12,708 results match your criteria American Journal of Neuroradiology AJNR[Journal]


Infant Midnasal Stenosis: Reliability of Nasal Metrics.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (K.M.L., S.H.P., J.R.S.), University of Utah and Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah

Background And Purpose: Midnasal stenosis is a poorly defined entity that may be a component of other conditions of nasal obstruction contributing to respiratory distress in infants. We sought to establish whether midnasal vault narrowing is a component of well-defined syndromes of nasal narrowing, such as bilateral choanal atresia and pyriform aperture stenosis, and to characterize the nasal anatomy of patients with syndromic craniosynostosis.

Materials And Methods: A convenience sample of patients with pyriform aperture stenosis, bilateral choanal atresia, and Apert and Crouzon syndromes with maxillofacial CT scans was identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5980DOI Listing
February 2019

Endovascular Treatment of Unruptured MCA Bifurcation Aneurysms Regardless of Aneurysm Morphology: Short- and Long-Term Follow-Up.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

From the Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: The optimal treatment of unruptured middle cerebral aneurysms is still under debate. Although today almost any aneurysm can be treated endovascularly, there is a lack of data comparing endovascular and microsurgical repair of MCA aneurysms. The aim of our analysis is to provide data on the efficacy, clinical outcome, complications and re-treatment rates of endovascular treatment of this subtype of aneurysms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5977DOI Listing
February 2019

Diagnostic Utility of Optic Nerve Measurements with MRI in Patients with Optic Nerve Atrophy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

From the Departments of Radiology (B.Z., M.E., A.B., Y.-M.C, R.A.B.).

Background And Purpose: No MR imaging measurement criteria are available for the diagnosis of optic nerve atrophy. We determined a threshold optic nerve area on MR imaging that predicts a clinical diagnosis of optic nerve atrophy and assessed the relationship between optic nerve area and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography, an ancillary test used to evaluate optic nerve disorders.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated 26 patients with suspected optic nerve atrophy (8 with unilateral, 13 with bilateral and 5 with suspected but not demonstrable optic nerve atrophy) who had both orbital MR imaging and optical coherence tomography examinations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5975DOI Listing
February 2019

Longitudinal White Matter Changes following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: A 9-Month Follow-Up Voxelwise Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Radiology (P.-H.L.), Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Background And Purpose: Patients with carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication exhibit progressive WM changes that are not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to detect longitudinal WM changes using voxelwise diffusional kurtosis imaging in patients with CO intoxication from the acute-to-chronic stage after CO intoxication.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-four patients with CO intoxication and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5979DOI Listing
February 2019

Flow-Diversion Treatment of Unruptured Saccular Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

From the Interventional Neuroradiology Unit (F.C., N.L., S.N., L.R., A.R., A.L., S.M.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Background: Flow diversion for anterior communicating artery aneurysms required further investigation.

Purpose: Our aim was to analyze outcomes after treatment of anterior communicating artery aneurysms with flow-diverter stents.

Data Sources: A systematic search of 3 data bases was performed for studies published from 2008 to 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5967DOI Listing
February 2019

Predictors and Clinical Impact of Delayed Stent Thrombosis after Thrombectomy for Acute Stroke with Tandem Lesions.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

From the Interventional Neuroradiology Department (R.P., D.M., M.M., J.S.R., R.B.).

Background And Purpose: There are very few published data on the patency of carotid stents implanted during thrombectomies for tandem lesions in the anterior circulation. We aimed to communicate our experience of stenting in the acute setting with systematic follow-up of stent patency and discuss predictors and clinical repercussions of delayed stent thrombosis.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective study of stroke thrombectomies in a single center between January 2009 and April 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5976DOI Listing
February 2019

Imaging Review of New and Emerging Sinonasal Tumors and Tumor-like Entities from the Fourth Edition of the .

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

From the Department of Radiology (K.E.D., C.D.P.), NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York.

