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    4959 results match your criteria American Journal of Infection Control[Journal]

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    Prevalence and predictive factors of urinary tract infection among patients with stroke: A meta-analysis.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Infection Prevention and Control, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is thought to be a common complication of stroke and is regarded as a potential risk factor for poor stroke outcomes. However, there is a controversy among predictive factors of stroke-associated UTIs. We aim to estimate the prevalence and predisposing factors of UTIs among patients with stroke. Read More

    A Middle East respiratory syndrome screening clinic for health care personnel during the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak in South Korea: A single-center experience.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Center for Infectious Diseases, National Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Background: Transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) to health care personnel (HCP) is a major concern. This study aimed to review cases of MERS-related events, such as development of MERS-like symptoms or exposure to patients.

    Methods: A MERS screening clinic (MSC) for HCP was setup in the National Medical Center during the MERS outbreak in 2015. Read More

    Antimicrobial stewardship in pediatric post-acute care facilities.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY.
    Providers in pediatric post-acute care facilities were surveyed about knowledge of and resources for antimicrobial stewardship. All agreed that antibiotics were overused in such pediatric facilities, but 60% had not implemented stewardship strategies. Lack of treatment guidelines (47%) was identified as the most common barrier to antimicrobial stewardship. Read More

    Booster influenza vaccination confers additional immune responses in an elderly, rural community-dwelling population.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Family Medicine, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku, Japan.
    This study aimed to examine the effects of a booster vaccination in elderly people using 2 doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine during the 2012-2013 influenza epidemic. Seroprotection rates against the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain in younger elderly people (aged 61-75 years) and the A(H3N2) and B strains in both younger elderly people (aged 61-75 years) as well as very elderly people (aged 76-102 years) did not decrease at 22 weeks after vaccination. This approach confers long-lasting antibody responses and may be useful in clinical practice. Read More

    Development and validation of an automated ventilator-associated event electronic surveillance system: A report of a successful implementation.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH; Department of Clinical Epidemiology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH.
    Background: Surveillance is an important tool for infection control; however, this task can often be time-consuming and take away from infection prevention activities. With the increasing availability of comprehensive electronic health records, there is an opportunity to automate these surveillance activities. The objective of this article is to describe the implementation of an electronic algorithm for ventilator-associated events (VAEs) at a large academic medical center METHODS: This article reports on a 6-month manual validation of a dashboard for VAEs. Read More

    Thai clinicians' attitudes toward antimicrobial stewardship programs.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; Centre for Quality and Patient Safety Research - Epworth HealthCare Partnership, Richmond, VIC, Australia.
    Background: Effective hospital-wide antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs need multidisciplinary engagement; however, clinicians' attitudes have not been investigated in Thailand where AMS is in early development. The aim of this study was to explore Thai clinicians' (doctors, nurses, and pharmacists) perceptions and attitudes toward AMS.

    Methods: A paper-based survey was distributed in a 1,000-bed university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, between November 9, 2015, and December 21, 2015. Read More

    Incidence and risk factors for infection in spine surgery: A prospective multicenter study of 1764 instrumented spinal procedures.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Spine Surgery of Traditional Chinese Hospital Affiliated With Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication in spinal surgery, imposing a high burden on patients and society. However, information about its characteristics and related risk factors is limited. We designed this prospective, multicenter study to address this issue. Read More

    Comparison of keyboard colonization before and after use in an inpatient setting and the effect of keyboard covers.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Center for Clinical Informatics Research and Education, The MetroHealth System, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH; Department of Internal Medicine, The MetroHealth System, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH; Department of Pediatrics, The MetroHealth System, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH; Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, The MetroHealth System, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:
    Computer keyboards may contribute to patient infections. We cultured new keyboards, with/without keyboard covers, before placing them in adult inpatient rooms and recultured after 6 months. Nonpathogenic bacteria were present initially but potentially pathogenic bacteria were cultured only after use. Read More

    Shift to community-onset Clostridium difficile infection in the national Veterans Health Administration, 2003-2014.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; Pharmacotherapy Education and Research Center, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX; South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX.
    Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) occurs frequently in inpatient settings; however, community-onset cases have been reported more frequently in recent years. This study evaluated hospital-onset and community-onset CDI in the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) population over a 12-year period.

    Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult VHA beneficiaries with CDI between October 1, 2002, and September 30, 2014. Read More

    How do professional relationships influence surgical antibiotic prophylaxis decision making? A qualitative study.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Prince of Wales Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Background: Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) is a critical area to optimize to reduce the escalation of antimicrobial resistance. This article explores the ways by which interpersonal relationships influence SAP decision making.

