371,474 results match your criteria American Journal of Health Studies AJHS [Journal]


National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: current funding status, opportunities, challenges, emerging scientific advances, and recommendations for neurosurgery.

J Neurosurg 2020 Jul 3:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

3Department of Neurological Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.4.JNS201202DOI Listing

Outcomes in single-level posterior cervical spine surgeries performed in the sitting and prone positions.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Jul 3:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Departments of1Neurologic Surgery and.

Objective: The sitting or semisitting position in neurosurgery allows for several technical advantages, including improved visualization of the surgical field. However, it has also been associated with an increased risk of venous air embolisms and positioning-related complications that limit its commonplace adoption. The authors report a large, single-center series of cervical spine procedures performed with patients in the sitting or prone position in order to assess the perceived risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications associated with the sitting position. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.4.SPINE191323DOI Listing

Novel FEMASK-score, a histopathologic assessment for destructive Charcot neuropathic arthropathy, reveals intraneural vasculopathy and correlates with progression and best treatment.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2020 Mar 23;47:151509. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Penn State College of Medicine, Penn State Health, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hershey, PA, USA.

Background: Charcot neuropathic arthropathy is a debilitating, rapidly destructive degenerative joint disease that occurs in diabetic, neuropathic midfoot. Clinicoradiologic assessment for Charcot neuropathic arthropathy previously relied on Eichenholtz stage. There is limited histopathologic data on this entity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2020.151509DOI Listing

Pesticide prioritization approaches and limitations in environmental monitoring studies: From Europe to Latin America and the Caribbean.

Environ Int 2020 Jun 30;143:105917. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Chemical Engineering and Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Assessment and management of issues related to pesticide residues, such as environmental fate, monitoring and toxicity, are complex and, in many cases, require costly studies. The early establishment of a priority list of pesticides that should be monitored and assigned to a restricted-use policy is an important issue of post-registration Risk Assessment (RA). Various pesticide registration approaches have been adopted by different countries with those from Europe and the USA being the most popular, constituting the major prototypes for registration approaches in other countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105917DOI Listing

Spinal anesthesia in surgical treatment of lumbar spine tumors.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 Jun 20;196:106023. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Okan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: This study aims to show the feasibility of spinal anesthesia in lumbar spinal tumor surgery; share our data and experience.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective review of 14 patients with high risk for general anesthesia due to severe comorbidities was carried out. Patients who underwent surgeries under spinal anesthesia for lumbar vertebral column or spinal cord tumors at a single center between 2007-2019 were evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106023DOI Listing

Extended-release naltrexone versus buprenorphine-naloxone to treat opioid use disorder among black adults.

Addict Behav 2020 Jun 18;110:106514. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Dr., New York, NY 10032, United States.

Few studies examine the effectiveness of treatments for opioid use disorder (OUD) among Black individuals despite recent evidence suggesting opioid overdose death rates are, in some cases, highest and increasing at a faster rate among Black people compared to other racial/ethnic groups. This secondary analysis study investigated treatment preference, retention, and relapse rates amongst a subgroup of 73 Black participants with OUD (81% male, mean age 39.05, SD = 11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106514DOI Listing

Isolated limb perfusion for soft tissue sarcoma: Current practices and future directions. A survey of experts and a review of literature.

Cancer Treat Rev 2020 Jun 19;88:102058. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Sarcoma Unit, Department of Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Soft tissue sarcomas constitute 1% of adult malignant tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of more than 50 different histologic types. Isolated limb perfusion is an established treatment strategy for locally advanced sarcomas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2020.102058DOI Listing

The 5 and 11 Factor Modified Frailty Indices are Equally Effective at Outcome Prediction Using TQIP.

J Surg Res 2020 Jun 30;255:456-462. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Background: The 5-factor modified frailty index (mFI-5) and the 11-factor modified frailty index (mFI-11) are equally effective in predicting adverse outcomes in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. The similarly structured American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) database has not been studied with these two frailty indices. We hypothesized that the mFI-5 and mFI-11 could similarly predict adverse outcomes with TQIP data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.05.090DOI Listing

Association of Trauma Center Level and Patient Volume with Outcomes for Penetrating Thoracic Trauma.

