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    339 results match your criteria American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy[Journal]

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    Atypical antipsychotic use and parkinsonism in dementia: effects of drug, dose, and sex.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Dec;10(6):381-9
    Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: Differences between atypical antipsychotics in their potential to cause parkinsonism and risk factors for antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism are not well established. There is a particular paucity of information on this in real-world use of these drugs, outside of clinical trial settings.

    Objective: We compared the incidence of parkinsonism after new treatment with risperidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine in patients with dementia and examined the effects of dose and sex on the risk of parkinsonism. Read More

    Use of rivastigmine or galantamine and risk of adverse cardiac events: a database study from the Netherlands.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Dec;10(6):373-80
    Centre d'excellence sur le vieillissement de Québec, Centre de recherche FRQ-S du CHU universitaire de Québec, Québec, Canada.
    Background: Two cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), rivastigmine and galantamine, are used to treat Alzheimer disease in the Netherlands. Several adverse cardiac events have been reported for these medications.

    Objective: We aimed to assess if the use of ChEIs increased the risk of cardiac events in the Netherlands. Read More

    Use of warfarin therapy among residents who developed venous thromboembolism in the nursing home.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Dec;10(6):361-72
    Informagenics, LLC, Worthington, OH 43085, USA.
    Background: Treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in long-term care (LTC) settings has received little empirical study.

    Objective: Among residents with VTE in nursing homes, this analysis evaluated frequency of anticoagulant use, the proportion of residents newly started on warfarin who persisted on therapy (≥3 months), and the association of key resident characteristics, including bleeding risk, with warfarin use and persistence.

    Methods: Using the AnalytiCare LTC database (US), eligible residents had deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism coded in the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 2. Read More

    Warfarin-antibiotic interactions in older adults of an outpatient anticoagulation clinic.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Dec 22;10(6):352-60. Epub 2012 Oct 22.
    Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Program, Department of Pharmacotherapy and Outcomes Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.
    Background: Several classes of drugs, such as antibiotics, may interact with warfarin to cause an increase in warfarins anticoagulant activity and the clinical relevance of warfarin-antibiotic interactions in older adults is not clear.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral antibiotics, such as amoxicillin, azithromycin, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin, on the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients ≥65 years on stable warfarin therapy. The secondary objective was to compare the effect of warfarin-antibiotic interactions on outcomes of overanticoagulation. Read More

    Effect of combination fluticasone propionate and salmeterol or inhaled corticosteroids on asthma-related outcomes in a Medicare-eligible population.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Dec 17;10(6):343-51. Epub 2012 Oct 17.
    GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
    Background: National asthma treatment guidelines recommend either the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or ICS in combination with a long-acting bronchodilator for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma. Even though asthma is common among older adults, few studies have assessed the differences in effectiveness between these two recommended therapies in patients over 65 years of age.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the association of the fluticasone-salmeterol combination (FSC) or ICS initiation on asthma-related events in Medicare-eligible asthma patients. Read More

    Dementia and risk of adverse warfarin-related events in the nursing home setting.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Oct;10(5):323-30
    University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
    Background: Little attention has been focused on the safety of medications administered to treat non illnesses in nursing home residents with dementia. It is unclear whether this population is at increased risk of adverse drug events.

    Objectives: To test the hypotheses that in nursing home residents with dementia prescribed warfarin have less time in therapeutic range and a higher incidence of nonpreventable and preventable adverse warfarin events compared to nursing home residents without dementia after controlling for facility and patient characteristics. Read More

    The effect of statins on acute and long-term outcome after ischemic stroke in the elderly.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Oct;10(5):313-22
    The Stroke Unit, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Background: Although treatment with statins has produced beneficial effects when used as secondary prevention, its primary protective role is still somewhat controversial. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of statins in older patients with stroke.

    Objective: The aim was to investigate whether treatment with statins decreases stroke severity and/or improves survival and outcome after stroke in an older population. Read More

    Racial and ethnic disparities in Alzheimer's disease pharmacotherapy exposure: an analysis across four state Medicaid populations.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Oct;10(5):303-12
    College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
    Background: Treatment disparities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have received little attention. Determining whether disparities exist in this subpopulation is an important health policy issue.

    Objective: The aim was to determine whether an association existed between race/ethnicity and exposure to AD pharmacotherapy across 4 state Medicaid populations. Read More

    Adverse effects of analgesics commonly used by older adults with osteoarthritis: focus on non-opioid and opioid analgesics.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Dec 2;10(6):331-42. Epub 2012 Oct 2.
    Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of disability in older adults, and although analgesic use can be helpful, it can also result in adverse drug events.

    Objective: To review the recent literature to describe potential adverse drug events associated with analgesics commonly used by older adults with OA.