The sinonasal tract is an environment diverse with neoplasia. Given the continued discovery of entities generally specific to the sinonasal tract, the fourth edition of the was released in 2017. It describes 3 new, well-defined entities and several less-defined, emerging entities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5978DOI Listing
February 2019

Volumetric MRI Study of the Brain in Fetuses with Intrauterine Cytomegalovirus Infection and Its Correlation to Neurodevelopmental Outcome.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb;40(2):353-358

From the Antenatal Diagnostic Unit (A.G., E.K., D.H., R.B., S.L.), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Background And Purpose: In recent years, effort has been made to study 3D biometry as a method for fetal brain assessment. In this study, we aimed to compare brain volumes of fetuses with cytomegalovirus infection and noninfected controls. Also, we wanted to assess whether there is a correlation to their neurodevelopmental outcome as observed after several years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5948DOI Listing
February 2019

Perspectives.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb;40(2):205

University Radiology Group, PA, East Brunswick, New Jersey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.P0052DOI Listing
February 2019

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Reveals Unique Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Characteristics in the Hippocampus in the Normal Brain.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

The Center for Health Innovations and Outcomes Research (P.C.S.).

We report a prospective dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging analysis of region-specific blood-brain barrier permeability in 5 healthy subjects. By means of standardized postprocessing and ROI sampling methods, the hippocampi revealed significantly elevated area under the dynamic contrast-enhanced curve and significantly increased blood-brain barrier permeability metrics (volume transfer constant and volume in the extravascular extracellular space) from model-based quantitation. These findings suggest unique blood-brain barrier permeability characteristics in the hippocampus, which are concordant with previous animal studies, potentially laying the groundwork for future studies assessing patient populations in which hippocampal pathology plays a role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5962DOI Listing
February 2019

Improved Detection of Subtle Mesial Temporal Sclerosis: Validation of a Commercially Available Software for Automated Segmentation of Hippocampal Volume.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Neurosurgery (P.L., R.M.R.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background And Purpose: Identification of mesial temporal sclerosis is critical in the evaluation of individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy. Our aim was to assess the performance of FDA-approved software measures of hippocampal volume to identify mesial temporal sclerosis in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy compared with the initial clinical interpretation of a neuroradiologist.

Materials And Methods: Preoperative MRIs of 75 consecutive patients who underwent a temporal resection for temporal lobe epilepsy from 2011 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed, and 71 were analyzed using Neuroreader, a commercially available automated segmentation and volumetric analysis package. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5966DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Comparison of Pipeline Embolization Device Sizing Based on Conventional 2D Measurements and Virtual Simulation Using the Sim&Size Software: An Agreement Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

From the Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology Section (J.M.O., K.A.B., D.W.Z.), Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine.

Background And Purpose: The Sim&Size software simulates case-specific intraluminal Pipeline Embolization Device behavior, wall apposition, and device length in real-time on the basis of rotational angiography DICOM data. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate whether preimplantation device simulation with the Sim&Size software results in selection of different device dimensions than manual sizing.

Materials And Methods: In a multicenter cohort of 74 patients undergoing aneurysm treatment with the Pipeline Embolization Device, we compared apparent optimal device dimensions determined by neurointerventionalists with considerable Pipeline Embolization Device experience based on manual 2D measurements taken from rotational angiography with computed optimal dimensions determined by Sim&Size experts blinded to the neurointerventionalists' decision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5973DOI Listing
February 2019

Local Hemodynamic Conditions Associated with Focal Changes in the Intracranial Aneurysm Wall.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Hemorrhagic Brain Pathology Research Group (J.F.), Neurocenter, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.

Background And Purpose: Aneurysm hemodynamics has been associated with wall histology and inflammation. We investigated associations between local hemodynamics and focal wall changes visible intraoperatively.

