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    4884 results match your criteria American Journal of Infection Control[Journal]

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    Long-term metabolic persistence of gram-positive bacteria on health care-relevant plastic.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.
    Background: Health care-associated opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium persist on dry environments and can contribute to organism transmission through contact. These organisms can be monitored on surfaces by culture, molecular methods, or metabolic assays. This study was designed to determine the kinetics of bacterial persistence on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, a plastic commonly used in the manufacture of bedrails. Read More

    Improper positioning of the elevator lever of duodenoscopes may lead to sequestered bacteria that survive disinfection by automated endoscope reprocessors.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    St Boniface Research Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
    Background: Some outbreaks associated with contaminated duodenoscopes have been attributed to biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether bacteria within an organic matrix could survive if the elevator lever was improperly positioned in the automated endoscope reprocessor (AER) after 1 round of reprocessing.

    Methods: Duodenoscope lever cavities with an open or sealed elevator wire channel were inoculated with 6-7 Log10 of both Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in ATS2015 (Healthmark Industries, Fraser, MI) and dried for 2 hours. Read More

    A practical guide to systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses in infection prevention: Planning, challenges, and execution.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.
    Systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses are important research designs used to summarize and derive conclusions about the collective evidence on a focused research question in a structured, reproducible manner. The goal of this Methodology Minute is to describe how to conduct a systematic literature review and meta-analysis using a step-by-step approach to help infection preventionists (IPs) and others in the field perform their own systematic literature review and meta-analysis, and to critically evaluate published systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses. Read More

    Methods for computational disease surveillance in infection prevention and control: Statistical process control versus Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Healthcare Epidemiology and Patient Safety Program, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.
    Background: Although not all health care-associated infections (HAIs) are preventable, reducing HAIs through targeted intervention is key to a successful infection prevention program. To identify areas in need of targeted intervention, robust statistical methods must be used when analyzing surveillance data. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast statistical process control (SPC) charts with Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms. Read More

    Tracking and controlling soft surface contamination in health care settings.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
    Background: Study objectives were to track the transfer of microbes on soft surfaces in health care environments and determine the efficiency of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered soft surface sanitizer in the health care environment.

    Methods: Soft surfaces at 3 health care facilities were sampled for heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli followed by a tracer study with a virus surrogate seeded onto volunteer hands and commonly touched surfaces. The occurrence of microbial contaminants was determined along with microbial reductions using the soft surface sanitizer. Read More

    Successful control of 2 simultaneous outbreaks of OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in an intensive care unit.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Servicio de Medicina Preventiva, Hospital Universitario la Paz-Cantoblanco-Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: This report describes a double outbreak of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae (OXA-48-PE) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the effectiveness of measures implemented, including decontamination with vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP).

    Methods: Affected patients were isolated in a confined area and cared for by dedicated personnel. Four percent chlorhexidine soap was used for patient daily hygiene. Read More

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Iranian health sciences students regarding hepatitis B and C virus infections: A national survey.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Middle East Liver Disease Center, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    Background: The World Health Organization seeks to achieve the goal of viral hepatitis elimination by 2030 and lack of general knowledge about viral hepatitis seems to be a barrier to reaching this goal. This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Iranian health sciences students in 12 Iranian medical sciences universities using a national survey.

    Methods: This survey was conducted during the second Hepatitis Awareness Campaign, which was held during the Iranian National Hepatitis Week (October 22-28, 2016). Read More

    Control of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Hong Kong: Role of environmental surveillance in communal areas after a hospital outbreak.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Environmental reservoir is an important source of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) outbreaks. The role of postoutbreak environmental surveillance for guiding sustained infection control effort has not been examined.