J Surg Res 2020 Jun 30;255:442-448. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Trauma Service, Department of Surgery, Scripps Mercy Hospital, San Diego, California. Electronic address:

Background: We investigated the potential link between trauma center American College of Surgeons verification level and institutional volume of penetrating thoracic trauma with outcomes for patients with penetrating thoracic trauma.

Methods: Penetrating thoracic injuries were identified in the National Trauma Data Bank from 2013 to 2016. Primary exposures were trauma center American College of Surgeons verification level and annual penetrating trauma caseload by center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.05.089DOI Listing

Corrigendum to "Phylogeography of the Variable Antshrike (Thamnophilus caerulescens), a South American passerine distributed along multiple environmental gradients" [Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 148 (2020) 106810].

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2020 Jun 26;150:106890. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, 04263-000 Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2020.106890DOI Listing

Sleep and development in adolescence in the context of socioeconomic disadvantage.

J Adolesc 2020 Jun 30;83:1-11. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.

Introduction: Sleep problems are associated with negative developmental outcomes in youth, and identification of vulnerability and protective factors is needed to explicate for whom and under which conditions adolescents may be most at risk. Towards this end, we examined socio-economic status (SES) as a moderator of associations between multiple sleep parameters and adolescents' socio-emotional adjustment and cognitive functioning.

Methods: Participants were 272 adolescents (M age = 17. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2020.06.006DOI Listing

Differences in 30-day outcomes between inpatient and outpatient total elbow arthroplasty (TEA).

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: As the healthcare system in the United States shifts towards value-based care, there has been increased interest in performing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in the outpatient setting to optimize costs, outcomes, and patient satisfaction. Several studies have demonstrated success in performing ambulatory total knee and hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to compare short-term outcomes and complications following total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) across the inpatient and outpatient operative settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.06.009DOI Listing

Technologies and Computational Analysis Strategies for CRISPR Applications.

Mol Cell 2020 Jul;79(1):11-29

Molecular Pathology Unit, Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA; Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. Electronic address:

The CRISPR-Cas system offers a programmable platform for eukaryotic genome and epigenome editing. The ability to perform targeted genetic and epigenetic perturbations enables researchers to perform a variety of tasks, ranging from investigating questions in basic biology to potentially developing novel therapeutics for the treatment of disease. While CRISPR systems have been engineered to target DNA and RNA with increased precision, efficiency, and flexibility, assays to identify off-target editing are becoming more comprehensive and sensitive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.06.012DOI Listing

Anti-Inflammatory Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis to Improve Cardiovascular Outcome.

Can J Cardiol 2020 Mar 27. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Division of Cardiology, American University Hospital and American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.03.023DOI Listing

Integration of fungal diseases into health systems in Latin America.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections, 1208 Geneva, Switzerland; The National Aspergillosis Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30469-2DOI Listing

Medicare Reimbursement Trends for Facility Performed Otolaryngology Procedures: 2000-2019.

Laryngoscope 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Otolaryngology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A.

Objective: There is a paucity of data regarding financial trends for procedural reimbursements in otolaryngology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate monetary trends in Medicare reimbursement rates for the 20 most commonly billed otolaryngology procedures from 2000 to 2019.

Study Design: Analysis of physician reimbursement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28749DOI Listing

[Clinical characteristics and variant analysis of five pedigrees with hereditary spastic paraplegia].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2020 Jul;37(7):709-712

Department of Central Laboratory, the First Affiliated Hospital and College of Clinical Medicine of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471003, China.

Objective: To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of five pedigrees affected with hereditary spastic paraplegia(HSP).

Methods: Clinical data of the five pedigrees was collected, and high-throughput sequencing was carried out to detect potential variants. Sanger sequencing were used to verify the results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1003-9406.2020.07.002DOI Listing

Exercise during pregnancy: a comparative review of guidelines.

J Perinat Med 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Laboratory of Hygiene, Social & Preventive Medicine and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, Facutly of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Exercise during pregnancy may be beneficial provided that there are no contraindications. The aim of this study was to summarize and compare recommendations regarding exercise in pregnancy. Thus, a comparative descriptive review was conducted and included guidelines by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2019-0419DOI Listing

Nomenclature for kidney function and disease: executive summary and glossary from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) consensus conference.