Materials And Methods: Computational fluid dynamics models were constructed from 3D images of 65 aneurysms treated surgically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5970DOI Listing
February 2019

Disorder in Pixel-Level Edge Directions on T1WI Is Associated with the Degree of Radiation Necrosis in Primary and Metastatic Brain Tumors: Preliminary Findings.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

From the Department of Biomedical Engineering (P.P., A.M., P.T.), Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background And Purpose: Co-occurrence of local anisotropic gradient orientations (COLLAGE) is a recently developed radiomic (computer extracted) feature that captures entropy (measures the degree of disorder) in pixel-level edge directions and was previously shown to distinguish predominant cerebral radiation necrosis from recurrent tumor on gadolinium-contrast T1WI. In this work, we sought to investigate whether COLLAGE measurements from posttreatment gadolinium-contrast T1WI could distinguish varying extents of cerebral radiation necrosis and recurrent tumor classes in a lesion across primary and metastatic brain tumors.

Materials And Methods: On a total of 75 gadolinium-contrast T1WI studies obtained from patients with primary and metastatic brain tumors and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the extent of cerebral radiation necrosis and recurrent tumor in every brain lesion was histopathologically defined by an expert neuropathologist as the following: 1) "pure" cerebral radiation necrosis; 2) "mixed" pathology with coexistence of cerebral radiation necrosis and recurrent tumors; 3) "predominant" (>80%) cerebral radiation necrosis; 4) predominant (>80%) recurrent tumor; and 5) pure tumor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5958DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

3T MRI Whole-Brain Microscopy Discrimination of Subcortical Anatomy, Part 1: Brain Stem.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Departments of Radiology (M.T.B., N.C., T.M.S.)

Background And Purpose: The brain stem is compactly organized with life-sustaining sensorimotor and autonomic structures that can be affected by numerous pathologies but can be difficult to resolve on conventional MR imaging.

Materials And Methods: We applied an optimized TSE T2 sequence to washed postmortem brain samples to reveal exquisite and reproducible brain stem anatomic MR imaging contrast comparable with histologic atlases. This resource-efficient approach can be performed across multiple whole-brain samples with relatively short acquisition times (2 hours per imaging plane) using clinical 3T MR imaging systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5956DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Imaging of Patients with Suspected Large-Vessel Occlusion at Primary Stroke Centers: Available Modalities and a Suggested Approach.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

From the Departments of Radiology and Clinical Neurosciences (M.A.A., B.K.M., M.D.H., A.M.D., M.G.), University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

The overwhelming benefit of endovascular therapy in patients with large-vessel occlusions suggests that more patients will be screened than treated. Some of those patients will be evaluated first at primary stroke centers; this type of evaluation calls for standardizing the imaging approach to minimize delays in assessing, transferring, and treating these patients. Here, we propose that CT angiography (performed at the same time as head CT) should be the minimum imaging approach for all patients with stroke with suspected large-vessel occlusion presenting to primary stroke centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5971DOI Listing
January 2019

Neuroimaging-Based Classification Algorithm for Predicting 1p/19q-Codeletion Status in -Mutant Lower Grade Gliomas.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

From the Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging (P.P.B., T.J.E.M., J.H.D., S.H.P.)

Background And Purpose: ()-mutant lower grade gliomas are classified as oligodendrogliomas or diffuse astrocytomas based on 1p/19q-codeletion status. We aimed to test and validate neuroradiologists' performances in predicting the codeletion status of -mutant lower grade gliomas based on simple neuroimaging metrics.

Materials And Methods: One hundred two -mutant lower grade gliomas with preoperative MR imaging and known 1p/19q status from The Cancer Genome Atlas composed a training dataset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5957DOI Listing
January 2019

A 3T Phase-Sensitive Inversion Recovery MRI Sequence Improves Detection of Cervical Spinal Cord Lesions and Shows Active Lesions in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):370-375. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

From the Departments of Neuroradiology (A.F., J.S., J.C.S., A.L.)

Background And Purpose: Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the modality of choice to detect spinal cord lesions in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). However, this imaging is challenging. New sequences such as phase-sensitive inversion recovery have been developed to improve detection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5941DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Acute Toxic Leukoencephalopathy: Etiologies, Imaging Findings, and Outcomes in 101 Patients.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):267-275. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

From the Department of Radiology (C.Ö., S.K.R., J.C.B., J.B.R., A.M.M.).