    Methods: To identify articles for this review, a systematic search of the English-language literature from January 2001 to June 2012 was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for publications related to the medical management of OA. Read More

    Caregiver assistance among Medicare beneficiaries with atrial fibrillation and factors associated with anticoagulant treatment.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Oct 12;10(5):273-83. Epub 2012 Sep 12.
    United BioSource Corporation, Lexington, MA, USA.
    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and disproportionately affects the elderly.

    Objective: This study describes patient characteristics and caregiver assistance among Medicare beneficiaries with AF and examines factors associated with receiving anticoagulant treatment.

    Methods: Patients with AF and age/gender-matched controls were identified from Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey data from 2001 to 2006. Read More

    Medication discrepancy and potentially inappropriate medication in older Chinese-American home-care patients after hospital discharge.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Oct 1;10(5):284-95. Epub 2012 Sep 1.
    New York University College of Nursing, New York, NY 10003, USA.
    Background: Studies of potential medication problems among older adults have focused on English-speaking populations in a single health care setting or a single potential medication problem. No previous studies investigated potential inappropriate medications (PIMs) and medication discrepancies (MDs) among older Chinese Americans during care transitions from hospital discharge to home care.

    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine, in older Chinese Americans, the prevalence of both PIMs and MDs; the relationship between PIMs and MDs; and the patient and hospitalization characteristics associated with them during care transitions from hospital discharge to home care. Read More

    The effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on cognition in patients with Alzheimer's dementia: a prospective withdrawal and rechallenge pilot study.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Oct 22;10(5):296-302. Epub 2012 Aug 22.
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Central Arkansas Veterans Health Administration System, Little Rock, AR, USA.
    Background: Statins are well-known for their cardiovascular benefits. However, the cognitive effects of statins are not well understood. We hypothesized that individuals with preexisting dementia would be more vulnerable to statin-related cognitive effects. Read More

    Pharmacist- versus physician-initiated admission medication reconciliation: impact on adverse drug events.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Aug 20;10(4):242-50. Epub 2012 Jul 20.
    Department of Pharmacy, Veterans Affairs Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, USA.
    Background: Medication reconciliation (MR) has proven to be a problematic task for many hospitals to accomplish. It is important to know the clinical impact of physician- versus pharmacist-initiated MR in the resource-limited hospital environment.

    Methods: This quasi-experimental study took place from December 2005 to February 2006 at an urban US Veterans Affairs hospital. Read More

    Anticholinergic drugs and functional outcomes in older patients undergoing orthopaedic rehabilitation.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Aug 13;10(4):251-7. Epub 2012 Jul 13.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Woodend Hospital, NHS Grampian, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
    Background: Medications with anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) effects negatively affect physical and cognitive function in community-dwelling older patients. However, it is unknown if anticholinergic drugs exert detrimental effects in older patients undergoing rehabilitation.

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to assess the effect of anticholinergic drug exposure on functional outcomes in older patients undergoing rehabilitation. Read More

    Looking beyond polypharmacy: quantification of medication regimen complexity in the elderly.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Aug 29;10(4):223-9. Epub 2012 Jun 29.
    Pharmacy Services, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Petach Tikvah, Israel.
    Background: Polypharmacy has been shown to influence outcomes in elderly patients. However, the impact of medication regimen complexity, quantified by the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI), on health outcomes after discharge of elderly patients has not been studied.

    Objective: Our aim was to test the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the MRCI in older hospitalized patients with varying functional and cognitive levels. Read More

    The impact of family caregivers on potentially inappropriate medication use in noninstitutionalized older adults with dementia.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Aug 9;10(4):230-41. Epub 2012 Jun 9.
    VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Background: The risk of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM), both prescription and over-the-counter, use in dementia patients is high. Informal caregivers often facilitate patients' use of medications, but the effect of caregiver factors on PIM use has not been a focus of previous research.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine PIM use in dementia patients and caregivers and identify caregiver risk factors for PIM use in dementia patients. Read More

    FDA drug safety communications: a narrative review and clinical considerations for older adults.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Aug 8;10(4):264-71. Epub 2012 Jun 8.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Background: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has new regulatory authorities intended to enhance drug safety monitoring in the postmarketing period. This has resulted in an increase in communication from the FDA in recent years about the safety profile of certain drugs. It is important to stay abreast of the current literature on drug risks to effectively communicate these risks to patients, other health care providers, and the general public. Read More

    A year in review: new drugs for older adults in 2011.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Aug 8;10(4):258-63. Epub 2012 Jun 8.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
    Background: New drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may offer tremendous clinical advances by providing health care providers with new treatment strategies. However, additional care must be taken for safe and effective use of these new agents by older adults.

