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    12143 results match your criteria American Journal of Neuroradiology AJNR[Journal]

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    Association of Developmental Venous Anomalies with Demyelinating Lesions in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    From the Department of Radiology and Imaging Science, University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah.
    We present 5 cases of demyelination in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis that are closely associated with a developmental venous anomaly. Although the presence of a central vein is a known phenomenon with multiple sclerosis plaques, demyelination occurring around developmental venous anomalies is an underreported phenomenon. Tumefactive demyelination can cause a diagnostic dilemma because of its overlapping imaging findings with central nervous system neoplasm. Read More

    Predictors of Incomplete Occlusion following Pipeline Embolization of Intracranial Aneurysms: Is It Less Effective in Older Patients?
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    From the Neurosurgical Service (N.A., J.M.M., M.W., C.J.G., R.G., A.A.D., R.M.-L., A.A., A.J.T., C.S.O.), Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Neurosurgery (P.M.F., M.R.H.), University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; Department of Neurosurgery (H.S., A.H.S., E.I.L.), State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York; and Department of Neurosurgery (N.A.), Louisiana State University, Shreveport, Louisiana.
    Background And Purpose: Flow diversion with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms is associated with a high rate of aneurysm occlusion. However, clinical and radiographic predictors of incomplete aneurysm occlusion are poorly defined. In this study, predictors of incomplete occlusion at last angiographic follow-up after PED treatment were assessed. Read More

    T1-Weighted Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Perfusion Imaging Characterizes Tumor Response to Radiation Therapy in Chordoma.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    From the Departments of Radiology (P.S., K.K.P., J.A.-P., S.K., E.L., A.I.H., J.L.), Medical Physics (K.K.P.), and Radiation Oncology (Y.Y.), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.
    Background And Purpose: Chordomas notoriously demonstrate a paucity of changes following radiation therapy on conventional MR imaging. We hypothesized that dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion imaging parameters of chordomas would change significantly following radiation therapy.

    Materials And Methods: Eleven patients with pathology-proved chordoma who completed dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion imaging pre- and postradiation therapy were enrolled. Read More

    Reaction Time Is Negatively Associated with Corpus Callosum Area in the Early Stages of CADASIL.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    From the University Paris Diderot (S.D., F.D.G., H.C., E.J.), Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR-S 1161 INSERM, Paris, France; DHU NeuroVasc Sorbonne Paris Cité (F.D.G., H.C., E.J.), Paris, France; and Department of Neurology (S.R., A.J., H.C., E.J.), AP-HP, Lariboisière Hospital, Paris, France.
    Background And Purpose: Reaction time was recently recognized as a marker of subtle cognitive and behavioral alterations in the early clinical stages of CADASIL, a monogenic cerebral small-vessel disease. In unselected patients with CADASIL, brain atrophy and lacunes are the main imaging correlates of disease severity, but MR imaging correlates of reaction time in mildly affected patients are unknown. We hypothesized that reaction time is independently associated with the corpus callosum area in the early clinical stages of CADASIL. Read More

    Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Histograms of Human Papillomavirus-Positive and Human Papillomavirus-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Assessment of Tumor Heterogeneity and Comparison with Histopathology.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    From the Division of Radiology, Department of Imaging and Medical Informatics (T.d.P., V.L., M.D.A., M.B.), Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences (N.D.), and Division of Clinical Pathology, Department of Genetic and Laboratory Medicine (M.P.), Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background And Purpose: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma associated with human papillomavirus infection represents a distinct tumor entity. We hypothesized that diffusion phenotypes based on the histogram analysis of ADC values reflect distinct degrees of tumor heterogeneity in human papillomavirus-positive and human papillomavirus-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    Materials And Methods: One hundred five consecutive patients (mean age, 64 years; range, 45-87 years) with primary oropharyngeal (n = 52) and oral cavity (n = 53) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma underwent MR imaging with anatomic and diffusion-weighted sequences (b = 0, b = 1000 s/mm(2), monoexponential ADC calculation). Read More