Background And Purpose: Prior studies regarding acute toxic leukoencephalopathy (ATL) are either small, or preliminary. Our aim was to evaluate etiologies of and differences in imaging severity and outcomes among various etiologies of ATL.

Materials And Methods: MRIs of patients with suspected ATL over 15 years were retrospectively reviewed; inclusion criteria were: MRI <3 weeks of presentation with both DWI and FLAIR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5947DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Is Delayed Speech Development a Long-Term Sequela of Birth-Related Subdural Hematoma?

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):E10. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine Umeå University Umeå, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5890DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The "Bovine Aortic Arch": Time to Rethink the True Origin of the Term?

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):E7-E8. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Radiology Concord Repatriation General Hospital Concord, New South Wales, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5924DOI Listing
February 2019

Measuring Glymphatic Flow in Man Using Quantitative Contrast-Enhanced MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Radiology (J.M.S., L.W., X.Z., C.G.F.), Lenox Hill Hospital and Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, East Garden City, New York.

On the basis of animal models, glymphatic flow disruption is hypothesized to be a factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. We report the first quantitative study of glymphatic flow in man, combining intrathecal administration of gadobutrol with serial T1 mapping to produce contrast concentration maps up to 3 days postinjection, demonstrating performing a quantitative study using the techniques described feasibility and providing data on pharmacokinetics. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/lookup/doi/10.3174/ajnr.A5931
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5931DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Cavum Septum Pellucidum in the General Pediatric Population and Its Relation to Surrounding Brain Structure Volumes, Cognitive Function, and Emotional or Behavioral Problems.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):340-346. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

From the Departments of Radiology (M.H.G.D., R.H.B., M.W.V., T.W.).

Background And Purpose: The cavum septum pellucidum, a cavity filled with CSF, is localized between the 2 lateral ventricles of the brain. The cavum is present in all neonates, but it typically closes within 5 months after birth. In some cases, this closure does not occur and a persistent or enlarged cavum septum pellucidum has been linked, in some studies, to psychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/lookup/doi/10.3174/ajnr.A5939
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5939DOI Listing
February 2019
14 Reads

High-Resolution Vessel Wall MR Imaging as an Alternative to Brain Biopsy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Clínica de Diagnóstico por Imagem Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5950DOI Listing
January 2019

Validating the Automatic Independent Component Analysis of DSA.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

School of Medicine (F.-C.C., C.-J.L.), National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Time-density curve analysis of DSA provides useful blood flow information. However, manually selecting the ROI is time-consuming. We developed an automatic technique to provide arterial, capillary, and venous vasculatures with corresponding time-density curves. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/lookup/doi/10.3174/ajnr.A5963
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5963DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Engorged Medullary Veins in Neurosarcoidosis: A Reflection of Underlying Phlebitis?

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Division of Neuroradiology, Michigan Radiology University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5951DOI Listing
January 2019

Ostium Ratio and Neck Ratio Could Predict the Outcome of Sidewall Intracranial Aneurysms Treated with Flow Diverters.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):288-294. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

From the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (N.P., R.J.D., H.M.)

Background And Purpose: Incompletely occluded flow diverter treated aneurysms remain at risk of rupture and thromboembolic complications. Our aim was to identify the potential for incomplete occlusion of intracranial aneurysms treated by flow diverters. We investigated whether aneurysm ostium size in relation to parent artery size affects angiographic outcomes of flow diverter-treated sidewall aneurysms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375759PMC
February 2019

FDG-PET and MRI in the Evolution of New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):238-244. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Nuclear Medicine (G.W., M.L.).

