13,221 results match your criteria American Journal of Neuroradiology AJNR[Journal]


Myelin Imaging Can Be Affected by a Number of Factors.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of RadiologyJuntendo University School of MedicineTokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6525DOI Listing

CT Scanning in Suspected Stroke or Head Trauma: Is it Worth to go the Extra Mile and Include the Chest to Screen for COVID-19 Infection?

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Department of Radiology (R.M.K., J.K., B.A.C.M.F., T.M.H.d.J.), Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen/Sittard/Geleen, the Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: Chest CT may be used as a tool for rapid coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) detection. Our aim was to investigate the value of additional chest CT for detection of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) in patients who undergo head CT for suspected stroke or head trauma in a COVID-19-endemic region.

Materials And Methods: Our study included 27 patients (mean age, 74 years; range, 54-90 years; 20 men) who underwent head CT for suspected stroke ( = 21) or head trauma ( = 6), additional chest CT for COVID-19 detection, and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing in a COVID-19-endemic region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6607DOI Listing

Preserving Access: A Review of Stroke Thrombectomy during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Radiology (J.A.H.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Thrombectomy for large-vessel-occlusion stroke is a highly impactful treatment. The spread of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) across the United States and the globe impacts access to this crucial intervention through widespread societal and institutional changes. In this document, we review the implications of COVID-19 on the emergency care of large-vessel occlusion stroke, reviewing specific infection-control recommendations, available literature, existing resources, and expert consensus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6606DOI Listing

The Ubiquitous Use of Resting State as a Control Task for Language Mapping in Task-Based Functional MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of NeuropsychologyMayo ClinicJacksonville, Florida.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6464DOI Listing

Reply.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Departments of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided TherapyMedical University of ViennaVienna, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6597DOI Listing

Neuroradiologists and the Novel Coronavirus.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Radiology and Radiological ScienceMedical University of South CarolinaCharleston, South Carolina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6596DOI Listing

Hemorrhagic Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome as a Manifestation of COVID-19 Infection.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology (M.C.), University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

We describe 2 hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) infection in whom brain imaging showed hemorrhagic posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and we discuss the possible reasons for these findings and their relationship to the infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6595DOI Listing

Major Radiologic and Clinical Outcomes of Total Spine MRI Performed in the Emergency Department at a Major Academic Medical Center.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Departments of Radiology (C.W.C.H., A.A., Y.-M.C., A.F.B., D.B.H., R.A.B.)

Background And Purpose: Total spine MRIs are requested by the emergency department when focused imaging can not be ordered on the basis of history or clinical findings. However, their efficacy is not known. We assessed the following: 1) major radiologic and clinical outcomes of total spine MR imaging performed by the emergency department, and 2) whether the presence of a high-risk clinical profile and/or neurologic findings impacts the clinical outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6578DOI Listing

New MRI Findings in Fukuyama Congenital Muscular Dystrophy: Brain Stem and Venous System Anomalies.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Departments of Child Neurology (A.H.-I., A.I., E.T., H.K., M.S.).

Background And Purpose: Leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia of the brain stem and cerebral migration abnormality were pathologically reported in Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, but the radiologic assessments of the brain stem and cerebral venous system (which may be involved in the development of the anomaly) were insufficient. Here, we evaluated the brain stem and cerebral veins on MR imaging in patients with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the MR imaging findings of 27 patients with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6577DOI Listing

4D Flat Panel Conebeam CTA for In Vivo Imaging of the Microvasculature of the Human Cortex with a Novel Software Prototype.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Institute of Neuroradiology (N.H., F.K., J.B.), University Hospital of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany

It was the aim of our pilot study to investigate whether time-resolved flat panel conebeam CTA is able to demonstrate small cortical vessels in vivo. In 8 patients with small AVMs, time-resolved coronal MPRs of the vasculature of the frontal cortex were recalculated from 3D rotational angiography datasets with the use of a novel software prototype. 4D flat panel conebeam CTA demonstrated the course of the cortical arteries with small perpendicular side branches to the underlying cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6574DOI Listing

