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    5040 results match your criteria American Journal of Infection Control[Journal]

    1 OF 101

    Operating room traffic in total joint arthroplasty: Identifying patterns and training the team to keep the door shut.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Inova Joint Replacement Center Mt. Vernon Hospital, Alexandria, VA.
    Background: Surgical site infections after joint arthroplasty are devastating complications and are influenced by patient, surgical, and operating room environmental factors.

    Methods: In an effort to reduce the incidence of door openings (DOs) during total joint arthroplasty cases, this prospective observational study consisted of 3 phases. Phase 1 determined the baseline incidence of DOs, followed by installation of a mechanical door counter (phase 2). Read More

    Healthcare-associated infections studies project: An American Journal of Infection Control and National Healthcare Safety Network data quality collaboration: Location mapping.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    CACI, Inc., Atlanta, GA.
    This case study is part of a series centered on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) health care-associated infection (HAI) surveillance definitions. This specific case study focuses on appropriately mapping locations within an NHSN-enrolled facility. The intent of the case study series is to foster standardized application of the NHSN HAI surveillance definitions among IPs and encourage accurate determination of HAI events. Read More

    Infection with gram-negative bacteria among children in a tertiary pediatric hospital in Egypt.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.
    Background: Patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) are susceptible to infections with gram-negative bacteria (GNB).

    Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in 2 PICUs at Cairo University Hospitals to determine the incidence and outcome of GNB infections over 1 year. Variables of interest included age, gender, isolated organism, susceptibility to antibiotics, and final outcome. Read More

    Strategies to promote infection prevention and control in acute care hospitals with the help of infection control link nurses: A systematic literature review.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Feb;46(2):207-216
    Klinken der Stadt Köln gGmbH, Institute of Hospital Hygiene, Köln-Merheim, Hospital of the Private University of Witten/Herdecke, Cologne, Germany.
    Background: Infection control link nurses (ICLNs) are important backup personnel for the prevention and control of infections in hospitals. To identify facilitators and barriers for the implementation of and long-term collaboration with ICLNs.

    Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review, following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Read More

    Factors influencing nursing students' intention to comply with infection control practices.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Chungbuk National University, Department of Nursing Science, Cheongju, South Korea. Electronic address:
    The purpose of this study was to examine how nursing students' intention to comply with infection control practices (ICPs) is affected by their awareness of ICPs and by their observations of staff nurses' noncompliance with ICPs. The subjects were 350 nursing students from 8 universities in Korea. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictive factors of compliance intention with ICPs. Read More

    Nosocomial outbreaks caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Results of a systematic review.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Large outbreaks of infection by Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been reported. This research compares characteristics of such outbreaks.

    Objectives: Determination of risk factors for the occurrence and appropriate infection control measures. Read More

    Sodium hypochlorite is more effective than 70% ethanol against biofilms of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Microbiology, AIIMS Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Although disinfectants are used for eradication of bacteria from environmental surfaces, their antibiofilm efficacy is often not considered in determining the choice of disinfectant.

    Aim: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of 2 commonly used disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite and ethanol, against the planktonic and biofilm state of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates.

    Materials And Methods: Effect of 0. Read More

    Management of a family outbreak of scabies with high risk of spread to other community and hospital facilities.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Unit of Hygiene, Public Health and Medical Statistics, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Background: In developed countries, scabies is observed sporadically or as institutional outbreaks in hospitals and other health facilities. In the family context, outbreaks generally involve a limited number of cases.

    Methods: A local health authority in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) carried out an epidemiologic investigation on a family outbreak of scabies that included an unusually high number of cases. Read More

    Effectiveness of a bundled approach to reduce urinary catheters and infection rates in trauma patients.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Dell Seton Medical Center at The University of Texas, Austin, TX; Department of Surgery, Dell Medical School, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
    Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are common nosocomial infections. In 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services began imposing financial penalties for institutions where CAUTI rates are higher than predicted. However, the surveillance definition for CAUTI is not a clinical diagnosis and may represent asymptomatic bacteriuria. Read More

    Asymmetric transfer efficiencies between fomites and fingers: Impact on model parameterization.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) affect millions of patients every year. Pathogen transmission via fomites and healthcare workers (HCWs) contribute to the persistence of HAIs in hospitals. A critical parameter needed to assess risk of environmental transmission is the pathogen transfer efficiency between fomites and fingers. Read More

    Healthcare-associated infections in the neurological intensive care unit: Results of a 6-year surveillance study at a major tertiary care center.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Infectious Disease Department, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) occur frequently in neurological intensive care units (neuro-ICUs); however, data differentiating associations with various diagnostic categories and resulting burdens are limited. This prospective cohort study reported incidence rates, pathogen distribution, and patient-related outcomes of HAIs in a neuro-ICU population from April 2010 to March 2016.