Background And Purpose: New-onset refractory status epilepticus is a clinical condition characterized by acute and prolonged pharmacoresistant seizures without a pre-existing relevant neurologic disorder, prior epilepsy, or clear structural, toxic, or metabolic cause. New-onset refractory status epilepticus is often associated with antineuronal antibodies and may respond to early immunosuppressive therapy, reflecting an inflammatory element of the condition. FDG-PET is a useful diagnostic tool in inflammatory and noninflammatory encephalitis. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/lookup/doi/10.3174/ajnr.A5929
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5929DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Risk of Acute Kidney Injury with Consecutive, Multidose Use of Iodinated Contrast in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

From the Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

Currently, CTA is the imaging technique most frequently used to evaluate acute ischemic stroke, and patients with intracranial large-vessel occlusion usually undergo endovascular treatment. This single-center, prospective, cohort study showed that consecutive, multidose use of contrast during CTA and DSA does not increase the incidence of acute kidney injury in patients with acute ischemic stroke, though acute kidney injury tended to have a higher incidence in the contrast multiexposure group ( = .172). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5959DOI Listing
January 2019

Contrast-Enhanced 3D-FLAIR Imaging of the Optic Nerve and Optic Nerve Head: Novel Neuroimaging Findings of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):334-339. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

From the Departments of Radiology (E.G., J.-P.J.Y., T.A.K.)

Background And Purpose: The sensitivity of contrast-enhanced 3D-FLAIR has not been assessed in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether hyperintensity of the optic nerve/optic nerve head on contrast-enhanced 3D-FLAIR imaging is associated with papilledema in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review was conducted from 2012 to 2015 of patients with clinically diagnosed idiopathic intracranial hypertension and age- and sex-matched controls who had MR imaging with contrast-enhanced 3D-FLAIR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375763PMC
February 2019

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AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):E11. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Psychiatry John A. Burns School of Medicine University of Hawaii Hawaii Permanente Medical Group Honolulu, Hawaii.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5969DOI Listing
February 2019

Alterations in Brain Metabolites in Patients with Epilepsy with Impaired Consciousness: A Case-Control Study of Interictal Multivoxel H-MRS Findings.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):245-252. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

From the Departments of Neurology (Z.T., X.L., F.T., L.H., S.L.)

Background And Purpose: Previous studies have shown perfusion abnormalities in the thalamus and upper brain stem in patients with epilepsy with impaired consciousness. We hypothesized that these areas associated with consciousness will also show metabolic abnormalities. However, metabolic abnormalities in those areas correlated with consciousness has not been characterized with multiple-voxel H-MRS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5944DOI Listing
February 2019

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Authors:
C Zamora M Castillo

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology University of North Carolina School of Medicine Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5968DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping to Assess Cerebral Vascular Compliance.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

From the Department of Neurology (C.B., C.L., C.E., F.F., S.R.), Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

This study explored whether autoregulatory shifts in cerebral blood volume induce susceptibility changes large enough to be depicted by quantitative susceptibility mapping. Eight healthy subjects underwent fast quantitative susceptibility mapping at 3T while lying down to slowly decrease mean arterial pressure. A linear relationship between mean arterial pressure and susceptibility was observed in cortical and subcortical structures, likely representing vessels involved in autoregulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5933DOI Listing
January 2019

Acute and Evolving MRI of High-Altitude Cerebral Edema: Microbleeds, Edema, and Pathophysiology.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Colorado Imaging Associates (D.A.W., K.B.R.), St. Anthony Hospital, Lakewood, Colorado.

MR imaging of high-altitude cerebral edema shows reversible WM edema, especially in the corpus callosum and subcortical WM. Recent studies have revealed hemosiderin deposition in WM long after high-altitude cerebral edema has resolved, providing a high-altitude cerebral edema "footprint." We wished to determine whether these microbleeds are present acutely and also describe the evolution of all MR imaging findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5897DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Endothelialization following Flow Diversion for Intracranial Aneurysms: A Systematic Review.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):295-301. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

From the Neurosurgical Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The underlying mechanism of action of flow diverters is believed to be the induction of aneurysm thrombosis and simultaneous endothelial cell growth along the device struts, thereby facilitating aneurysm exclusion from the circulation. Although extensive attention has been paid to the role of altered cerebrovascular hemodynamics using computational fluid dynamics analyses, relatively less emphasis has been placed on the role of the vascular endothelium in promoting aneurysm healing.