    Added Value of Arterial Spin-Labeling MR Imaging for the Differentiation of Cerebellar Hemangioblastoma from Metastasis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    From the Department of Radiology (K.M.K., C.-H.S., J.G.N., S.H.C., T.J.Y., R.-E.Y., J.-h.K.), Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea; Department of Radiology (C.-H.S., S.H.C.), Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; and Department of Radiology (S.-H.Y.), Korea University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
    Background And Purpose: In adults with only cerebellar masses, hemangioblastoma and metastasis are the 2 most important differential diagnoses. Our aim was to investigate the added value of arterial spin-labeling MR imaging for differentiating hemangioblastoma from metastasis in patients with only cerebellar masses.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included a homogeneous cohort comprising patients with only cerebellar masses, including 16 hemangioblastomas and 14 metastases. Read More

    Differences in Morphologic and Hemodynamic Characteristics for "PHASES-Based" Intracranial Aneurysm Locations.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    From the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (N.V., H.R.-O., H.M.), Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center (N.V., H.R.-O., A.S., H.M.), Departments of Biostatistics (J.W., A.M.), Neurosurgery (A.S., H.M.), Biomedical Engineering (H.M.), and Neurology (A.M.), University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York.
    Background And Purpose: Several recent prospective studies have found that unruptured intracranial aneurysms at various anatomic locations have different propensities for future rupture. This study aims to uncover the lack of understanding regarding rupture-prone characteristics, such as morphology and hemodynamic factors, associated with different intracranial aneurysm location.

    Materials And Methods: We investigated the characteristics of 311 unruptured aneurysms at our center. Read More

    Pituitary Macroadenoma and Visual Impairment: Postoperative Outcome Prediction with Contrast-Enhanced FIESTA.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    From the Departments of Radiology (S.H., S.K., K.W., J.M., Y.K.), Neurosurgery (J.Y., S.N.), Ophthalmology (T.N., H.K.), and Preventive Medicine and Community (Y.F.), University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan.
    Background And Purpose: Contrast-enhanced FIESTA can depict anterior optic pathways in patients with large suprasellar tumors. We assessed whether the degree of kink in the optic nerve at the optic canal orifice on contrast-enhanced FIESTA correlates with the postoperative improvement of visual impairment in patients with pituitary macroadenoma.

    Materials And Methods: Thirty-one patients with pituitary macroadenoma who underwent preoperative MR imaging and an operation were evaluated. Read More

    Advantages of 70-kV CT Angiography for the Visualization of the Adamkiewicz Artery: Comparison with 120-kV Imaging.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    From the Department of Radiology (S.S., T.N., Y.W., A.K.K., S.T., K.S.), Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan; Department of Radiology (Y.W., A.K.K.), National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan; and Division of Radiology (K.K.), Center for Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.
    Background And Purpose: Preprocedural identification of the Adamkiewicz artery is crucial in patients with aortic diseases. This study aimed to compare 70-kV CTA with conventional 120-kV CTA for the identification of the Adamkiewicz artery, examining differences in radiation dose and image quality.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 2 equal groups of 60 patients who had undergone 70-kV or 120-kV CTA to detect the Adamkiewicz artery before aortic repair. Read More

    Diagnostic Accuracy of Neuroimaging to Delineate Diffuse Gliomas within the Brain: A Meta-Analysis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    From the Neurosurgical Center Amsterdam (N.V., F.W.A.H., W.P.V., P.C.D.W.H.), and Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (F.B., R.B., O.S.H.), Neurology (J.J.H., J.C.R.), Physics and Medical Technology (P.J.W.P.), and Pathology (P.W.), VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Service of Nuclear Medicine and PET/Biomedical Cyclotron Unit (S.G.), l'université libre de Bruxelles-Hôpital Erasme, Brussels, Belgium; Shanghai Medical College (J.G.), Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Department of Radiology (R.J.), New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; Department of Neurosurgery (M.K.), Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; Academic Neurosurgery Division (S.J.P.), Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK; Department of Neurosurgery (A.S.), University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany; Department of Pathology (P.W.), Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (A.H.Z.), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), University College London, London, UK.
    Background: Brain imaging in diffuse glioma is used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up.