Resting-State Brain Activity for Early Prediction Outcome in Postanoxic Patients in a Coma with Indeterminate Clinical Prognosis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Faculty of Medicine (S.H.), University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background And Purpose: Early outcome prediction of postanoxic patients in a coma after cardiac arrest proves challenging. Current prognostication relies on multimodal testing, using clinical examination, electrophysiologic testing, biomarkers, and structural MR imaging. While this multimodal prognostication is accurate for predicting poor outcome (ie, death), it is not sensitive enough to identify good outcome (ie, consciousness recovery), thus leaving many patients with indeterminate prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6572DOI Listing

Preoperative Evaluation of Craniopagus Twins: Anatomy, Imaging Techniques, and Surgical Management.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Departments of Radiology (A.E.G.-Y., J.M.F.).

Craniopagus twins are a rare congenital malformation in which twins are conjoined at the head. Although there is high prenatal and postnatal mortality for craniopagus twins, successful separation has become more common due to advances in neuroimaging, neuroanesthesia, and neurosurgical techniques. Joined brain tissue, shared arteries and veins, and defects in the skull and dura make surgery technically challenging, and neuroimaging plays an important role in preoperative planning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6571DOI Listing

Improved Cervical Cord Lesion Detection with 3D-MP2RAGE Sequence in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Centre d'exploration métabolique par résonance magnétique (S.D., P.L., J.P., B.A., V.C.)

Spinal cord lesions have a real diagnostic and prognostic role in multiple sclerosis. Thus, optimizing their detection on MR imaging has become a central issue with direct therapeutic impact. In this study, we compared the 3D-MP2RAGE sequence with the conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis (MAGNIMS) set for cervical cord lesion detection in 28 patients with multiple sclerosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6567DOI Listing

Value of 3T Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging in the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Vall d'Hebron Research Institute (M.A.C., D.P., M.A., M.T., J.S.-G., C.A., X.M., A.R.), Barcelona, Spain

Background And Purpose: Previous studies have suggested that the central vein sign and iron rims are specific features of MS lesions. Using 3T SWI, we aimed to compare the frequency of lesions with central veins and iron rims in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and MS-mimicking disorders and test their diagnostic value in predicting conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to MS.

Materials And Methods: For each patient, we calculated the number of brain lesions with central veins and iron rims. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6547DOI Listing

Accuracy of MR Imaging for Detection of Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Infants with Bacterial Meningitis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Edward B. Singleton Department of Radiology (G.O., M.K.K., N.D., T.A.G.M.H., S.F.K.).

Background And Purpose: Bacterial meningitis most commonly affects young children and can result in critical adverse outcomes, including sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging for predicting the development of SNHL among infants with bacterial meningitis.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review was performed among infants (age <365 days) with bacterial meningitis ( = 115). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6539DOI Listing

Fully Automated Segmentation of Globes for Volume Quantification in CT Images of Orbits using Deep Learning.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering (L.U., A.B.)

Background And Purpose: Fast and accurate quantification of globe volumes in the event of an ocular trauma can provide clinicians with valuable diagnostic information. In this work, an automated workflow using a deep learning-based convolutional neural network is proposed for prediction of globe contours and their subsequent volume quantification in CT images of the orbits.

Materials And Methods: An automated workflow using a deep learning -based convolutional neural network is proposed for prediction of globe contours in CT images of the orbits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6538DOI Listing

Sensitivity of the Inhomogeneous Magnetization Transfer Imaging Technique to Spinal Cord Damage in Multiple Sclerosis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May;41(5):929-937

From the Center for Magnetic Resonance in Biology and Medicine (H.R., S.D., A.T., J.P.R., O.G., G.D., M.G., J.P., B.A., V.C.), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France

Background And Purpose: The inhomogeneous magnetization transfer technique has demonstrated high specificity for myelin, and has shown sensitivity to multiple sclerosis-related impairment in brain tissue. Our aim was to investigate its sensitivity to spinal cord impairment in MS relative to more established MR imaging techniques (volumetry, magnetization transfer, DTI).