    Methods: Enhanced environmental disinfection and regular environmental surveillance of ward communal areas after an outbreak were performed in a university-affiliated hospital. Read More

    Use of an annual art competition to promote Web site traffic and engage children in antimicrobial stewardship in Pennsylvania.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
    We used Google Analytics to assess whether annual kids' art competitions changed traffic to a Web site on appropriate antibiotic use. We found that announcements about kids' art competitions correlated with increased traffic to the Web site, suggesting that this innovation has promise in promoting antimicrobial stewardship efforts. Read More

    Cost-benefit analysis of different air change rates in an operating room environment.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Prism Environmental Health and Safety, Discovery Bay, CA.
    Background: Hospitals face growing pressure to meet the dual but often competing goals of providing a safe environment while controlling operating costs. Evidence-based data are needed to provide insight for facility management practices to support these goals.

    Methods: The quality of the air in 3 operating rooms was measured at different ventilation rates. Read More

    Evaluation of surgical glove integrity and factors associated with glove defect.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Health Sciences Research, Higher School of Health Sciences and Techniques of Sousse, University of Sousse, Tunisia.
    Background: Surgical glove perforation may expose both patients and staff members to severe complications. This study aimed to determine surgical glove perforation rate and the factors associated with glove defect.

    Material And Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between January and March 2017 at a Tunisian university hospital center in 3 different surgical departments: urology, maxillofacial, and general and digestive. Read More

    Isolation and identification of human coronavirus 229E from frequently touched environmental surfaces of a university classroom that is cleaned daily.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Electronic address:
    Frequently touched surfaces of a university classroom that is cleaned daily contained viable human coronavirus 229E (CoV-229E). Tests of a CoV-229E laboratory strain under conditions that simulated the ambient light, temperature, and relative humidity conditions of the classroom revealed that some of the virus remained viable on various surfaces for 7 days, suggesting CoV-229E is relatively stable in the environment. Our findings reinforce the notion that contact transmission may be possible for this virus. Read More

    Impact of respiratory virus molecular testing on antibiotic utilization in community-acquired pneumonia.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    TriHealth Hatton Research Institute, Cincinnati, OH. Electronic address:
    We compared the clinical characteristics and antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia patients who were positive on a respiratory virus molecular test (polymerase chain reaction) with those who were negative. We found that respiratory virus molecular polymerase chain reaction testing has a minimal impact on reducing antibiotic utilization among viral pneumonia patients. Read More

    Effectiveness of a shielded ultraviolet C air disinfection system in an inpatient pharmacy of a tertiary care children's hospital.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, Memphis, TN; Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN. Electronic address:
    Viable air particles pose a risk in areas where sterile preparations are compounded. This study investigated the efficacy of an innovative air purification technology that uses a shielded ultraviolet C light lamp to continuously purify the air in an inpatient pharmacy. Mean airborne fungal and bacterial colony forming units were obtained preinstallation and again in 6 months. Read More

    Can improving patient hand hygiene impact Clostridium difficile infection events at an academic medical center?
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep;45(9):959-963
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Department of Infection Control, UPMC Mercy Hospital, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
    Background: Hand hygiene plays an important role in the prevention of Clostridium difficile (CD) infection (CDI). Patient hand hygiene (PHH) may be a potentially underused preventative measure for CDI. Patient mobility and acuity along with a lack of education present obstacles to PHH for the hospitalized patient. Read More

    Exploring inappropriate certified nursing assistant glove use in long-term care.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep;45(9):940-945
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA.
    Background: Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) frequently wear gloves when they care for patients in standard precautions. If CNAs use gloves inappropriately, they may spread pathogens to patients and the environment, potentially leading to health care-associated infections (HAIs).

    Methods: Using a descriptive structured observational design, we examined the degree of inappropriate health care personnel glove use in a random sample of 74 CNAs performing toileting and perineal care at 1 long-term care facility. Read More

    Efficacy testing of novel chemical disinfectants on clinically relevant microbial pathogens.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 25. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology Sligo, Sligo, Ireland; Cellular Health and Toxicology Research Group, Institute of Technology Sligo, Sligo, Ireland; Centre for Precision Engineering, Materials, and Manufacturing Research, Institute of Technology, Sligo, Ireland. Electronic address:
    Background: There has been a dramatic increase in the number of hospital-acquired infections, which is linked to the pandemic of multidrug resistance. Clinical environments provide an ideal reservoir for the growth, proliferation, and transmission of pathogenic organisms, including bacterial and yeast species. Consequently, the need for improved, effective disinfectants is of paramount importance. Read More

    Low prevalence of colonization with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria in long-term care facilities in Graz, Austria.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Section of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:
    Background: Residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are increasingly found to be an important reservoir of multidrug-resistant gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria.