    Purpose: In this meta-analysis, we address the diagnostic accuracy of imaging to delineate diffuse glioma.

    Data Sources: We systematically searched studies of adults with diffuse gliomas and correlation of imaging with histopathology. Read More

    Yield of Image-Guided Needle Biopsy for Infectious Discitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    From the University of Michigan Health System (A.L.M., D.M.G.-H., S.K.C., A.S.), Ann Arbor, Michigan; and University of California, San Francisco (E.C.D.), San Francisco, California.
    Background: Image-guided biopsy is routinely conducted in patients with suspected discitis, though the sensitivity reported in the literature ranges widely.

    Purpose: We applied a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the yield of image-guided biopsy for infectious discitis.

    Data Sources: We performed a literature search of 4 data bases: PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, Embase. Read More

    Prevalence of Intracranial Aneurysms in Patients with Aortic Dissection.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    From the Departments of Radiology (W.S.J., S.J.A., S.H.S.), Neurology (J.H.K.), and Cardiovascular Surgery (S.-W.S.), Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; Department of Radiology (W.S.J.), Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea; Department of Radiology (B.M.K.) and Severance Institute of Vascular and Metabolic Research (S.H.S.), Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; and Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), Wonkwang University Sanbon Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
    Background And Purpose: There is an uncertainty about the association between intracranial aneurysms and aortic dissection. We aimed to determine the prevalence of intracranial aneurysms in patients with aortic dissection and evaluate the independent risk factors for the presence of intracranial aneurysms in these patients.

    Materials And Methods: Seventy-one patients with a confirmed aortic dissection who underwent additional brain imaging were enrolled as the aortic dissection group, and 2118 healthy individuals with brain imaging, as controls. Read More

    MR Neurography of Greater Occipital Nerve Neuropathy: Initial Experience in Patients with Migraine.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    From the Departments of Plastic Surgery (L.H., B.A.) and Radiology (R.D., Y.X., A.C.), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; and Department of Radiology (R.D.), Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Background And Purpose: MR imaging of peripheral nerves (MR neurography) allows improved assessment of nerve anatomy and pathology. The objective of this study was to evaluate patients with unilateral occipital neuralgia using MR neurography and to assess the differences in greater occipital nerve signal and size between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides.

    Materials And Methods: In this case-control evaluation using MR neurography, bilateral greater occipital nerve caliber, signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratios, and contrast-to-noise ratios were determined by 2 observers. Read More

    Patient Outcomes and Cerebral Infarction after Ruptured Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Treatment.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    From the Department of Radiology, Neuroimaging and Neurointervention Division (J.J.H., N.A.T., H.M.D., M.W., M.P.M.), Department of Medicine, Quantitative Sciences Unit (R.L.B.), and Department of Neurosurgery (R.L.D., G.K.S., S.D.C.), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
    Background And Purpose: Anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture and treatment is associated with high rates of dependency, which are more severe after clipping compared with coiling. To determine whether ischemic injury might account for these differences, we characterized cerebral infarction burden, infarction patterns, and patient outcomes after surgical or endovascular treatment of ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms. Read More

    Detection of Volume-Changing Metastatic Brain Tumors on Longitudinal MRI Using a Semiautomated Algorithm Based on the Jacobian Operator Field.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    From the Departments of Medical Imaging (O.S., S.-P.H., S.P.S., C.H., M.M., A.C., P.J.M.) and Radiation Oncology (A.S.), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Biomedical Engineering (A.K.), Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Mechanical Engineering Department (A.E.), Australian College of Kuwait, Kuwait City, Kuwait.
    Background And Purpose: Accurate follow-up of metastatic brain tumors has important implications for patient prognosis and management. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of a semiautomated algorithm in detecting growing or shrinking metastatic brain tumors on longitudinal brain MRIs.