Ren Fail 2020 Nov;42(1):560-566

Selzman Institute for Kidney Health, Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2020.1774957DOI Listing
November 2020

Pathogenicity of clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in American kestrel ().

Avian Pathol 2020 Jul 3:1-14. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Birds of prey, including endangered species, have been infected with H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in several countries. In this present study, we assessed the pathogenicity of the clade 2.3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2020.1787337DOI Listing

Should We Be Screening for SARS-CoV-2 in IBD Patients Before Initiation of Biologic Therapy?

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic, OH, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izaa173DOI Listing

Patient-Reported Outcome Measures and Health-Related Quality-of-Life Scores of Patients Undergoing Anatomic Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020 Jul;102(13):1186-1193

Division of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (E.S.P. and A.G.), Department of Orthopedic Surgery (S.S.J. and S.F.D.), Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Background: Health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) scores are required for cost-effectiveness and health-care value analysis. We evaluated HRQoL scores and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients with advanced glenohumeral osteoarthritis treated with anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty to establish values of HRQoL scores that can be used for cost-effectiveness and value analysis and to assess relationships between HRQoL scores and shoulder and upper-extremity PROMs.

Methods: We analyzed 143 patients (143 shoulders) with glenohumeral osteoarthritis treated with anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty; 92 patients had 1-year follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.00402DOI Listing

Comparative Time to Improvement in Nonoperative and Operative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020 Jul;102(13):1142-1150

Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (A.S. and N.B.J.), Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation (N.B.J. and J.E.K.), and Biostatistics (J.D. and G.D.A.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Background: Comparative time to recovery after operative and nonoperative treatment for rotator cuff tears is an important consideration for patients. Hence, we compared the time to achieve clinically meaningful reduction in shoulder pain and function after treatment.

Methods: From February 2011 to June 2015, a multicenter cohort of patients with rotator cuff tears undergoing operative or nonoperative treatment was recruited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.19.01112DOI Listing

Treatment of Status Epilepticus: What Are the Guidelines and Are We Following Them?

Neurologist 2020 Jul;25(4):89-92

Department of Neurology Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ.

Objectives: Status epilepticus (SE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The American Epilepsy Society (AES) has established guidelines regarding proper dosing of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). There are also recommendations for appropriate weaning off anesthetic agents in SE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NRL.0000000000000281DOI Listing

A Rare Case of Non-Traumatic Thoracic Compression Fracture In A 28-Year-Old Male.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Resident, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical College of Wisconsin. Address: 9200 W. Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53226 Chair and Professor of the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical College of Wisconsin. Address: 9200 W. Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53226 Disclosures: None Funding: No funding was received for this study.

A 28-year-old African American male with a history of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome, tobacco use, and sickle cell trait was referred to a physiatrist at a multidisciplinary spine center with a one-year history of non-traumatic thoracic back pain that had significantly worsened over the prior four weeks. In the context of recurrent infections requiring hospital admissions and the patient's immunosuppressed status, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of his thoracic spine was obtained, showing an acute or subacute anterior compression deformity of the T7 vertebral body. He was subsequently provided with a hyperextension brace, physical therapy (PT) referral, and a trial of intranasal calcitonin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000001513DOI Listing

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection-Induced Chilblains: A Brisk Perieccrine Inflammatory Response.

Am J Dermatopathol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

American Dermatopathology Laboratory, Centerville, OH.

The varying cutaneous and pathological manifestations of coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) may have prognostic implications. Acral ischemic findings present with a hypercoagulable state in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Pathologically confirmed varicella-like exanthem and perniosis COVID-19 cases have correlated with paucisymptomatic and asymptomatic patients in previous reports. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000001733DOI Listing

Goals of Treatment for Improved Survival in Primary Biliary Cholangitis: Treatment Target Should Be Bilirubin Within the Normal Range and Normalization of Alkaline Phosphatase.

Am J Gastroenterol 2020 Jul;115(7):1066-1074

Toronto Centre for Liver Disease, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: In primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are widely established as independent predictors of prognosis. Current treatment goals do not aim for normalization of surrogate markers because their association with survival has not been defined.