    Methods: Laboratory results and specific clinical indicators were used to categorize infections as per National Healthcare Safety Network nosocomial infection surveillance definitions. Read More

    A prospective analysis of clinical detection of defective wrapping by operating room staff.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Orthopedics, University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC.
    Surgical instrument trays are wrapped for sterilization, and these wraps are inspected by operating room personnel for defects before using the instruments. In this study, we intentionally damaged wraps, and these wraps were evaluated by operating room personnel. Examiners correctly identified a wrapper's sterile integrity with an overall 56. Read More

    Exploring the nurses' role in antibiotic stewardship: A multisite qualitative study of nurses and infection preventionists.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, NY; Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY.
    Background: There is a growing recognition of the need to partner with nurses to promote effective antibiotic stewardship. In this study, we explored the attitudes of nurses and infection preventionists toward 5 nurse-driven antibiotic stewardship practices: 1) questioning the need for urine cultures; 2) ensuring proper culturing technique; 3) recording an accurate penicillin drug allergy history; 4) encouraging the prompt transition from intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) antibiotics; and 5) initiating an antibiotic timeout.

    Methods: Nine focus groups and 4 interviews with 49 clinical nurses, 5 nurse managers, and 7 infection preventionists were conducted across 2 academic pediatric and adult hospitals. Read More

    Dynamics of intraoperative Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter transmission.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa, IA.
    Background: Our primary objective was to examine anesthesia work area reservoir isolation of Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter spp (KAPE) pathogens. This is a retrospective analysis of a randomized, prospective, and observational study involving 3 academic medical centers.

    Methods: Patients included adults undergoing general anesthesia. Read More

    Understanding the patient experience of health care-associated infection: A qualitative systematic review.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Nursing and Community Health, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.
    Background: The global burden of health care-associated infection (HAI) is well recognized; what is less well known is the impact HAI has on patients. To develop acceptable, effective interventions, greater understanding of patients' experience of HAI is needed. This qualitative systematic review sought to explore adult patients' experiences of common HAIs. Read More

    A systematic review of adenosine triphosphate as a surrogate for bacterial contamination of duodenoscopes used for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Division of Infection Control/Hospital Epidemiology, Silverman Institute of Health Care Quality & Safety, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA; Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. Electronic address:
    Background: Bacterial culture is the accepted standard to measure the adequacy of high-level disinfection (HLD) of duodenoscopes. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assays have been suggested as an alternative method of evaluating the quality of reprocessing. We systematically reviewed published research describing the correlation between ATP and bacterial cultures. Read More

    Evaluation of the potential for electronic thermometers to contribute to spread of healthcare-associated pathogens.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH; Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:
    In a point-prevalence culture survey, 24 of 300 (8%) handles of electronic thermometers in 3 hospitals were contaminated with 1 or more potential pathogens. A DNA marker inoculated onto the handles of electronic thermometers in hospital and long-term care facility settings spread to surfaces in patient rooms, to other types of portable equipment, and to patients' hands. Our findings suggest that effective strategies are needed to reduce the risk for pathogen transmission by electronic thermometers. Read More

    Infection prevention and control in outpatient settings in China-structure, resources, and basic practices.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Infection Prevention and Control Department, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:
    Background: More than 7 billion visits are made by patients to ambulatory services every year in mainland China. Healthcare-associated infections are becoming a new source of illness for outpatients. Little is known about infection prevention, control structure, resources available, and basic practices in outpatient settings. Read More

    Nail scissors and fingernails as reservoirs of hepatitis B virus DNA: Role of nail scissors in household transmission of hepatitis B virus.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: No study in the current literature has scientifically clarified the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) via personal hygiene tools. We determined risk of household transmission of HBV via nail scissors. Moreover, we assessed whether nails from HBV-infected people contained HBV, and evaluated correlations of HBV DNA levels of serum, nail specimens, and nail scissors. Read More

    Hand hygiene "hall monitors": Leveraging the Hawthorne effect.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Clinical Practice Assessment Unit, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Unfortunately, more than a decade after the World Health Organization's campaign launched, many centers still face challenges with low rates of hand hygiene compliance. Several electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems are available, and the cost of setup and maintenance varies by institution. At our institution, with extremely limited funds for complex interventions, we instead hired a pragmatic teenager in search of a summer job and trained her as a hand hygiene "hall monitor. Read More

    An exploration of surgical team perceptions toward implementation of surgical safety checklists in a non-native English-speaking country.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Informatics, School of Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Background: In-depth information on the success and failure of implementing the World Health Organization surgical safety checklist (SSC) has been questioned in non-native English-speaking countries. This study explored the experiences of SSC implementation and documented barriers and strategies to improve SSC implementation.