Materials And Methods: Anatomic images covering the cervical spinal cord from the C1 to C6 levels and DTI, magnetization transfer/inhomogeneous magnetization transfer images at the C2/C5 levels were acquired in 19 patients with MS and 19 paired healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228162PMC

A Critical Assessment of the Golden Hour and the Impact of Procedural Timing in Stroke Thrombectomy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May;41(5):822-827

From the Division of Interventional Neuroradiology (H.D.P.C., E.L., T.R.M., D.G., G.J.).

Background And Purpose: Previous studies in acute ischemic stroke have demonstrated the importance of minimizing delays to endovascular treatment and keeping thrombectomy procedural times at <30-60 minutes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of thrombectomy procedural times on clinical outcomes.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively compared 319 patients having undergone thrombectomy according to procedural time (<30 minutes, 30-60 minutes, and >60 minutes) and time from stroke onset to endovascular therapy (≤6 or >6 hours). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228171PMC

Methylphenidate Effects on Cortical Thickness in Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May;41(5):758-765

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (A.S., A.B., L.R.), Amsterdam UMC, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: Although methylphenidate is frequently used to treat children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, it is currently unknown how methylphenidate affects brain development. In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated whether the cortical effects of methylphenidate are modulated by age.

Materials And Methods: Between June 1, 2011, and June 15, 2015, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Developing Brain-Methylphenidate) in 99 males with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (according to , criteria) from referral centers in the greater Amsterdam area in the Netherlands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228175PMC

Perspectives.

Authors:
Ajeet Gordhan

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May;41(5):737

Neurointerventional Radiologist, Bloomington, Illinois.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.P0106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228165PMC

Cerebrovascular Disease in COVID-19.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Neuroscience Institute, Cerebrovascular Center (R.C., A.H.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a pandemic originating in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Early reports suggest that there are neurologic manifestations of COVID-19, including acute cerebrovascular disease. We report a case of COVID-19 with acute ischemic stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6588DOI Listing

Prediction of Outcome Using Quantified Blood Volume in Aneurysmal SAH.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Neurosurgical Center Amsterdam (W.E.v.d.S., B.A.C., W.P.V., D.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: In patients with SAH, the amount of blood is strongly associated with clinical outcome. However, it is commonly estimated with a coarse grading scale, potentially limiting its predictive value. Therefore, we aimed to develop and externally validate prediction models for clinical outcome, including quantified blood volumes, as candidate predictors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6575DOI Listing

How the Lives of Neuroradiologists and Neurosurgeons Have Been Changed by COVID-19.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Division of NeurosurgeryGeneva University Hospital and Faculty of MedicineGeneva, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6562DOI Listing

Asymptomatic COVID-19: What the Neuroradiologist Needs to Know about Pulmonary Manifestations.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

From the Departments of Radiology (R.F.B., Jr, G.R., J.S., C.F.).

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease with a high asymptomatic incidence. Asymptomatic infections within a population will inevitably lead to diagnosis via unrelated medical imaging. We report the case of an asymptomatic patient undergoing a spine CT examination for trauma who was incidentally found to have lung abnormalities later confirmed to be COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6561DOI Listing

Fast Stent Retrieval Improves Recanalization Rates of Thrombectomy: Experimental Study on Different Thrombi.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR)-S 1237 Physiopathology and Imaging of Neurological Disorders (S.S., D.V., E.T.), National Institute for Health and Medical Research, Normandie University, Université Caen Normandie, Cyceron, Caen, France.