Methods: The patient cohort from the GLOBAL PBC Study Group was used, comprising of long-term follow-up data from European and North American centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000557DOI Listing
July 2020
10.755 Impact Factor

Reevaluating Goals of Therapy in Primary Biliary Cholangitis: Is Good Enough Is Not Good Enough Anymore?

Am J Gastroenterol 2020 Jul;115(7):1024-1025

Division of Organ Transplant, Department of Medicine, Scripps Green Hospital, La Jolla, California, USA.

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune-mediated inflammatory cholestatic liver disease, which can progress to cirrhosis. This issue of The American Journal of Gastroenterology features the results of the GLOBAL PBC Study Group evaluating patients with PBC over a 10-year period. Although biochemical response was evaluated in previous studies, this study showed that bilirubin levels ≤0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000693DOI Listing

Emergency Surgery in Urology during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Int Braz J Urol 2020 Jun 17;46. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

"Los Olivos" Clinic Urology Service, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Proposal: To highlight the indications for emergency surgery during the 2019 Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) that support recommendations published in mid-March 2020 by the American Confederation of Urology on its website.

Materials And Methods: A bibliographic search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane Library to perform a non-systematic review, using key words: Urology, Emergency and COVID-19, to determine recommendations for patients that should receive emergency care due to urological pathology.

Results: The main recommendations and protocols in the management of different urological emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic are reviewed and discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2020.S125DOI Listing

Exploring Urological Experience in the COVID-19 Outbreak: American Confederation of Urology (CAU) Survey.

Int Braz J Urol 2020 Jun 10;46. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Urology, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester New York, US.

Purpose: To explore the current situation faced by Latin American urology departments during the COVID-19 Outbreak in terms of knowledge, actions, prioritization of urology practices, and implementation of internal clinical management protocols for inpatients and outpatients.

Material And Methods: A non-validated, structured, self-administered, electronic survey with 35 closed multiple choice questions was conducted in Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and English and Deutsch versions from April 1st to April 30th, 2020. The survey was distributed through social networks and the official American Confederation of Urology (CAU) website. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2020.S119DOI Listing

Is the Quality of Toothache-Related Information Published in Brazilian Websites Adequate to Assist People in Seeking Dental Treatment?

Oral Health Prev Dent 2020 Apr 1;18(2):301-309. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the readability and the quality of toothache-related information found in Brazilian websites.

Materials And Methods: Fifty-five websites retrieved from Google Search, Baidu, Yahoo! and Bing were evaluated by two independent examiners using the DISCERN questionnaire, the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria and the Flesch Reading Ease adapted to Brazilian Portuguese (FRE-BP). Additionally, the websites were categorised according to their information, adopting four criteria related to: (i) endodontic pain, (ii) toothache relief or treatment, (iii) the self-resolution of pain, and (iv) the promotion of home remedies usage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.ohpd.a44142DOI Listing

Hemoglobin A and fructosamine correlate in a patient with sickle cell disease and diabetes on chronic transfusion therapy.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 Jul 3:e28499. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and diabetes mellitus (DM), hemoglobin A (HbA ) is unreliable and the American Diabetes Association recommends monitoring long-term glycemia by measuring serum glucose, but use of serum fructosamine (SF), a measurement independent of red cell lifespan, has been reported. SF as a screen for DM in SCD, however, is not standardized and its relationship to serum glucose has not been validated. Further, screening for DM was not adequately addressed in the 2014 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) guidelines for SCD management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28499DOI Listing

Growing into "Us": Trajectories of Social Identification with College Sport Teams Predict Subjective Well-Being.

Appl Psychol Health Well Being 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Background: Groups are often a source of social identification that may elicit subjective well-being. When joining and maintaining membership of groups such as sport clubs, it is anticipated that members will experience varying trajectories of identification strength, but it is unclear how these trajectories may relate to well-being.

Method: Participants were 697 college students (64% female), nested within 35 club-level sport teams. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12207DOI Listing

ACC.20: Impact of social media at the virtual scientific sessions during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Clin Cardiol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Division of Cardiology, University of Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to the American College of Cardiology (ACC) Annual Scientific Session 2020 (ACC.20) being held as a virtual event.