    Materials And Methods: We used 50 pairs of successive MR imaging datasets, 30 on 1. Read More

    Real-Time Motor Cortex Mapping for the Safe Resection of Glioma: An Intraoperative Resting-State fMRI Study.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    From the Department of Neurological Surgery (T.-m.Q., F.-y.G., X.G., J.-s.W., D.-x.Z., C.-j.Y., X.-l.Z., J.-f.L., F.-p.Z., Y.M., L.-f.Z.), Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Center for Computational Systems Biology (C.-p.L.), Fudan University, Shanghai, China; and Department of Biomedical Engineering (B.B.B.), New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey.
    Background And Purpose: Resting-state functional MR imaging has been used for motor mapping in presurgical planning but never used intraoperatively. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of applying intraoperative resting-state functional MR imaging for the safe resection of gliomas using real-time motor cortex mapping during an operation.

    Materials And Methods: Using interventional MR imaging, we conducted preoperative and intraoperative resting-state intrinsic functional connectivity analyses of the motor cortex in 30 patients with brain tumors. Read More

    Flow Diversion with Low-Profile Braided Stents for the Treatment of Very Small or Uncoilable Intracranial Aneurysms at or Distal to the Circle of Willis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    From the Department of Radiology (K.A., M.Barburoglu, S.S.), Neuroradiology Division, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Capa, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Radiology (K.A.), Interventional Radiology Unit, Koç University School of Medicine, Koç University Hospital, Topkapi, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Neurosurgery (M.Berdikhojayev), JSC Central Clinical Hospital, Almaty City, Kazakhstan; and Department of Radiology (B.C., S.A.), Vehbi Koc Vakfi American Hospital, Nisantasi, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background And Purpose: The endovascular treatment of aneurysms located at or distal to the circle of Willis and not amenable to coiling remains a challenge. We report our experience with flow-diversion treatment using low-profile braided stents as a stent monotherapy procedure for treating distally located very small or uncoilable aneurysms.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our data bases to identify patients with aneurysms located at or distal to the circle of Willis who were treated with stent monotherapy using low-profile braided stents. Read More

    WEB Treatment of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: A Single-Center Cohort of 100 Patients.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    From the Department of Radiology (S.B.T.v.R.), Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, the Netherlands; Departments of Radiology (W.J.v.R., J.P.P., M.S., R.S.B., H.G.K.), and Neurosurgery (G.N.B., B.v.d.P.), Elisabeth Tweesteden Ziekenhuis, Tilburg, the Netherlands; and Department of Neuroradiology (C.B.M.), Academisch Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background And Purpose: The Woven EndoBridge device was recently introduced for the intrasaccular treatment of wide-neck aneurysms without the need for adjunctive devices. We present our results of the primary treatment of ruptured aneurysms with the Woven EndoBridge regardless of location or neck size.

    Materials And Methods: Between February 2015 and April 2017, 100 ruptured aneurysms were selectively treated with the Woven EndoBridge. Read More

    Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Intracranial Aneurysms: Procedural Rupture versus Spontaneous Rupture.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    From the Departments of Neurosurgery (H.H.C.), Dongguk University College of Medicine, Dongguk University Hospital, Ilsan, Korea; and Departments of Neurosurgery (E.J.H., W.-S.C., J.E.K., H.-S.K.) and Radiology (J.J.L., D.H.Y., Y.D.C, M.H.H.), Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
    Background And Purpose: Procedural rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a devastating complication in endovascular treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with procedural rupture of unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms compared with those with spontaneously ruptured aneurysms.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective review was performed for 1340 patients with 1595 unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms that underwent endovascular coil embolization between February 2010 and December 2014. Read More