    Objective: Our objective was to identify FDA-approved medications in 2011 most likely to be prescribed to older adults, and to describe medication characteristics that may require special attention in this population. Read More

    Medication adherence in older adults with cognitive impairment: a systematic evidence-based review.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Jun;10(3):165-77
    Department of Pharmacy Practice, Purdue University College of Pharmacy, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.
    Background: Cognitive impairment challenges the ability to adhere to the complex medication regimens needed to treat multiple medical problems in older adults.

    Objective: Our aim was to conduct a systematic evidence-based review to identify barriers to medication adherence in cognitively impaired older adults and interventions aimed at improving medication adherence.

    Methods: A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, GoogleDocs, and CINAHL for articles published between 1966 and February 29, 2012 was performed. Read More

    Influence of patient age and comorbid burden on clinician attitudes toward heart failure guidelines.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Jun 12;10(3):211-8. Epub 2012 May 12.
    Health Services Research and Development Research Enhancement Award Program, San Francisco VA Medical Center, California, USA.
    Background: Clinical practice guidelines have been criticized for insufficient attention to the unique needs of patients of advanced age and with multiple comorbid conditions. However, little empiric research is available to inform this topic.

    Methods: We conducted telephone interviews with staff physicians and nurse practitioners in 4 VA health care systems. Read More

    Effects of oral bisphosphonate therapy on serum calcium in elderly veterans with poor kidney function.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Jun 27;10(3):178-84. Epub 2012 Apr 27.
    Saint Louis College of Pharmacy, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
    Background: Limited data exist on the use of bisphosphonates in patients with poor kidney function due to a contraindication derived from inadequate experience among patients with kidney failure, accounting for as much as 25% of nonprescribing when otherwise appropriate.

    Objectives: To determine whether bisphosphonate use in patients with decreased renal function, as outlined in the package insert (estimated creatinine clearance [eCrCl] <35 mL/min), would result in higher rates of hypocalcemia, as suggested in previous studies.

    Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of elderly veterans 65 years of age and older at the Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System in Dallas, Texas. Read More

    The greater sensitivity of elderly APOE ε4 carriers to anticholinergic medications is independent of cerebrovascular disease risk.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Jun 24;10(3):185-92. Epub 2012 Apr 24.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Background: Recent studies found use of anticholinergic medications to be associated with greater performance decrements in older persons who carry an ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene than in those carrying only ε2 or ε3 alleles.

    Objectives: The present study examined whether the apparently greater behavioral toxicity of anticholinergic drugs in ε4 carriers may result from an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, which is more common in ε4 carriers.

    Methods: Cross-sectional data were available from 240 elderly community volunteers who had participated in 2 different studies of the cognitive and motor effects of normal aging. Read More

    Association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease maintenance medication adherence with all-cause hospitalization and spending in a Medicare population.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Jun 21;10(3):201-10. Epub 2012 Apr 21.
    Peter Lamy Center on Drug Therapy and Aging, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, USA.
    Background: Although maintenance medications are a cornerstone of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management, adherence remains suboptimal. Poor medication adherence is implicated in poor outcomes with other chronic conditions; however, little is understood regarding links between adherence and outcomes in COPD patients.

    Objective: This study investigates the association of COPD maintenance medication adherence with hospitalization and health care spending. Read More

    Case report: Post-traumatic memories triggered by donepezil in a dose-dependent pattern.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Jun 22;10(3):219-22. Epub 2012 Mar 22.
    Albany Medical College, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Alden March Bioethics Institute, New York, USA.
    Background: This case report describes a new adverse drug event due to use of donepezil in a patient with probable Alzheimer's Disease.

    Case Summary: While receiving a 10-mg dose of donepezil nightly, an 87-year old veteran of World War II experienced irrepressible memories of a kamikaze strike. This symptom did not occur at a 5-mg dose of donepezil and resolved with downward titration of this agent. Read More

    Differences in lithium use patterns in the Netherlands: comparing middle-aged and older patients in a database study.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Jun 13;10(3):193-200. Epub 2012 Mar 13.
    Department of Geriatrics, Harbour Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background: Age-dependent changes in lithium pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties can influence lithium use in an aging population, especially as newer treatment options are available.

    Objective: We compared lithium use patterns between middle-aged and elderly outpatients in the Netherlands.

    Methods: Data for this study were obtained from the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System. Read More

    Role of the pharmacist on a general medicine acute care for the elderly unit.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Apr 2;10(2):95-100. Epub 2012 Mar 2.
    Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.
    Background: The prevalence of prescription medication use increases with age, and older adults are at increased risk of harm from medication use.

    Objective: To describe the role of a pharmacist on a General Medicine Acute Care of the Elderly (GM-ACE) Unit.