    Methods: Twenty surgeons and anesthetists participated in in-depth semistructured interviews on SAP prescribing. Read More

    Differences in psychosocial determinants of hand hygiene between health care professional groups: Insights from a mixed-methods analysis.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Electronic address:
    Background: Good hand hygiene (HH) prevents health care-associated infections. We compared psychosocial and organizational factors associated with HH compliance and perceived need for improvement among physicians, nurses, and allied health professionals (AHPs).

    Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study in a 1,600-bed adult tertiary-care hospital in Singapore. Read More

    Evaluation of novel chemical additive that colorizes chlorine-based disinfectants to improve visualization of surface coverage.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH; Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Louis Stokes Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:

    A needs assessment of infection control training for American Red Cross personnel working in shelters.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE.
    This pilot needs assessment aimed to identify gaps in infection prevention and control (IPC) training of American Red Cross shelter staff through an electronic survey of IPC background, knowledge, and perceived training needs. Respondents (n = 471) noted a greater need for training in several IPC areas, although no significant differences were found in IPC knowledge between those who had recently deployed to a shelter (n = 70) and trained personnel who had never deployed (n = 178). Read More

    Hospital length of stay and cost burden of HIV, tuberculosis, and HIV-tuberculosis coinfection among pregnant women in the United States.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Family & Community Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Electronic address:
    Background: We sought to determine hospital length of stay (LOS) and cost burden associated with hospital admissions among pregnant women with HIV monoinfection, tuberculosis (TB) monoinfection, or HIV-TB coinfection in the United States.

    Methods: Analysis covered the period from 2002-2014 using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Relevant ICD-9-CM codes were used to determine HIV and TB status. Read More

    Surveillance-guided selective digestive decontamination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the intensive care unit: A cost-effectiveness analysis.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Background: Clinical findings have shown effectiveness and safety of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) for eradication of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in high-risk carriers. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of SDD guided by CRE surveillance in the intensive care unit (ICU).

    Methods: Outcomes of surveillance-guided SDD (test-guided SDD) and no screening (control) in the ICU were compared by Markov model simulations. Read More

    Deployment of a touchless ultraviolet light robot for terminal room disinfection: The importance of audit and feedback.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA.
    Touchless ultraviolet disinfection (UVD) devices effectively reduce the bioburden of epidemiologically relevant pathogens, including Clostridium difficile. During a 25-month implementation period, UVD devices were deployed facilitywide for the terminal disinfection of rooms that housed a patient who tested positive for C difficile. The deployment was performed with structured education, audit and feedback, and resulted in a multidisciplinary practice change that maximized the UVD capture rate from 20% to 100%. Read More

    Knowledge and practices of isolation precautions among nurses in Jordan.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Community and Mental Health Nursing, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq, Jordan.
    Background: Implementation of isolation precautions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been justified through research and clinical evidence. However, nurses' understanding and compliance with these precautions is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess nurses' knowledge and practices in relation to isolation precautions in Jordan. Read More

    Socioeconomic differences in self- and family awareness of viral hepatitis status among carriers of hepatitis B or C in rural Korea.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Background: Hepatitis is the most important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. This study evaluated the socioeconomic differences in self- and family awareness of hepatitis status among hepatitis B and C carriers and their cohabitants in rural Korea.

    Methods: In total, 5,017 randomly selected rural residents participated in a seroepidemiologic and questionnaire survey. Read More

    Risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant organisms in Haryana, India.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI; Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI. Electronic address:
    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors for multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infection within patients from a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. This case-control study examined MDRO infection risk factors, including diet, health history, and medical device use. We administered a diet questionnaire to collect data on usual diet and collected data on other risk factors from chart review. Read More

    Leadership rounds to reduce health care-associated infections.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Division of Infectious Disease, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI; William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI.
    Background: Evidence-based guidelines exist to reduce health care-associated infections (HAIs). Leadership rounds are one tool leaders can use to ensure compliance with guidelines, but have not been studied specifically for the reduction of HAIs. This study examines HAI leadership rounds at one facility. Read More

    Reduction of bacterial burden by copper alloys on high-touch athletic center surfaces.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Biology, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA. Electronic address:
    Background: Athletic centers have been locations for the transmission of community-acquired infections. This study assessed the capacity of copper alloys to reduce the bacterial burden associated with high-touch athletic center equipment. Copper alloy weights and grips were rotated with rubber coated and stainless steel controls in an undergraduate college athletic center over a 16-month period. Read More

    Improving knowledge and compliance with infection control Standard Precautions among undergraduate nursing students in Jordan.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    School of Nursing, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan. Electronic address:
    Introduction: The recent emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases have made the knowledge and practice of standard infection control precautions in developing countries more important than ever. However, schools of nursing in Jordan do not have a prescribed curriculum in Standard Precautions.