Background And Purpose: About 20% of patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large-artery occlusion do not achieve recanalization with mechanical thrombectomy. We aimed to determine whether the speed of retrieval of the stent retriever influences the efficacy in removing different clot types.

Materials And Methods: Sixty mechanical thrombectomies were performed using an in vitro pulsatile cerebrovascular circulation model with controlled pressure and flow rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6559DOI Listing

Novel Coronavirus: What Neuroradiologists Should Do.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Radiodiagnosis and ImagingPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6550DOI Listing

A Case Series of X-Linked Deafness-2 with Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Stapes Fixation, and Perilymphatic Gusher: MR Imaging and Clinical Features of Hypothalamic Malformations.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

From the Departments of Radiology (J.-A.P.M., K.P.).

X-linked deafness-2 (DFNX2) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by profound sensorineural hearing loss and a pathognomonic temporal bone deformity. Because hypothalamic malformations associated with DFNX2 have been rarely described, we aimed to further describe these lesions and compare them with features of a nonaffected population. All patients diagnosed with DFNX2 between 2006 and 2019 were included and compared with age-matched patients with normal MR imaging findings and without hypothalamic dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6541DOI Listing

Predictors of Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture after Coil Embolization: Single-Center Experience with Recanalized Aneurysms.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 7;41(5):828-835. Epub 2020 May 7.

From the Department of Neurosurgery (Y.F., H.I., S.T., H.A., R.F., T.S., Y.O., Y.M., N.Sasaki, T.F., R.A., K.H., S.K., M.S., N.Sakai), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Japan.

Background And Purpose: Recanalization after coil embolization is widely studied. However, there are limited data on how recanalized aneurysms rupture. Herein, we describe our experience with the rupture of recanalized aneurysms and discuss the type of recanalized aneurysms at greatest rupture risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228172PMC

MRI Signal Intensity and Electron Ultrastructure Classification Predict the Long-Term Outcome of Skull Base Chordomas.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 7;41(5):852-858. Epub 2020 May 7.

From the Department of Neurosurgery (J.B., P.Z., S. Geng, S. Gui, Y. Zhang), Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

Background And Purpose: MR imaging is a useful and widely used evaluation for chordomas. Prior studies have classified chordomas into cell-dense type and matrix-rich type according to the ultrastructural features. However, the relationship between the MR imaging signal intensity and ultrastructural classification is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228160PMC

Comparison of MRI, MRA, and DSA for Detection of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Division of Neurointerventional Radiology (D.L.C., M.R.A., D.E.L., S.W.H.)

Background And Purpose: Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) have a high prevalence of brain vascular malformations, putting them at risk for brain hemorrhage and other complications. Our aim was to evaluate the relative utility of MR imaging and MRA compared with DSA in detecting cerebral AVMs in the HHT population.

Materials And Methods: Of 343 consecutive patients evaluated at the University of California, San Francisco HTT Center of Excellence, 63 met the study inclusion criteria: definite or probable hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia defined by meeting at least 2 Curacao criteria or positive genetic testing, as well as having at least 1 brain MR imaging and 1 DSA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6549DOI Listing

MR Imaging Correlates for Molecular and Mutational Analyses in Children with Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 7;41(5):874-881. Epub 2020 May 7.

From the Departments of Radiology (C.J., S.V., T.Y.P.)

Background And Purpose: Recent advances in molecular techniques have characterized distinct subtypes of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Our aim was the identification of MR imaging correlates of these subtypes.

Materials And Methods: Initial MRIs from subjects with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas recruited for a prospective clinical trial before treatment were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228178PMC

Disrupted Functional and Structural Connectivity in Angelman Syndrome.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 7;41(5):889-897. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics (T.S.K., M.S.Y.), Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Purpose: This work investigated alterations in functional connectivity (FC) and associated structures in patients with Angelman syndrome (AS) by using integrated quantitative imaging analysis and connectivity measures.