Hypothesis: Social media activity around a virtual event might be quite different to that of a physical meeting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23387DOI Listing

Seroprevalence of Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Antibodies among Children in Haiti, 2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

In Haiti, measles, rubella, and maternal and neonatal tetanus have been eliminated, but a diphtheria outbreak is ongoing as of 2019. We conducted a national representative, household-based, two-stage cluster survey among children aged 5-7 years in 2017 to assess progress toward maintenance of control and elimination of selected vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). We stratified Haiti into west region (west department, including the capital city) and non-west region (all other departments). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0112DOI Listing

Outcomes of a Provincial Myocardial Infarction Reperfusion Strategy: A Population-Based, Retrospective Cohort Study.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2020 Jul 3:1-5. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Nova Scotia Health Authority, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Background: Fibrinolysis is an acceptable treatment for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cannot be performed within 120 minutes. The American Heart Association has recommended Emergency Medical Services (EMS) interventions such as prehospital fibrinolysis (PHF), prehospital electrocardiogram (ECG), and hospital bypass direct to PCI center. Nova Scotia, Canada has incorporated these interventions into a unique province-wide approach to STEMI care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X20000801DOI Listing

Toxicology Paradise: Sorting Out Adverse and Non-adverse Findings in Animal Toxicity Studies.

Int J Toxicol 2020 Jul 3:1091581820935089. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

MHRA, London, UK.

A challenge for all toxicologists is defining what study findings are actually adverse versus non-adverse in animal toxicity studies, and which ones are relevant for generating a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) to assess human risk. This article presents views on this challenge presented by toxicologists, toxicologic pathologists, and regulatory reviewers at the 2019 annual meeting of the American College of Toxicology during a workshop entitled "Toxicology Paradise: Sorting Out Adverse and Non-adverse Findings." The speakers noted that setting a NOAEL is not always straightforward, not only for small molecules but also for biopharmaceuticals, and that a "weight of evidence" approach often is more useful than a rigid threshold-setting algorithm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1091581820935089DOI Listing

Sociodemographic Factors That Influence the Choice to Pursue Nasoalveolar Molding: One Pediatric Hospital's Experience.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2020 Jul 3:1055665620936056. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objective: To identify demographic factors that influence choosing nasoalveolar molding (NAM) in the treatment of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P), and NAM treatment compliance.

Design: This work is a retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Tertiary pediatric hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1055665620936056DOI Listing

The Use of a Synthetic Cartilage Implant for Hallux Rigidus: A Systematic Review.

Foot Ankle Spec 2020 Jul 3:1938640020937160. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Florida, Weston, Florida (NAS).

Hallux rigidus is a common pathology afflicting the foot, for which various joint salvage techniques have been described with a multitude of different implants. Recently, a synthetic cartilage implant composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) received FDA premarket approval for the treatment of arthritis of the great toe. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically review the clinical evidence supporting the use of a PVA implant in hallux rigidus and (2) determine the strength of the recommendation that can be made supporting the use of a PVA implant by evaluating the quality of evidence available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1938640020937160DOI Listing

Reference charts for body composition parameters by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in European children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years-Results from the Austrian LEAD (Lung, hEart, sociAl, boDy) cohort.

Pediatr Obes 2020 Jul 2:e12695. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for COPD and Respiratory Epidemiology, Vienna, Austria.

Background: DXA is a widely used technique to assess body composition. Reference values based on a large general population cohort of European children and adolescents were missing. The aim of this study was to provide age- and sex-specific reference percentiles of body composition parameters for European children and adolescents and to compare them to the American NHANES cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12695DOI Listing

Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients in an Underserved-Inner City Population: A Single Tertiary Center Cohort.

J Med Virol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Medicine, Einstein Medical Center Philadelphia.

Background: There is limited information describing the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) especially those in underserved urban area with minority population in the United States.

Methods: This is a retrospective single center study for patients who were admitted with COVID-19 infection. Data collection was from March 1 through April 24,2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26252DOI Listing

Hollywood experts: A field analysis of knowledge production in American entertainment television.