Purpose: Our aim was to systematically review all available literature investigating the mechanism of action of flow diverters in both human patients and preclinical models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5955DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

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AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):E9. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Cardiovascular Radiology and Endovascular Interventions Cardiothoracic Neurosciences Center All India Institute of Medical Sciences Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5965DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
3.589 Impact Factor

Utility of Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion-Weighted MR Imaging and C-Methionine PET/CT for Differentiation of Tumor Recurrence from Radiation Injury in Patients with High-Grade Gliomas.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 17;40(2):253-259. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

From the Departments of Nuclear Medicine (Z.Q., X.Z., K.W., Y.Z., D.F., Q.C., L.A.)

Background And Purpose: Both C-methionine PET/CT and DSC-PWI could be used to differentiate radiation injury from recurrent brain tumors. Our aim was to assess the performance of MET PET/CT and DSC-PWI for differentiation of recurrence and radiation injury in patients with high-grade gliomas and to quantitatively analyze the diagnostic values of PET and PWI parameters.

Materials And Methods: Forty-two patients with high-grade gliomas were enrolled in this study. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/lookup/doi/10.3174/ajnr.A5952
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5952DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Transient Ischemic Attack and Carotid Web.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 17;40(2):313-318. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Neurology (Y.Z.), Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background And Purpose: Carotid web was recognized as a cause of ischemic stroke. We sought to determine the clinical and imaging profiles of patients with a carotid web as well as its association with TIA.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of carotid CT angiography studies and brain MR imaging in patients with TIA during the past 3 years ( = 135) was performed to determine the presence of carotid webs by 2 experienced neuroradiologists according to previously published criteria. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/lookup/doi/10.3174/ajnr.A5946
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5946DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Sexual Dimorphism and Hemispheric Asymmetry of Hippocampal Volumetric Integrity in Normal Aging and Alzheimer Disease.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 17;40(2):276-282. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

From Center for Brain Imaging and Neuromodulation, The Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research (B.A.A., S.A.H., A.H.B.), Orangeburg, New York.

Background And Purpose: Asymmetric atrophy of the hippocampus is an important clinical finding in normal aging and Alzheimer disease. In this study, we investigate the associations between the magnitude and asymmetry of hippocampal volumetric integrity and age, sex, and dementia severity.

Materials And Methods: We have recently developed a rapid fully automatic algorithm to measure the hippocampal parenchymal fraction, an index of hippocampal volumetric integrity on structural MR imaging of the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5943DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Renal Contrast on CT Myelography: Diagnostic Value in Patients with Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 17;40(2):376-381. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

From the Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background And Purpose: The significance of renal contrast on CT myelography is uncertain. This project examined different patient populations undergoing CT myelography for the presence of renal contrast to determine whether this finding is of diagnostic value in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

Materials And Methods: Four groups of patients were analyzed for renal contrast on CT myelography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5934DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Brain DSC MR Perfusion in Children: A Clinical Feasibility Study Using Different Technical Standards of Contrast Administration.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 17;40(2):359-365. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

From the Operative Unit Radiodiagnostica e Neuroradiologia (S.G.,A.B., E.R., E.L., A.I., A.R., C.C.), Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica e Ematologia.

Background And Purpose: Dynamic susceptibility contrast MR perfusion imaging has limited results in children due to difficulties in reproducing technical standards derived from adults. This prospective, multicenter study aimed to determine DSC feasibility and quality in children using custom administration of a standard dose of gadolinium.

Materials And Methods: Eighty-three consecutive children with brain tumors underwent DSC perfusion with a standard dose of gadobutrol administered by an automated power injector. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5954DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A Review of Magnetic Particle Imaging and Perspectives on Neuroimaging.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 17;40(2):206-212. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Radiology (Y.Z., H.Q., S.H., M.W.)