    Aims: We aimed to determine colonization by MRGN bacteria over 6 months in LTCFs and geriatric wards in Graz, Austria, and to evaluate risk factors for such colonization.

    Methods: During August 2015, we conducted a point-prevalence survey at LTCFs and geriatric wards of the Geriatric Health Centers of the City of Graz. Read More

    Assessing nurses' adherence to a central line maintenance care checklist on a pediatric inpatient unit.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    5 Children's/Intermediate Care, N.C. Children's Hospital, Chapel Hill, NC.
    Adherence to evidence-based central line maintenance practices remains a challenge, particularly in complex patient populations. Using an evidence-based observational checklist, areas of nonadherence were identified and a focused educational intervention was developed, resulting in improved adherence across all aspects of the central line maintenance care bundle. Read More

    Implementation and evaluation of an automated surveillance system to detect hospital outbreak.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Infection Prevention and Control, New York University Langone Health System, New York, NY; Division of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, New York University Langone School of Medicine, New York, NY.
    Background: The timely identification of a cluster is a critical requirement for infection prevention and control (IPC) departments because these events may represent transmission of pathogens within the health care setting. Given the issues with manual review of hospital infections, a surveillance system to detect clusters in health care settings must use automated data capture, validated statistical methods, and include all significant pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, patient care locations, and health care teams.

    Methods: We describe the use of SaTScan statistical software to identify clusters, WHONET software to manage microbiology laboratory data, and electronic health record data to create a comprehensive outbreak detection system in our hospital. Read More

    Contact patterns during cleaning of vomitus: A simulation study.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:
    Background: Environmental service workers cleaning bodily fluids may transfer pathogens through the environment and to themselves through contacts.

    Methods: Participants with experience in cleaning of hospital environments were asked to clean simulated vomitus using normal practices in a simulated patient room while being videorecorded. Contacts with environmental surfaces and self were later observed. Read More

    Antibacterial effect and proposed mechanism of action of a topical surgical adhesive.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Microbiology, Gibraltar Laboratories, Fairfield, NJ.
    Background: Medical adhesives effectively hold closed approximated skin edges of wounds from surgical incisions, including punctures from minimally invasive surgery. In addition, they have been reported to be antibacterial against gram-positive bacteria.

    Methods: Using membrane filtration to capture all organisms after contact with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate product for 3 minutes, we quantified the number of survivors. Read More

    Assessment of half-mask elastomeric respirator and powered air-purifying respirator reprocessing for an influenza pandemic.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Engineering Science Division, Applied Research Associates, Panama City, FL.
    Background: Health care facilities are considering the use of reusable respiratory protective devices (RPDs) to mitigate a potential N95 filtering facepiece respirator shortage caused by an influenza pandemic. US regulators are also considering stockpiling reusable RPDs for pandemic preparedness, but limited data exist on the effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection of these devices. This study defines reprocessing protocols and evaluates their effectiveness against a pandemic influenza strain in a laboratory setting. Read More

    Prognostic factors of health care-associated bloodstream infection in adult patients ≥40 years of age.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Infection Control Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    We investigated 401 geriatric patients and 453 middle-aged patients with health care-associated bloodstream infection (HABSI) at a medical center during January-December 2014. Compared with middle-aged patients, the geriatric group had higher 30-day mortality (31.2% vs 23. Read More

    Successful strategy to decrease indwelling catheter utilization rates in an academic medical intensive care unit.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY.
    Background: Duration of indwelling urinary catheterization is an important risk factor for urinary tract infections. We devised a strategy to decrease the utilization of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs). We also highlight the challenges of managing critically ill patients without IUCs and demonstrate some of the initiatives that we undertook to overcome these challenges. Read More

    High mortality rate associated with KPC-producing Enterobacter cloacae in a Brazilian hospital.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Laboratório de Pesquisa em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados-UFGD, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:
    We describe a clonal dissemination of KPC-producing Enterobacter cloacae in a Brazilian hospital. Patients diagnosed with theses isolates showed high mortality rate (41.8%) and were associated with previous use of antibiotics and urinary catheterization. Read More

    Urinary tract infection surveillance in residential aged care.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit, Monash Infectious Diseases, Monash Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; National Centre for Antimicrobial Stewardship, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Objectives: The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 2 aged care homes (ACHs) and examine the extent to which presumed UTIs met the 2012 McGeer infection surveillance definitions.