    Purpose: To test the effectiveness of using of an online education module and a learning contract on knowledge and compliance with infection control Standard Precautions among undergraduate nursing students in Jordan. Read More

    Evaluation of 9 health care organizations' respiratory protection programs and respiratory protective device practices: Implications for adoption of elastomerics.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    PCIH, Emerald Isle, NC.
    Interview, observational, and discussion group data at 9 health care organizations (HCOs) were collected to better understand elastomeric half-facepiece respirators' (EHFRs) use. We found that HCOs do not routinely use EHFRs as a respiratory protection device (RPD) for health care workers; compliance with other respirator types was less than expected. This finding has important training implications for proper use of all RPDs and EHFRs as an alternative RPD stockpiled for use during a respiratory infectious outbreak. Read More

    Pilot study of digital tools to support multimodal hand hygiene in a clinical setting.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    SureWash, Trinity Enterprise Centre, Dublin, Ireland; Computer Science and Statistics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Background: Digital tools for hand hygiene do not share data, limiting their potential to support multimodal programs. The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom, worked with GOJO (in the United States), MEG (in Ireland), and SureWash (in Ireland) to integrate their systems and pilot their combined use in a clinical setting.

    Methods: A 28-bed medical oncology unit piloted the system for 5 weeks. Read More

    Patient and health care worker perceptions of daily use of ultraviolet-C technology as an adjunct to daily cleaning in an academic hospital: Secondary study of Ultra Violet-C Light Evaluation as an Adjunct to Removing Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Johns Hopkins Medicine Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Department of Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.
    A cluster randomized crossover trial is in progress at The Johns Hopkins Hospital to investigate the impact of daily ultraviolet (UV)-C light disinfection on the acquisition of health care-associated pathogens. To understand perceptions and challenges to daily use of UV-C, we surveyed health care workers (HCWs) and patients. Most HCWs think daily UV-C decreases the patients' risk of acquiring infection. Read More

    Controlling for endogeneity in attributable costs of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from a Canadian hospital.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Decisions regarding the optimal provision of infection prevention and control resources depend on accurate estimates of the attributable costs of health care-associated infections. This is challenging given the skewed nature of health care cost data and the endogeneity of health care-associated infections. The objective of this study is to determine the hospital costs attributable to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) while accounting for endogeneity. Read More

    Impact of home versus hospital dressing on bacterial contamination of surgical scrubs in the obstetric setting: A randomized controlled trial.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Carolina Greenville School of Medicine/Greenville Health System, Greenville, SC. Electronic address:
    Background: The impact of the site where an obstetrician dresses in their surgical scrubs, home versus hospital, on total bacterial burden remains unknown. Therefore, our objective was to quantify the effect of dressing in surgical scrubs at home versus at the hospital on the bacterial contamination at the beginning of a scheduled shift.

    Methods: This was a single blind randomized controlled trial. Read More

    Association of visitation policy and health care-acquired respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.
    Visitor restriction policies are meant to prevent health care-acquired viral infections; however, data on their efficacy in hospitalized children are limited. We report a 37% reduction in health care-acquired respiratory viral infections in a children's hospital following standardization of the visitation policy that limited the number of visitors during a patient's hospitalization. Read More

    Hand hygiene: Attitudes and practices of nurses, a comparison between 2007 and 2015.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Graduate Entry Medical School and Centre for Interventions in Infection, Inflammation & Immunity (4i), University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Background: Hand hygiene reduces health care-associated infections significantly. However, international evidence suggests that practices are suboptimal. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast hand hygiene attitudes and practices and alcohol-based handrub (ABHR) use among nurses between 2007 and 2015. Read More

    Difficulties in using personal protective equipment: Training experiences with the 2015 outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome in Korea.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Yonsei University Severance Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    This study aimed to evaluate practical barriers to personal protective equipment (PPE) use found through health care personnel (HCP) training sessions held during and after the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak in Korea. Difficulties observed were ill-fitting sizes, anxiety, confusion from unstandardized protocols, doubts about PPE quality and effectiveness, and complexity of using several PPE items together. Further research to generate robust evidence and repeated HCP trainings are necessary to ensure HCP and patient safety in future outbreaks. Read More

    Hospital readmissions related to Clostridium difficile infection in the United States.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH.
    Using a national readmissions database, we report a significant burden of Clostridium difficile-associated readmissions in the United States manifested as a high rate of rehospitalizations and substantial hospital stays and costs. Read More

    The epidemiology of nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia in the United States.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Nursing, Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento, CA.
    Background: Nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) is among the most common hospital-acquired infections. The purpose of our study was to quantify the incidence and influence of NV-HAP in the United States using a national dataset.