Magnetic particle imaging is an emerging tomographic technique with the potential for simultaneous high-resolution, high-sensitivity, and real-time imaging. Magnetic particle imaging is based on the unique behavior of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles modeled by the Langevin theory, with the ability to track and quantify nanoparticle concentrations without tissue background noise. It is a promising new imaging technique for multiple applications, including vascular and perfusion imaging, oncology imaging, cell tracking, inflammation imaging, and trauma imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5896DOI Listing
February 2019
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Standardized MR Perfusion Scoring System for Evaluation of Sequential Perfusion Changes and Surgical Outcome of Moyamoya Disease.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 17;40(2):260-266. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

From the Department of Medical Imaging (Y.-H.L., C.-J.L., C.-W.L., Y.-F.C.)

Background And Purpose: Simple-but-precise evaluation of cerebral perfusion is crucial for the treatment of Moyamoya disease. We aimed to develop a standardized scoring system for MR perfusion suitable for Moyamoya disease evaluation and investigate the postoperative serial changes and outcome predictors.

Materials And Methods: From January 2013 to December 2016, patients diagnosed with Moyamoya disease and receiving indirect revascularization were recruited prospectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5945DOI Listing
February 2019
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Percutaneous CT-Guided Skull Biopsy: Feasibility, Safety, and Diagnostic Yield.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 17;40(2):309-312. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (T.J.H., J.W.J.), St. Louis, Missouri.

Background And Purpose: Although percutaneous musculoskeletal biopsies are routinely performed in the axial and appendicular skeleton, there are no published data on the systematic evaluation of the feasibility, safety, and diagnostic accuracy of percutaneous skull biopsy. In certain clinical encounters such as patients with primary skull tumors or patients with known cancer and isolated skull lesions suspected of calvarial metastasis or synchronous primary tumor, percutaneous skull biopsy may be considered a viable option. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety profile, and diagnostic yield of percutaneous CT-guided skull biopsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5949DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

MR Imaging Scoring System for White Matter Injury after Deep Medullary Vein Thrombosis and Infarction in Neonates.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 17;40(2):347-352. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Radiology (L.R., J.A.R.), Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio.

Background And Purpose: Advanced imaging techniques have allowed earlier and more accurate detection of cerebral deep medullary vein thrombosis and infarction. Our objective was to develop an MR imaging scoring system to evaluate the severity of white matter injury in neonates with deep medullary vein thrombosis and infarction.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective study of infants born ≥32 weeks' gestation (2000-2016) diagnosed with deep medullary vein thrombosis and infarction on neuroimaging in the first 30 days of life. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/lookup/doi/10.3174/ajnr.A5940
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375778PMC
February 2019
6 Reads

Celebrating 35 Years of the AJNR: January 1984 edition.

Authors:

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan;40(1):204

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.P0079DOI Listing
January 2019
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MR Imaging of the Brain in Neurologic Wilson Disease.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan;40(1):178-183

Hospital of the Institute of Neurology (X.-E.Y., R.-M.Y., Y.-Z.H.), Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, China.

Background And Purpose: Neurologic Wilson disease is an inherited disease characterized by a copper metabolic disorder that causes damage to many organs, especially the brain. Few studies report the relationships between these neurologic symptoms and MR imaging of the brain. Therefore, we investigated the correlation of brain abnormalities in patients with neurologic Wilson disease with their clinical symptoms, age of onset, and lag time to diagnosis. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/lookup/doi/10.3174/ajnr.A5936
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5936DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

MRI Quantitative T2* Mapping to Predict Dominant Composition of In Vitro Thrombus.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan;40(1):59-64

Department of Pathology (C.T.), Hôtel Dieu, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Background And Purpose: MR imaging quantitative T2* mapping, which provides information about thrombus composition and specifically the red blood cell content, may be obtained in the setting of acute ischemic stroke before treatment. This could be useful to adapt the endovascular strategy. We aimed to analyze the red blood cell content of in vitro thrombi in relation to the thrombus-T2* relaxation time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5938DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Perspectives.

Authors:
Tuncay Peker

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan;40(1)

Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Ankara, Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.P0049DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read