions as compared with those without rim.

    Materials And Methods: Forty-six patients had 2 longitudinal quantitative susceptibility mapping with automatic zero reference scans with a mean interval of 28.9 ± 11. Read More

    Lower Arterial Cross-Sectional Area of Carotid and Vertebral Arteries and Higher Frequency of Secondary Neck Vessels Are Associated with Multiple Sclerosis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 7;39(1):123-130. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    From the Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Department of Neurology (P.B., D.J., J.K., C.M., J.H., R.Z.)
    Background And Purpose: Arterial and neck vessel system characteristics of patients with multiple sclerosis have not been previously investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the frequency of neck vessels and their cross-sectional areas (in square millimeters) between patients with MS and healthy controls.

    Materials And Methods: In this study, 193 patients with MS and 193 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent 2D TOF venography at 3T. Read More

    MR Perfusion to Determine the Status of Collaterals in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Look Beyond Time Maps.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Radiology (M.W.), Neuroradiology Section, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.
    Background And Purpose: Patients with acute stroke with robust collateral flow have better clinical outcomes and may benefit from endovascular treatment throughout an extended time window. Using a multiparametric approach, we aimed to identify MR perfusion parameters that can represent the extent of collaterals, approximating DSA.

    Materials And Methods: Patients with anterior circulation proximal arterial occlusion who had baseline MR perfusion and DSA were evaluated. Read More

    Semiautomated Middle Ear Volume Measurement as a Predictor of Postsurgical Outcomes for Congenital Aural Atresia.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (D.S.R., B.W.K.), University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.
    Background And Purpose: Middle ear space is one of the most important components of the Jahrsdoerfer grading system (J-score), which is used to determine surgical candidacy for congenital aural atresia. The purpose of this study was to introduce a semiautomated method for measuring middle ear volume and determine whether middle ear volume, either alone or in combination with the J-score, can be used to predict early postoperative audiometric outcomes.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 18 patients who underwent an operation for unilateral congenital aural atresia at our institution. Read More

    Intranasal Esthesioneuroblastoma: CT Patterns Aid in Preventing Routine Nasal Polypectomy.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    From the Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences (M.E.P., R.H.W., Y.A., W.F., H.R.H.).
    Background And Purpose: Esthesioneuroblastoma is a neuroectodermal tumor that commonly arises in the nasal cavity olfactory recess and, when isolated to the intranasal cavity, can be indistinguishable from benign processes. Because lesional aggressiveness requires a more invasive operation for resection than polypectomy, patients with isolated intranasal lesions were studied to define distinguishing CT characteristics.

    Materials And Methods: Patients with intranasal esthesioneuroblastoma and controls without esthesioneuroblastoma with olfactory recess involvement were identified by using a report search tool. Read More

    The CT Swirl Sign Is Associated with Hematoma Expansion in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    From the Department of Radiology (D.N., P.M., R.D., B.Y.)
    Background And Purpose: Hematoma expansion is an independent determinant of poor clinical outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage. Although the "spot sign" predicts hematoma expansion, the identification requires CT angiography, which limits its general accessibility in some hospital settings. Noncontrast CT, without the need for CT angiography, may identify sites of active extravasation, termed the "swirl sign. Read More

    Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: A Characteristic Pattern of Edema and Enhancement of the Medulla on MRI.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    From the Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Medical Imaging (A.Z.C., A.K., R.S.), Beaumont Health - Royal Oak, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan.
    Medullary edema with enhancement is rarely reported at initial MR imaging in intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas. We report a series of 5 patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas, all of whom demonstrated a characteristic pattern of central medullary edema and medullary enhancement at initial MR imaging. Cognard type V dural arteriovenous fistula, defined by drainage into the perimedullary veins and the veins surrounding the brain stem, is a rare yet well-described pathologic entity. Read More

    Diagnostic Accuracy of Centrally Restricted Diffusion in the Differentiation of Treatment-Related Necrosis from Tumor Recurrence in High-Grade Gliomas.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    From the Department of Radiology (N.Z., C.T., S.C., T.B.N.), Division of Neuroradiology, University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital Civic and General Campus, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Background And Purpose: Centrally restricted diffusion has been demonstrated in recurrent high-grade gliomas treated with bevacizumab. Our purpose was to assess the accuracy of centrally restricted diffusion in the diagnosis of radiation necrosis in high-grade gliomas not treated with bevacizumab.