    Design: Retrospective observational study.

    Setting: Two ACHs: a 30-bed facility and a 100-bed facility PARTICIPANTS: Residents of the 2 ACHs diagnosed with UTI. Read More

    Evaluation of contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI. Electronic address:
    Background: There are limited controlled data demonstrating contact precautions (CPs) prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections in endemic settings. We evaluated changes in hospital-acquired MRSA and VRE infections after discontinuing CPs for these organisms.

    Methods: This is a retrospective study done at an 800-bed teaching hospital in urban Detroit. Read More

    Environment of care: Is it time to reassess microbial contamination of the operating room air as a risk factor for surgical site infection in total joint arthroplasty?
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address:
    In the modern operating room (OR), traditional surgical mask, frequent air exchanges, and architectural barriers are viewed as effective in reducing airborne microbial populations. Intraoperative sampling of airborne particulates is rarely performed in the OR because of technical difficulties associated with sampling methodologies and a common belief that airborne contamination is infrequently associated with surgical site infections (SSIs). Recent studies suggest that viable airborne particulates are readily disseminated throughout the OR, placing patients at risk for postoperative SSI. Read More

    Clinical usefulness of catheter-drawn blood samples and catheter tip cultures for the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infections in neonatology: A systematic review.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Faculdade de Medicina da universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Objectives: Neonatal sepsis is the most frequent health care-associated infection in neonatal units. This study aimed to analyze articles on the clinical usefulness of catheter-drawn blood samples and catheter tip cultures for the diagnosis of intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in neonates.

    Methods: A systematic search was performed for studies published from 1987-2017, without language restriction. Read More

    Clinical outcome of dual colistin- and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections: A single-center retrospective study of 75 cases in India.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Microbiology, Medanta, The Medicity Hospital, Gurgaon, Haryana, India. Electronic address:
    In this study, we retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes of 75 patients with dual colistin- and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections over a 5-year period in a single tertiary care hospital in India. We observed a high in-hospital mortality rate of 69.3%. Read More

    A national collaborative approach to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections in nursing homes: A qualitative assessment.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 12. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI; Division of Geriatric and Palliative Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Background: Reducing health care-associated infections (HAIs), such as catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), is a critical performance improvement target in nursing homes. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Long-term Care: Health Care-Associated Infections/Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection, a national performance improvement program, was designed to promote implementation of a CAUTI prevention program through state-based or regional collaboratives in more than 500 nursing homes across the United States.

    Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 purposefully selected organizational leads (who led implementation activities for a group of facilities) and 8 facility leads (who led implementation activities at a given facility) to understand implementation successes and challenges and experiences of participants involved in the program. Read More

    Daily bathing strategies and cross-transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms: Impact of chlorhexidine-impregnated wipes in a multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria endemic intensive care unit.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.
    Background: Health-care associated infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critical care units. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)-impregnated wipes in the daily bathing of patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) to prevent cross-transmission and colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) METHODS: Prospective cohort study with an intervention of 11 months. The intervention consisted of using CHG-impregnated wipes for the daily bathing of patients on mechanical ventilation or colonized by MDROs. Read More

    Noncompliance with surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines: A Jordanian experience in cesarean deliveries.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Jordan, Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan.
    Background: Surgical site infections are common, especially in developing countries. Nevertheless, up to 60% of surgical site infections can be prevented with appropriate perioperative care, which includes among other measures using suitable surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP).