    Arterial Spin-Labeling Perfusion MR Imaging Demonstrates Regional CBF Decrease in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    From the Departments of Neuroscience, Neurology (J.V.) and Surgical Sciences, Radiology (E.-M.L.), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience (K.L.), Unit of Neurology, Östersund, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; and Department of Medical Radiation Physics (A.A.), Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Background And Purpose: Regional cerebral blood flow has previously been studied in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with imaging methods that require an intravenous contrast agent or expose the patient to ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess regional CBF in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus compared with healthy controls using the noninvasive quantitative arterial spin-labeling MR imaging technique. A secondary aim was to compare the correlation between symptom severity and CBF. Read More

    American Society of Functional Neuroradiology-Recommended fMRI Paradigm Algorithms for Presurgical Language Assessment.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    From the Mayo Clinic (D.F.B., K.W.), Rochester Minnesota; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (B.V.), New York, New York; Boston University School of Medicine (A.M.), Boston, Massachusetts; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Hospital (S.H.F., H.I.S., J.J.P.), Baltimore, Maryland; Children's Hospital of Wisconsin (M.M.), Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Duke University School of Medicine, (J.R.P.) Durham, North Carolina.
    Introduction: Functional MR imaging is increasingly being used for presurgical language assessment in the treatment of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, vascular malformations, and other conditions. The inherent complexity of fMRI, which includes numerous processing steps and selective analyses, is compounded by institution-unique approaches to patient training, paradigm choice, and an eclectic array of postprocessing options from various vendors. Consequently, institutions perform fMRI in such markedly different manners that data sharing, comparison, and generalization of results are difficult. Read More

    Brain Temperature Is Increased During the First Days of Life in Asphyxiated Newborns: Developing Brain Injury Despite Hypothermia Treatment.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Newborn Medicine, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (Z.P.O., P.W.), and Department of Pediatric Radiology (C.S.-M.), Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; and MR Clinical Science (G.G.), Philips Healthcare, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Background And Purpose: Therapeutic hypothermia is the current treatment for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It is believed to work by decreasing the brain temperature and reducing the baseline metabolism and energy demand of the brain. This study aimed to noninvasively assess brain temperature during the first month of life in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia. Read More

    [(18)F]-Sodium Fluoride PET MR-Based Localization and Quantification of Bone Turnover as a Biomarker for Facet Joint-Induced Disability.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    From the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (N.W.J., J.F.T., V.S., P.P., Y.S., W.P.D., S.M.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California; and Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (J.F.T.), Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California.
    Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the relationship between low back pain-related disability and quantitative measures from [(18)F]-sodium fluoride ([(18)F]-NaF) MR imaging. Six patients with facetogenic low back pain underwent dynamic [(18)F]-NaF PET/MR imaging. PET metrics were correlated with clinical measures and MR imaging grading of lumbar facet arthropathy. Read More

    Angioarchitectures and Hemodynamic Characteristics of Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms and Their Association with Rupture Status.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    From the Bioengineering Department (B.J.C., R.D., F.M., F.D., M.B.P., J.R.C.), George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia; Department of Neurosurgery (F.H.-S.), Mt. Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York; Department of Radiology (W.B., D.F.K.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; Neurosurgery Department (C.M.J.), University of Antioquia, Medell|f8n, Colombia; and Interventional Neuroradiology Unit (C.M.P.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church, Virginia.
    Background And Purpose: Intracranial aneurysms originating at the posterior communicating artery are known to have high rupture risk compared with other locations. We tested the hypothesis that different angioarchitectures (ie, branch point configuration) of posterior communicating artery aneurysms are associated with aneurysm hemodynamics, which in turn predisposes aneurysms to rupture.