    Materials And Methods: In this prospective study, we enrolled patients with high-grade gliomas who developed a new ring-enhancing necrotic lesion and who underwent re-resection. Read More

    On the Reproducibility of Inversion Recovery Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Imaging in Cerebrovascular Disease.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    From the Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (S.M.W., W.H.B., C.R.L.P.N.J., J.F.A.J.)
    Background And Purpose: Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging can measure both microvascular and parenchymal abnormalities simultaneously. The contamination of CSF signal can be suppressed using inversion recovery preparation. The clinical feasibility of inversion recovery-intravoxel incoherent motion imaging was investigated in patients with cerebrovascular disease by studying its reproducibility. Read More

    Optic Nerve Measurement on MRI in the Pediatric Population: Normative Values and Correlations.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Diagnostic Radiology (M.G.S., R.N.T., A.M.K., R.G.H.)
    Background And Purpose: Few articles in the literature have looked at the diameter of the optic nerve on MR imaging, especially in children, in whom observations are subjective and no normative data exist. The aim of this study was to establish a data base for optic nerve diameter measurements on MR imaging in the pediatric population.

    Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective study on the MR imaging of pediatric subjects (younger than 18 years of age) at the Department of Diagnostic Radiology at the American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. Read More

    Lymphographic-Like Technique for the Treatment of Microcystic Lymphatic Malformation Components of <3 mm.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Neuroradiology (F.P., G.S.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Background And Purpose: The treatment of microcystic lymphatic malformations remains challenging. Our aim was to describe the lymphographic-like technique, a new technique of slow bleomycin infusion for the treatment of microcyst components of <3 mm, performed at our institution.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected lymphatic malformation data base was performed. Read More

    CT Attenuation Analysis of Carotid Intraplaque Hemorrhage.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 30;39(1):131-137. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Cardiology (M.F., P.P.B., G.F.).
    Background And Purpose: Intraplaque hemorrhage is considered a leading parameter of carotid plaque vulnerability. Our purpose was to assess the CT characteristics of intraplaque hemorrhage with histopathologic correlation to identify features that allow for confirming or ruling out the intraplaque hemorrhage.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 91 patients (67 men; median age, 65 ± 7 years; age range, 41-83 years) who underwent CT angiography and carotid endarterectomy from March 2010 to May 2013. Read More

    Time for a Time Window Extension: Insights from Late Presenters in the ESCAPE Trial.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 30;39(1):102-106. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    From the Departments of Clinical Neurosciences and Radiology (J.W.E., B.R.G., F.S.A.-A., P.A.B., A.M.D., M.G., M.D.H., B.K.M.)
    Background And Purpose: The safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy for large-artery stroke in the extended time window is not yet well-established. We performed a subgroup analysis on subjects enrolled within an extended time window in the Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Proximal Occlusion Ischemic Stroke (ESCAPE) trial.

    Materials And Methods: Fifty-nine of 315 subjects (33 in the intervention group and 26 in the control group) were randomized in the ESCAPE trial between 5. Read More

    Influences for Gender Disparity in Academic Neuroradiology.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 30;39(1):18-23. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    From the Department of Emergency & Trauma Radiology (M.A., K.K., S.J., S.N., F.K.), Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Background And Purpose: There has been extensive interest in promoting gender equality within radiology, a predominately male field. In this study, our aim was to quantify gender representation in neuroradiology faculty rankings and determine any related factors that may contribute to any such disparity.

    Materials And Methods: We evaluated the academic and administrative faculty members of neuroradiology divisions for all on-line listed programs in the US and Canada. Read More

    MR Imaging Characteristics Associate with Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Glioblastoma and Provide an Improved Signature for Survival Prognostication.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Pathology (J.Z., R.A.E., N.A.H., J.A.R., T.L.S.).
    Background And Purpose: In glioblastoma, tumor-associated macrophages have tumor-promoting properties. This study determined whether routine MR imaging features could predict molecular subtypes of glioblastoma that differ in the content of tumor-associated macrophages.

    Materials And Methods: Seven internally derived MR imaging features were assessed in 180 patients, and 25 features from the Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images feature set were assessed in 164 patients. Read More

    Reproducibility of Deep Gray Matter Atrophy Rate Measurement in a Large Multicenter Dataset.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Jan 30;39(1):46-53. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    From the Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (A.M., H.A., M.D.S., R.A.v.S., K.S.C., H.V.).
    Background And Purpose: Precise in vivo measurement of deep GM volume change is a highly demanded prerequisite for an adequate evaluation of disease progression and new treatments. However, quantitative data on the reproducibility of deep GM structure volumetry are not yet available. In this paper we aim to investigate this reproducibility using a large multicenter dataset. Read More

    John Nash and the Organization of Stroke Care.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Neurointerventional Radiology (J.A.H.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
    The concept of Nash equilibrium, developed by John Forbes Nash Jr, states that an equilibrium in noncooperative games is reached when each player takes the best action for himself or herself, taking into account the actions of the other players. We apply this concept to the provision of endovascular thrombectomy in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and suggest that collaboration among hospitals in a health care jurisdiction could result in practices such as shared call pools for neurointervention teams, leading to better patient care through streamlined systems. Read More

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