    Methods: After a short interview with patients and retrospective review of medical charts, compliance with 6 SAP parameters was assessed for appropriateness; those parameters are indication, choice, dose, time of administration, intraoperative redosing interval, and duration of prophylaxis in 1,173 operations. Read More

    Antimicrobial resistance of 3 types of gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospital surfaces and the hands of health care workers.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Beijing Chaoyang District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
    Background: There has been an increased focus in recent years on antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from clinical samples. However, resistance of bacteria from hospital environments has been less frequently investigated.

    Methods: According to hygienic standard for disinfection in hospitals, samples were collected from hospital inanimate surfaces and the hands of health care workers after daily cleaning. Read More

    Implementation in the midst of complexity: Using ethnography to study health care-associated infection prevention and control.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Division of Infectious Disease, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI; William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI.
    Background: Contextual factors associated with health care settings make reducing health care-associated infections (HAIs) a complex task. The aim of this article is to highlight how ethnography can assist in understanding contextual factors that support or hinder the implementation of evidence-based practices for reducing HAIs.

    Methods: We conducted a review of ethnographic studies specifically related to HAI prevention and control in the last 5 years (2012-2017). Read More

    Staff nurses as antimicrobial stewards: An integrative literature review.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug;45(8):917-922
    Sinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.
    Background: Guidelines on antimicrobial stewardship emphasize the importance of an interdisciplinary team, but current practice focuses primarily on defining the role of infectious disease physicians and pharmacists; the role of inpatient staff nurses as antimicrobial stewards is largely unexplored.

    Methods: An updated integrative review method guided a systematic appraisal of 13 articles spanning January 2007-June 2016. Quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed publications including staff nurses and antimicrobial knowledge or stewardship were incorporated into the analysis. Read More

    Effect of hand lotion on the effectiveness of hygienic hand antisepsis: Implications for practicing hand hygiene.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug;45(8):835-838
    Institute for Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, Greifswald, Germany.
    Background: Skin protection products should be used after washing hands with soap, during breaks, after work, and during leisure time. Aside from their beneficial effects, skin care products may also interact with alcohol-based hand disinfectants by reducing their efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a hand lotion on the effectiveness of hygienic hand antisepsis using an alcohol-based handrub. Read More

    Hand hygiene compliance in a universal gloving setting.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug;45(8):830-834
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan.
    Background: The use of gloves for every patient contact (ie, universal gloving) has been suggested as an infection prevention adjunct and alternative to contact precautions. However, gloves may carry organisms unless they are changed properly. In addition, hand hygiene is required before donning and after removing gloves, and there are scarce data regarding glove changing and hand hygiene in a universal gloving setting. Read More

    Use of a patient empowerment tool for hand hygiene.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug;45(8):824-829
    Section of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV.
    Background: Patient empowerment is recognized as an important component of a multimodal strategy to improve hand hygiene adherence. We examined the attitudes of adult patients and parents of pediatric patients toward a new patient empowerment tool (PET) at our hospital. We also surveyed physicians to determine their perceptions about the PET. Read More

    Journal Club: Developing a user-friendly report for electronically assisted surveillance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug;45(8):822-823
    Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, Harrisburg, PA. Electronic address:
    The article chosen for this Journal Club commentary describes the development and testing of a report format using automated data to report urinary catheter utilization and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs).(1) This research sought to address a gap in knowledge regarding the optimal display and content of data reports, communicating to diverse audiences, which used surveillance data from Department of Veterans Affairs' electronic health records. The specific research aim of this project was to develop and pilot test report formats deemed usable and trustworthy by the end user, and discover the best way to deliver to the ideal audience automated data, which is formatted and presented in a way that is acceptable to the end user. Read More

    Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Orange County, California, and support for early regional strategies to limit spread.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Health Policy Research Institute, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA.
    Background: The east-to-west spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) represents an opportunity to explore strategies to limit spread in nonendemic areas. We evaluated CRE emergence and regional support for containment strategies.

    Methods: A 17-question cross-sectional survey was administered to infection prevention programs in Orange County, CA (31 hospitals serving 3 million residents), between January and September 2014. Read More

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