Materials And Methods: We obtained 3T brain MR imaging, including resting-state functional MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and 3D T1-weighted imaging from children with AS ( = 14) and age- and sex-matched controls ( = 28). The brains of patients with AS were analyzed by measuring FC, white matter microstructural analysis, cortical thickness, and brain volumes; these were compared with brains of controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228188PMC
May 2020
3.589 Impact Factor

Effect of Age on GABA+ and Glutathione in a Pediatric Sample.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (A.P., S.C.), The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background And Purpose: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain and is implicated in several neuropathologies. Glutathione is a major antioxidant in the brain and is considered a marker of oxidative stress. Several studies have reported age-related declines in GABA levels in adulthood, but the trajectory of both GABA and glutathione during childhood has not been well explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6543DOI Listing

Structural Connectivity and Cortical Thickness Alterations in Transient Global Amnesia.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 7;41(5):798-803. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Neuroradiology (X.L., J.-P.P., R.L.), Roger Salengro Hospital, Lille, France.

Background And Purpose: Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a sudden onset of anterograde and retrograde amnesia. We aimed to assess differences in terms of cortical thickness and structural brain connectome between patients with TGA (at acute and delayed postrecovery stages) and matched controls.

Materials And Methods: We report on 18 consecutive patients with TGA who underwent 3T MR imaging, including DTI and MPRAGE sequences, at the acute (mean delay postonset: 44 hours) and delayed post-recovery (mean delay: 35 days) stages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228167PMC

The Perirolandic Sign: A Unique Imaging Finding Observed in Association with Polymerase γ-Related Disorders.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 7;41(5):917-922. Epub 2020 May 7.

From the Departments of Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology (F.G.G., B.H., C.A.P.F.A., S.R.T., J.S.M.-S., A.V., G.Z.).

Pathogenic variants in the () cause a diverse group of pathologies known as -related disorders. In this report, we describe brain MR imaging findings and electroencephalogram correlates of 13 children with -related disorders at diagnosis and follow-up. At diagnosis, all patients had seizures and 12 had abnormal MR imaging findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228159PMC

The Impact of Intracortical Lesions on Volumes of Subcortical Structures in Multiple Sclerosis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 7;41(5):804-808. Epub 2020 May 7.

From the SPb Center of Multiple Sclerosis and AID (SBIH City Clinical Hospital No. 31), St. Petersburg, Russia.

Background And Purpose: Recent studies showed thalamic atrophy in the early stages of MS. We investigated the impact of intracortical lesions on the volumes of subcortical structures (especially the thalamus) compared with other lesions in MS.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-one patients with MS were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228180PMC

Stroke Health Care Use and COVID-19.

Authors:
I Derraz

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional NeuroradiologyGui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier University Medical CenterMontpellier, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6563DOI Listing

Tumor Response Assessment in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: Comparison of Semiautomated Volumetric, Semiautomated Linear, and Manual Linear Tumor Measurement Strategies.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 30;41(5):866-873. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

From the Departments of Radiology (L.A.G., J.L.L.)

Background And Purpose: 2D measurements of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas are limited by variability, and volumetric response criteria are poorly defined. Semiautomated 2D measurements may improve consistency; however, the impact on tumor response assessments is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare manual 2D, semiautomated 2D, and volumetric measurement strategies for diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228153PMC

Neuroradiologists, Be Mindful of the Neuroinvasive Potential of COVID-19.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical ImagingYale School of MedicineNew Haven, Connecticut.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6551DOI Listing

John Donne.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of RadiologySaitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical UniversityKawagoe City, Saitama, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6544DOI Listing

How Far Can We Take Vessel Wall MRI for Intracranial Atherosclerosis? The Tissue is Still the Issue.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 30;41(5):E30-E31. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Departments of Radiology and Imaging SciencesUniversity of UtahSalt Lake City, Utah.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228154PMC

Direct In Vivo MRI Discrimination of Brain Stem Nuclei and Pathways.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 30;41(5):777-784. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Radiology (M.J.H.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background And Purpose: The brain stem is a complex configuration of small nuclei and pathways for motor, sensory, and autonomic control that are essential for life, yet internal brain stem anatomy is difficult to characterize in living subjects. We hypothesized that the 3D fast gray matter acquisition T1 inversion recovery sequence, which uses a short inversion time to suppress signal from white matter, could improve contrast resolution of brain stem pathways and nuclei with 3T MR imaging.