    Materials And Methods: A total of 313 posterior communicating artery aneurysms (145 ruptured, 168 unruptured) were studied with image-based computational fluid dynamics. Read More

    Age, Sex, and Racial Differences in Neuroimaging Use in Acute Stroke: A Population-Based Study.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    From the Departments of Radiology (A.V.), Emergency Medicine (O.A.), and Neurology (K.A.A., P.K., D.W., M.F., B.M.K., S.F., F.D.L.R.L.R., S.M., D.K.), University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Radiology (P.S.), Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, New York; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (H.S., J.C.K.), Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Baptist Health Neuroscience Center (F.D.L.R.L.R.), Miami, Florida; University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center and Department of Neurology (F.D.L.R.L.R.), Albuquerque, New Mexico; and Department of Neurology (J.M.), Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.
    Background And Purpose: Limited information is available regarding differences in neuroimaging use for acute stroke work-up. Our objective was to assess whether race, sex, or age differences exist in neuroimaging use and whether these differences depend on the care center type in a population-based study.

    Materials And Methods: Patients with stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic) and transient ischemic attack were identified in a metropolitan, biracial population using the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study in 2005 and 2010. Read More

    Anatomic Location of Tumor Predicts the Accuracy of Motor Function Localization in Diffuse Lower-Grade Gliomas Involving the Hand Knob Area.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    From the Department of Neurosurgery (S.F., Y.W., T.J.), Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Neurosurgical Institute (S.F., J.L., Y.W., X.L., X.F., Y.W., T.J.), Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; MR Collaborations NE Asia (T.Q.), Siemens Healthcare, Beijing, China; Functional Neuroradiology Center (S.L.), Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing, China; and Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders Brain Tumor Center (T.J.), Beijing, China.
    Background And Purpose: The accuracy of preoperative blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI remains controversial. This study assessed the association between the anatomic location of a tumor and the accuracy of fMRI-based motor function mapping in diffuse lower-grade gliomas.

    Materials And Methods: Thirty-five patients with lower-grade gliomas involving motor areas underwent preoperative blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI scans with grasping tasks and received intraoperative direct cortical stimulation. Read More

    Anterior Mesencephalic Cap Dysplasia: Novel Brain Stem Malformative Features Associated with Joubert Syndrome.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    From the Neuroimaging Lab (F.A., D.P., A.D.L.) and Neuropsychiatry and Neurorehabilitation Unit (R.R., R.B.), Scientific Institute Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientific Eugenio Medea, Bosisio Parini, Italy; Department of Information Engineering (A.D.L.), University of Padova, Padova, Italy; Department of Pediatric Radiology and Neuroradiology (C.P.), "V. Buzzi" Children's Hospital, Milan, Italy; Department of Molecular Medicine (E.M.V.), University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; Neurogenetics Unit (E.M.V.), Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientific Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; and Department of Neuroradiology (F.T.), Scientific Institute Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientific Cà Granda Foundation-Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.
    In Joubert syndrome, the "molar tooth" sign can be associated with several additional supra- and infratentorial malformations. Here we report on 3 subjects (2 siblings, 8-14 years of age) with Joubert syndrome, showing an abnormal thick bulging of the anterior profile of the mesencephalon causing a complete obliteration of the interpeduncular fossa. DTI revealed that the abnormal tissue consisted of an ectopic white matter tract with a laterolateral transverse orientation. Read More

    Assessment of Iron Deposition in the Brain in Frontotemporal Dementia and Its Correlation with Behavioral Traits.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    From the Cognition and Behavioural Neurology Section, Department of Neurology (R.S., T.V., P.S.M.) and Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology (C.K., B.T.), Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India; Department of Radiodiagnostics (R.M.S.), Medical College, Trivandrum, Kerala, India; Integrated Divisions of Cognitive and Motor Aging (Neurology) and Geriatrics (Medicine) (J.V.), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York; and Department of Neurology (P.S.M.), National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Banglore, Karnataka, India.
    Background And Purpose: Brain iron deposition has been implicated as a major culprit in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration. However, the quantitative assessment of iron in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia brains has not been performed, to our knowledge. The aim of our study was to investigate the characteristic iron levels in the frontotemporal dementia subtypes using susceptibility-weighted imaging and report its association with behavioral profiles. Read More

    Volume of Structures in the Fetal Brain Measured with a New Semiautomated Method.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    From the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology (R.B., D.H., A.P., E.K.) and Diagnostic Imaging (C.H., A.M.), Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; and Sackler Faculty of Medicine (C.H., E.D.), Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
    Background And Purpose: Measuring the volume of fetal brain structures is challenging due to fetal motion, low resolution, and artifacts caused by maternal tissue. Our aim was to introduce a new, simple, Matlab-based semiautomated method to measure the volume of structures in the fetal brain and present normal volumetric curves of the structures measured.