    Methods: A qualitative study was performed in 33 Thai hospitals. Read More

    A national survey of interventions and practices in the prevention of blood culture contamination and associated adverse health care events.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Independent Clinical Consultant, Infection Prevention and Control, Stony Brook, NY.
    The scientific literature indicates that blood culture contamination often leads to inappropriate antimicrobial treatment, adverse patient occurrences, and potential reporting of false-positive central line-associated bloodstream infections. The findings of a national infection prevention survey of blood culture practices and related interventions in hospitals support the need for infection preventionists to expand their participation in the review of topics related to the ordering and collection of blood for culture. Read More

    Frequent contamination of nursing scrubs is associated with specific care activities.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
    Background: The objective of this article is to assess health care worker (HCW) and patient care factors associated with bacterial contamination of scrubs.

    Methods: We performed a cohort study of critical care HCWs. Participants were given 4 sets of new scrubs; each set was sampled 8 times during the 8-month study period on random days in the last 4 hours of the shift. Read More

    A multistate investigation of health care-associated Burkholderia cepacia complex infections related to liquid docusate sodium contamination, January-October 2016.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    Background: Outbreaks of health care-associated infections (HAIs) caused by Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have been associated with medical devices and water-based products. Water is the most common raw ingredient in nonsterile liquid drugs, and the significance of organisms recovered from microbiologic testing during manufacturing is assessed using a risk-based approach. This incident demonstrates that lapses in manufacturing practices and quality control of nonsterile liquid drugs can have serious unintended consequences. Read More

    Assessment of test methods for evaluating effectiveness of cleaning flexible endoscopes.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI.
    Background: Strict adherence to each step of reprocessing is imperative to removing potentially infectious agents. Multiple methods for verifying proper reprocessing exist; however, each presents challenges and limitations, and best practice within the industry has not been established. Our goal was to evaluate endoscope cleaning verification tests with particular interest in the evaluation of the manual cleaning step. Read More

    Comments on decreased mortality in patients prescribed vancomycin after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

    Comments on risk factors for health care-associated infections: From better knowledge to better prevention.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

    Trends in incidence of long-term-care facility onset Clostridium difficile infections in 10 US geographic locations during 2011-2015.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    New York Emerging Infections Program and University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY.
    During 2011-2015, the adjusted long-term-care facility onset Clostridium difficile infection incidence rate in persons aged ≥65 years decreased annually by 17.45% (95% confidence interval, 14.53%-20. Read More

    Comments on incidence and risk factors for infection in spine surgery: A prospective multicenter study of 1,764 instrumented spine procedures.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

    Impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium's multidimensional approach on rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia in 14 intensive care units in 11 hospitals of 5 cities within Argentina.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Sanatorio Pasteur, Catamarca, Argentina.
    Background: To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional approach (IMA) on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates in 11 hospitals within 5 cities of Argentina from January 2014-April 2017.

    Methods: A multicenter, prospective, before-after surveillance study was conducted through the use of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Surveillance Online System. During baseline, we performed outcome surveillance of VAP applying the definitions of the Centers for Disease Control andPrevention's National Healthcare Safety Network. Read More

    Observed variation in N95 respirator use by nurses demonstrating isolation care.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Medicine, Omaha, NE.
    Video review and scoring was used to evaluate the behaviors of nurses wearing N95 filtering face piece respirators while providing isolation care in a simulated patient care environment. This study yielded a detailed description of behaviors related to N95 respirator use in a health care setting. Developing a more robust and systematic behavior analysis tool for use in demonstration, simulation, and clinical care would allow for improved respiratory protection of health care workers. Read More

    Health care-associated infections in Iran: A national update for the year 2015.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    Background: A national surveillance system for health care-associated infections (HAIs) in Iran is relatively new, and an update on incidence and mortality rates can aid clinicians and stakeholders in development of new guidelines and imperative modifications to be made.

    Methods: Data were extracted from the national HAIs surveillance software for more than 7 million hospitalizations during 2015. Data regarding age, gender, deaths, ward of admission, and microbiologic findings were collected and analyzed. Read More

    The efficacy of infection prevention and control committees in Lesotho: A qualitative study.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, National University of Lesotho, Maseru, Lesotho. Electronic address:
    Background: The implementation of the core components of infection prevention and control (IPC) recommended by the World Health Organization faces severe challenges, particularly in developing countries. Given that hospital IPC committees in these countries are the key implementers of IPC, there is a need to evaluate their effectiveness. This study qualitatively evaluated the effectiveness of IPC committees in the southern African country of Lesotho with the aim of identifying themes for policy discourse on improving IPC practice in the country. Read More

    A 2-year comparative study of mold and bacterial counts in air samples from neutral and positive pressure rooms in 2 tertiary care hospitals.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Department of Microbiology, Galway University Hospital, Galway, Ireland; School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Immunocompromised patients are at risk of invasive fungal infection. These high-risk patients are nursed in protective isolation to reduce the risk of nosocomial aspergillosis while in hospital-ideally in a positive pressure single room with high-efficiency particulate air filtration. However, neutral pressure rooms are a potential alternative, especially for patients requiring both protective and source isolation. Read More

    A systematic approach to quantifying infection prevention staffing and coverage needs.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Providence St Joseph Health System, Renton, WA.
    Background: This article describes a large nonprofit health care system's approach at quantifying the actual number of infection preventionist (IP) and relative support staff required to build and sustain effective infection prevention programs.