    Methods: The 2012 US National Inpatient Sample dataset was used to compare an NV-HAP group to 4 additional group cohorts: pneumonia on admission, general hospital admissions, matched on mortality and disease severity, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Read More

    Hospital Acquired Pneumonia Prevention Initiative-2: Incidence of nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia in the United States.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Integrated Quality Services, Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento, CA.
    Background: Because nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) is understudied, our purpose was to determine the incidence, overall burden, and level of documented pneumonia preventive interventions of NV-HAP in 24 U.S. hospitals. Read More

    Prospective surveillance of device-associated health care-associated infection in an intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 15. Epub 2017 Oct 15.
    Department of ENT & Medical Superintendent, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Background: Surveillance of health care-associated infections (HAIs) plays a key role in the hospital infection control program and reduction of HAIs. In India, most of the surveillance of HAIs is reported from private sector hospitals that do not depict the situation of government sector hospitals. Other studies do not confirm with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance criterion, or deal with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) instead of ventilator-associated event (VAE). Read More

    Description of a restriction program for gram-positive antimicrobial agents at an academic medical center.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA; Division of Infectious Diseases, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA. Electronic address:
    This report examines the effectiveness of antimicrobial restriction at 1 tertiary care health care system by analyzing the consumption of restricted versus nonrestricted gram-positive agents over time for medical versus surgical units. Significant reductions in restricted antibiotic use were detected in 57% of medical units versus none of the surgical units. There were no significant reductions in nonrestricted antibiotic use. Read More

    Validation of an electronic tool for flagging surgical site infections based on clinical practice patterns for triaging surveillance: Operational successes and barriers.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    Background: Surveillance is an effective strategy for reducing surgical site infections (SSIs); however, current identification methods are resource-intensive. Therefore, we sought to validate an electronic SSI triaging tool for detection of probable infections and identify operational barriers and challenges.

    Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among all Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP)-reviewed surgeries at 2 Veterans Affairs medical centers from October 1, 2011-September 30, 2014. Read More

    Risk factors for health care-associated infection in hospitalized adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Faculty of Medicine, Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia. Electronic address:
    Background: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a public health problem that increase health care costs. This article aimed to systematically review the literature and meta-analyze studies investigating risk factors (RFs) independently associated with HAIs in hospitalized adults.

    Methods: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS) were searched to identify studies from 2009-2016. Read More

    Discontinuing contact precautions for multidrug-resistant organisms: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Office of Clinical Quality, Safety and Performance Improvement, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA; Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA.
    Background: Several single-center studies have suggested that eliminating contact precautions (CPs) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) control in nonoutbreak settings has no impact on infection rates. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of discontinuing contact precautions in the acute care setting.

    Methods: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Embase through December 2016 for studies evaluating discontinuation of contact precautions for multidrug-resistant organisms. Read More

    Implementing an antibiotic stewardship program at a long-term acute care hospital in Detroit, Michigan.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Detroit Medical Center-Wayne State University, Detroit, MI.
    Background: The objective of the study was to assess health care providers' (HCPs) knowledge and attitude toward antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and implement an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in a long-term acute care hospital (LTACH).

    Methods: A questionnaire on antibiotic use and resistance was administered to HCP in an LTACH in Detroit, Michigan, between August 2011 and October 2011. Concurrently, a retrospective review of common antibiotic prescription practices and costs was conducted. Read More

    Leadership line care rounds: Application of the engage, educate, execute, and evaluate improvement model for the prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections in children with cancer.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Infection Prevention and Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN; Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN. Electronic address:
    To prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), leadership line care rounds (LLCRs) used the engage, educate, execute, and evaluate improvement model to audit compliance, identify barriers and opportunities, empower patients and families, and engage leadership. Findings of excellence and improvement opportunities were communicated to unit staff and managers. LLCRs contributed to compliance with CLABSI prevention interventions. Read More

    Outbreak of group A Streptococcus emm94.0 affecting people who inject drugs in southwest England, April 2017.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Public Health England South West (South) Centre, Public Health England, Totnes, United Kingdom.
    We report an outbreak of invasive and noninvasive group A Streptococcus during April 2017 among people who inject drugs in southwest England. To date we have identified 14 cases linked to a specific town, all confirmed as group A Streptococcus emm94.0, a strain type not previously reported in the area. Read More

    Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:
    Background: Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings.

    Methods: We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Read More

    Chlorhexidine gluconate bathing practices and skin concentrations in intensive care unit patients.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
    In this 2-phase real-world evaluation of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) skin concentrations in intensive care unit patients, we found lower skin CHG concentrations when rinsing with water after CHG solution bath (compared with no rinse), but no significant difference in concentrations between the use of CHG solution without rinse and preimpregnated CHG wipes. CHG concentration audits could be useful in assessing the quality of bathing practice, and CHG solution without rinsing may be an alternative to preimpregnated CHG wipes. Read More

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