    Materials And Methods: The volume of the supratentorial brain, left and right hemispheres, cerebellum, and left and right eyeballs was measured retrospectively by the new semiautomated method in MR imaging examinations of 94 healthy fetuses. Read More

    The Diagnostic Accuracy of Contrast-Enhanced CT of the Neck for the Investigation of Sialolithiasis.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    From the Departments of Radiology (Y.M.P., R.G.K., A.M.C., A.G.C., R.P.K.) and Otolaryngology (S.G.K.), St. Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin, Ireland; and Departments of Otolaryngology (S.G.K.) and Radiology (R.P.K.), Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Background And Purpose: Sialolithiasis is a common benign pathology affecting the salivary glands but it is unclear if contrast-enhanced CT, which is commonly used for investigation of head and neck pathology, can identify calculi as accurately as noncontrast CT. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced CT of the neck in the diagnosis of sialolithiasis compared with noncontrast CT of the neck used as the criterion standard.

    Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective, case-control study of 92 consecutive cases in 90 patients who underwent both noncontrast CT of the neck and contrast-enhanced CT of the neck in 2 tertiary referral centers from January 2011 to December 2015 for investigation of sialolithiasis. Read More

    Endovascular Treatment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas of the Transverse and Sigmoid Sinuses Using Transarterial Balloon-Assisted Embolization Combined with Transvenous Balloon Protection of the Venous Sinus.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    From the University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (E.P., F.Z., T.D., J.G., P.M., P.J.M.) and Department of Neurosurgery (D.B., A.R.), Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Background And Purpose: Combined transarterial balloon-assisted endovascular embolization with double-lumen balloon microcatheters and concomitant transvenous balloon protection was described as a promising treatment technique for dural arteriovenous fistulae of the transverse and sigmoid sinus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical efficacy and safety of this combined treatment technique.

    Materials And Methods: Nine consecutive patients presenting with dural arteriovenous fistulas of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses underwent combined transarterial and transvenous balloon-assisted endovascular embolization. Read More

    Test-Retest and Interreader Reproducibility of Semiautomated Atlas-Based Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data in Acute Cervical Spine Trauma in Adult Patients.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    From the Departments of Radiology (D.J.P., A.M.R., D.S.H., J.G.J., M.M.-B.) and Rehabilitation Medicine (M.R.R., C.H.B.), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; and Department of Radiology (F.H.C.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background And Purpose: DTI is a tool for microstructural spinal cord injury evaluation. This study evaluated the reproducibility of a semiautomated segmentation algorithm of spinal cord DTI.

    Materials And Methods: Forty-two consecutive patients undergoing acute trauma cervical spine MR imaging underwent 2 axial DTI scans in addition to their clinical scan. Read More

    MR Imaging Features of the Cerebellum in Adult-Onset Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease: 8 Cases.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    From the Departments of Radiology (A.S., N.S., Y.K., T.M., M.E.), Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (Y.S.), Neurology (Y.T.), and Integrative Brain Imaging Center (H.M.), National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; and Department of Neurology (A.S., S.K.), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease is a neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by eosinophilic hyaline intranuclear inclusions. A high-intensity signal along the corticomedullary junction on DWI has been described as a specific MR imaging finding of the cerebrum in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease. However, MR imaging findings of the cerebellum in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease have not been fully evaluated. Read More