    Methods: A list of all physical locations within the organization requiring infection prevention coverage were identified via survey, including department-level detail for 34 hospitals, 583 ambulatory sites, and 26 in-home and long-term care programs across 5 states. Required IP activities for each physical location were also tallied by task. Read More

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has greater risk of transmission in the operating room than methicillin-sensitive S aureus.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Department of Anesthesia, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA.
    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogenic S aureus strain characteristic associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality. The health care system needs to understand MRSA transmissibility in all settings to improve basic preventive measures to generate sustained reductions in invasive MRSA infections. Our primary aim was to compare intraoperative transmissibility of MRSA versus methicillin-sensitive S aureus (MSSA) isolates. Read More

    Virtual Zika transmission after the first U.S. case: who said what and how it spread on Twitter.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.
    Background: This paper goes beyond detecting specific themes within Zika-related chatter on Twitter, to identify the key actors who influence the diffusive process through which some themes become more amplified than others.

    Methods: We collected all Zika-related tweets during the 3 months immediately after the first U.S. Read More

    Efficacy of manual cleaning and an ultraviolet C room decontamination device in reducing health care-associated pathogens on hospital floors.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH; Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:
    Recent studies suggest that floors may be an underappreciated source for transmission of health care-associated pathogens. However, there are limited data on the effectiveness of current cleaning and disinfection methods in reducing floor contamination. We demonstrated that manual postdischarge cleaning by environmental services personnel significantly reduced floor contamination, and an automated ultraviolet C room disinfection device was effective as an adjunct to manual cleaning. Read More

    National Healthcare Safety Network laboratory-identified Clostridium difficile event reporting: A need for diagnostic stewardship.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Department of Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.
    We describe the proportion of health care facility-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) National Healthcare Safety Network laboratory-identified events at our facility that were deemed nontrue HO-CDIs. Reasons included testing in a patient without significant diarrhea or with recent laxative use, or delayed testing. Standardized infection ratios using only true HO-CDI in the numerator were improved compared with publically reported standardized infection ratios. Read More

    Evaluation of hospital-grade disinfectants on viral deposition on surfaces after toilet flushing.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Water and Energy Sustainable Technology Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
    Background: Past studies have shown that infectious aerosols created during toilet flushing result in surface contamination of the restroom. The goals of this study were to quantify viral contamination of surfaces in restrooms after flushing and the impact of disinfectants added to the toilet bowl prior to flushing on reducing surface contamination.

    Methods: The degree of contamination of surfaces in the restroom was assessed with and without the addition of coliphage MS2 to the toilet bowl before flushing. Read More

    Evidence-based guidelines for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Evaluation of intensive care unit nurses' adherence.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    School of Nursing, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
    Using self-reported questionnaires, this descriptive study assessed nurses' adherence to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) guidelines, which was found to be 81.3%. Although items concerning infection control achieved the highest scores, items concerning the suctioning process achieved the lowest scores. Read More

    Importance of implementation level when evaluating the effect of the Hi Five Intervention on infectious illness and illness-related absenteeism.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: There is limited research on the importance of implementation when evaluating the effect of hand hygiene interventions in school settings in developed countries. The aim of this study was to examine the association between an implementation index and the effect of the intervention. The Hi Five Intervention was evaluated in a 3-armed cluster randomized controlled trial involving 43 randomly selected Danish schools. Read More

    Impact of real-time notification of Clostridium difficile test results and early initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Pharmacy, St. Joseph Hospital, Lexington, KY.
    Background: Clostridium difficile is a prominent nosocomial pathogen and is the most common causative organism of health care-associated diarrhea. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated the impact of real-time notification of culture results with rapid antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) intervention in the setting of C difficile infection (CDI). The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of real-time notification of detection of toxigenic C difficile by DNA amplification results in patients with confirmed CDI. Read More

    Challenges for environmental hygiene practices in Australian paramedic-led health care: A brief report.
    Am J Infect Control 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, QLD, Australia.
    This study explored the self-reported behaviors and perceptions of Australian paramedics in relation to their environmental hygiene practices. A national online survey was conducted with Paramedics Australasia members (N = 417). Participants reported working in ambulances often contaminated with body fluids. Read More

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