Authors:
Arsenii Khitrov

Br J Sociol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Sociology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

How can we make sense of numerous instances of experts in politics, law enforcement, national security, military defense, fire arms, public health, culture, and history working closely with creators of scripted television series in the USA today? Why do TV makers need them? Why and how do these experts come to Hollywood? In order to answer these questions, I carried out a Bourdieusian field analysis of contemporary American TV series production, with a focus on how knowledge about political and social issues is produced and used in the TV industry. I identify four major expertise providers-the state, social movements, research organizations, and independent experts-and build a macro model of expertise exchange in the field of Hollywood TV. I argue that expertise in Hollywood is a form of capital which Hollywood professionals exchange for symbolic capital within the industry and in the field of power; it is also a form of capital that agents of the state, social movements, and research organizations exchange for symbolic capital in the field of power; and finally, independent experts trade their knowledge to accumulate economic and symbolic capital within the industry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12775DOI Listing

Neighborhood Ethnic Composition and Self-rated Health Among Chinese and Vietnamese American Immigrants.

J Immigr Minor Health 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Immigrants tend to live in areas with higher co-ethnic density, and the effect of neighborhood ethnic composition could be particularly salient for health. This study explored associations between neighborhood ethnic composition and self-rated health among Asian immigrants. We analyzed data collected at baseline from 670 Chinese and Vietnamese immigrants enrolled in a lifestyle intervention trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10903-020-01041-2DOI Listing

A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, phase II study to evaluate the efficacy of ginseng in reducing fatigue in patients treated for head and neck cancer.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Head and Neck Medical Oncology - Fondazione, IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano and University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: Fatigue is a distressing symptom in head & neck cancer patients before during and at the end of curative therapy. Pharmacologic and not pharmacologic treatments have been proposed with scarce or no evidence of efficacy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of American ginseng in respect to placebo in reducing fatigue in patients treated for head and neck cancer with curative intent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-020-03300-zDOI Listing

Early Colectomy Saves Lives in Toxic Megacolon Due to Infection.

South Med J 2020 Jul;113(7):345-349

From the Division of Trauma & Surgical Critical Care and the Department of Research Administration, Jersey Shore University Medical Center, Neptune, New Jersey.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether early colectomy in patients who have toxic megacolon due to colitis reduces mortality.

Methods: The study was performed using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2012 to 2016. All patients 18 to 89 years of age who underwent colectomy for toxic megacolon resulting from colitis were included in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14423/SMJ.0000000000001118DOI Listing

Acknowledging and Addressing COVID-19 Health Disparities in the American South.

South Med J 2020 Jul;113(7):325

Department of Health Promotion, Education and Behavior University of South Carolina Columbia, SC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14423/SMJ.0000000000001108DOI Listing

A brief history of FASEB and its programs and activities.

FASEB Bioadv 2020 Jun 12;2(6):331-338. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Physiology & Biophysics School of Medicine University of California Irvine CA USA.

The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) was formed in 1912 to serve the needs of its four charter societies. Its growth, from these organizations with a little more than 300 members to nearly 30 societies with over 100 000 members, is a tribute to its ability to respond to the changing structure and needs of the experimental biology community. The Federation began as a loosely constructed, single-purpose organization established to facilitate the coordination of the annual meeting of its four member societies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fba.2020-00009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325587PMC

Emergency room endotracheal intubation in children with bronchiolitis: A cohort study using a multicenter database.

Health Sci Rep 2020 Sep 30;3(3):e169. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital Cleveland Ohio.

Background And Aims: Bronchiolitis and asthma have a clinical overlap, and it has been shown that pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients with asthma undergoing endotracheal intubation in a community hospital emergency room (ER) have a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and PICU length of stay (LOS) vs children undergoing intubation in a children's hospital. We aimed to determine if the setting of intubation (community vs children's hospital ER) is associated with the duration of MV and PICU LOS among children with bronchiolitis.

Methods: With IRB approval, data in the Virtual Pediatric Systems (VPS, LLC) database were queried for bronchiolitis patients <24 months of age admitted to one of 103 predominantly North American PICUs between 1/2009 and 1/2016 who had an endotracheal tube in place at PICU admission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325424PMC
September 2020