    Clinical Impact of Flat Panel Volume CT Angiography in Evaluating the Accurate Intraoperative Deployment of Flow-Diverter Stents.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    From the Departments of Interventional Neuroradiology (F.C., J.G., E.S., N.-A.S.), Anesthesiology (V.D.), and Neurosurgery (A.N.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital. Paris France; Paris VI University (F.C., J.G., E.S., V.D.), Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris. France; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (F.D.M.), Foch Hospital, Suresnes, France; and Department of Neuroradiology and Endovascular Therapy (A.B.), Besançon University Hospital, Besançon, France.
    Background And Purpose: The deployment of flow-diverter stents may be difficult to analyse on regular DSA. The purpose of our study was to investigate the clinical impact of stent-dedicated flat panel volume CT angiography to evaluate intraoperatively the satisfactory deployment of flow-diverter stents.

    Materials And Methods: From January 2009 to April 2015, 83 consecutive patients (mean age, 51 years; 62 women) were treated in our institution with flow-diverter stents. Read More

    Improved Detection of Anterior Circulation Occlusions: The "Delayed Vessel Sign" on Multiphase CT Angiography.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    From the Departments of Radiology (D.B., G.S., E.S., E.C.K., P.J.M.) and Stroke Medicine (S.M.), Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; Department of Radiology (J.P.W.), St. James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; School of Medicine (S.M., E.C.K., P.J.M.), University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Medical School (S.M.), Dublin, Ireland.
    Background And Purpose: Multiphase CTA, a technique to dynamically assess the vasculature in acute ischemic stroke, was primarily developed to evaluate collateral filling. We have observed that it is also useful in identifying distal anterior circulation occlusions due to delayed anterior circulation opacification on multiphase CTA, an observation we term the "delayed vessel sign." We aimed to determine the usefulness of this sign by comparing multiphase CTA with single-phase CTA. Read More

    Imaging Biomarkers for Adult Medulloblastomas: Genetic Entities May Be Identified by Their MR Imaging Radiophenotype.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    From the Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology (V.C.K., C.R., S.J.E., H.H.S., E.H.), University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (M.W.-M.), University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; Department of Neuropathology (T.P.), Brain Tumor Reference Center of the German Society for Neuropathology and Neuroanatomy, Bonn, Germany; Wilhelm Sander-Therapieeinheit NeuroOnkologie (C.R., P.H.) and Department of Neurology (C.R., P.H.), University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Department of Neurology (D.B.), University Hospital Odense and Clinical Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; Department of Neurology (D.B.), University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; and Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (D.T.W.J.), Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background And Purpose: The occurrence of medulloblastomas in adults is rare; nevertheless, these tumors can be subdivided into genetic and histologic entities each having distinct prognoses. This study aimed to identify MR imaging biomarkers to classify these entities and to uncover differences in MR imaging biomarkers identified in pediatric medulloblastomas.

    Materials And Methods: Eligible preoperative MRIs from 28 patients (11 women; 22-53 years of age) of the Multicenter Pilot-study for the Therapy of Medulloblastoma of Adults (NOA-7) cohort were assessed by 3 experienced neuroradiologists. Read More

    Multicenter Experience with FRED Jr Flow Re-Direction Endoluminal Device for Intracranial Aneurysms in Small Arteries.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    From the Department of Neuroradiology (M.A.M., M.B.), Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Neuroradiology (O.K., C.I., N.K.), Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Neurology/Research Institute of Neurointervention (M.K.-O.), Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria; Department of Radiology (F.B.), Marmara University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Radiology (S.C.), Koru and Bayindir Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; and Department of Radiology (S.C., I.S.), Yüksek Ihtisas University, Koru Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background And Purpose: Flow diverters are emerging as an endovascular treatment alternative for proximally located intracranial aneurysms. However, treatment of aneurysms at and beyond the circle of Willis is not well-established. We assessed the clinical safety and efficacy of the Flow Re-Direction Endoluminal Device Jr (FRED Jr) dedicated to small-vessel diameters between 2. Read More

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