Materials And Methods: After preliminary optimization for contrast resolution, the fast gray matter acquisition T1 inversion recovery sequence was performed in 10 healthy subjects (5 women; mean age, 28. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228179PMC

Reply.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 30;41(5):E32. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary CareUniversity Medical Center Utrecht and UtrechtUniversityUtrecht, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228187PMC

Balanced Steady-State Free Precession Techniques Improve Detection of Residual Germ Cell Tumor for Treatment Planning.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 30;41(5):898-903. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

From the Departments of Radiology (W.A.M, Jr., K.B., S.R., J.E.K., P.C.).

Background And Purpose: Identification of a partial/complete chemotherapy response in pediatric patients with intracranial germ cell tumors is clinically important for radiation treatment and management. Partial/complete response is conventionally determined on postcontrast MR imaging sequences. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic utility of a balanced steady-state free precession sequence as an adjunct to standard MR imaging sequences for the detection of residual tumor in pediatric patients on postchemoreduction pre-radiation planning MR imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228177PMC

MR Myelography for the Detection of CSF-Venous Fistulas.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 30;41(5):938-940. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Neurological Surgery (J.P.G.), Weill Cornell Medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York.

CSF-venous fistula is an important treatable cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that is often difficult to detect using traditional imaging techniques. Herein, we describe the technical aspects and diagnostic performance of MR myelography when used for identifying CSF-venous fistulas. We report 3 cases in which the CSF-venous fistula was occult on CT myelography but readily detected using MR myelography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228166PMC

Neuroimaging Findings in Children with Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 30;41(5):904-910. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

From the Department of Radiology (A.K., M.S., S.S., C.H.), Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Background And Purpose: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency is a hereditary childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by brain tumors and colorectal and hematologic malignancies. Our objective was to describe the neuroimaging findings in patients with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 14 children with genetically confirmed constitutional mismatch repair deficiency who were referred to 2 tertiary pediatric oncology centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228156PMC

Advanced Multicompartment Diffusion MRI Models and Their Application in Multiple Sclerosis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 May 30;41(5):751-757. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

From the Neuroimaging Unit (D.A.L., F.B.), Neuroimmunology Division, Department of Neurology

Conventional MR imaging techniques are sensitive to pathologic changes of the brain and spinal cord seen in MS, but they lack specificity for underlying axonal and myelin integrity. By isolating the signal contribution from different tissue compartments, newly developed advanced multicompartment diffusion MR imaging models have the potential to detect specific tissue subtypes and associated injuries with increased pathologic specificity. These models include neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, diffusion basis spectrum imaging, multicompartment microscopic diffusion MR imaging with the spherical mean technique, and models enabled through high-gradient diffusion MR imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228182PMC

From the Eye of the Storm: Multi-Institutional Practical Perspectives on Neuroradiology from the COVID-19 Outbreak in New York City.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Departments of Biomedical Imaging and Translational Science and Radiology (C.G.F.), Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Lenox Hill Hospital and Lenox Hill-Greenwich Village, New York, New York.

During the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) pandemic, neuroradiology practices have experienced a paradigm shift in practice, which affected everything from staffing, workflow, work volumes, conferences, resident and fellowship education, and research. This article highlights adaptive strategies that were undertaken at the epicenter of the outbreak in New York City during the past 4-6 weeks, as experienced by 5 large neuroradiology academic departments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6565DOI Listing