    Methods: A job description was prepared, and a clinical pharmacist specializing in internal medicine was re-assigned to participate in multidisciplinary rounds on the ACE unit twice weekly and to work with a unit-based pharmacist assigned to multiple units. Read More

    Polypharmacy with common diseases in hospitalized elderly patients.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Apr 3;10(2):123-8. Epub 2012 Mar 3.
    Department of Pharmacy, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi, Japan.
    Background: Elderly persons are exposed to polypharmacy because of multiple chronic conditions. Many risk factors for polypharmacy have been identified including age, race/ethnicity, sex, educational achievement level, health status, and number of chronic diseases. However, drugs prescribed for individual diseases have not been analyzed. Read More

    Clinical challenges in a patient with dabigatran-induced fatal hemorrhage.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Apr 3;10(2):160-3. Epub 2012 Mar 3.
    Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA.
    Objective: To report clinical challenges in managing dabigatran-induced bleeding.

    Methods: A 78-year-old woman came to the hospital with severe coagulopathy, respiratory failure, hypotension, and bleeding secondary to dabigatran therapy. At admission, creatinine clearance was 15 mL/min; prothrombin time, 147. Read More

    Risk of falls and fractures in older adults using atypical antipsychotic agents: a propensity score-adjusted, retrospective cohort study.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Apr 10;10(2):83-94. Epub 2012 Feb 10.
    Department of Clinical Sciences and Administration, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Background: Atypical antipsychotic agents are extensively prescribed in the elderly to treat various behavioral and psychiatric disorders. Past literature has documented an increased risk of falls and factures with the use of risperidone and olanzapine compared with nonuse. However, none of the studies assessed the comparative safety profiles of atypical agents with respect to falls and fractures. Read More

    Applicability of an adapted medication appropriateness index for detection of drug-related problems in geriatric inpatients.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Apr 1;10(2):101-9. Epub 2012 Feb 1.
    Department of Pharmacy, Ghent University Hospital, Gent, Belgium.
    Background: High drug consumption by older patients and the presence of many drug-related problems require careful assessment of drug therapy, for which a structured approach is recommended.

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the applicability of an adapted version of the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) in 50 geriatric inpatients at the time of admission.

    Methods: We reviewed, for 432 prescribed drugs, indication, right choice, dosage, directions, drug-disease interactions, drug-drug interactions, and duration of therapy. Read More

    Age-related changes in antidepressant pharmacokinetics and potential drug-drug interactions: a comparison of evidence-based literature and package insert information.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Apr 27;10(2):139-50. Epub 2012 Jan 27.
    Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Background: Antidepressants are among the most commonly prescribed psychotropic agents for older patients. Little is known about the best source of pharmacotherapy information to consult about key factors necessary to safely prescribe these medications to older patients.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to synthesize and contrast information in the package insert (PI) with information found in the scientific literature about age-related changes of antidepressants in systemic clearance and potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Read More

    Design of a medication therapy management program for Medicare beneficiaries: qualitative findings from patients and physicians.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Apr 27;10(2):129-38. Epub 2012 Jan 27.
    Division of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Background: The quality of pharmacologic care provided to older adults is less than optimal. Medication therapy management (MTM) programs delivered to older adults in the ambulatory care setting may improve the quality of medication use for these individuals.

    Objectives: We conducted focus groups with older adults and primary care physicians to explore (1) older adults' experiences working with a clinical pharmacist in managing medications, (2) physician perspectives on the role of clinical pharmacists in facilitating medication management, and (3) key attributes of an effective MTM program and potential barriers from patient and provider perspectives. Read More

    Complexity of medication use in newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Apr 26;10(2):110-122.e1. Epub 2012 Jan 26.
    Center for Pharmacoeconomic Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    Background: To better understand how medications have been used and the complexity of regimens used to treat patients, we characterized patterns of medication use and the degree to which patients used different classes of medications in combination and over time in a cohort of newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to characterize patterns of medication use, including the degree to which patients used different classes of medications in combination and over time within a cohort of newly diagnosed COPD patients and to identify the proportion of patients who had gaps in filling their prescriptions.

    Methods: We identified a cohort of patients from the Veterans Affairs health care system with newly diagnosed COPD between 1999 and 2003. Read More

    Challenge of changing nursing home prescribing culture.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Feb 20;10(1):37-46. Epub 2012 Jan 20.
    Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.
    This article described a framework for improving prescribing in nursing homes (NH) by focusing on the whole facility as a system that has created a "prescribing culture." We offered this paradigm as an alternative to focused interventions that target prescribers only. We used the example of atypical antipsychotics to illustrate the approach. Read More

    The effect of dementia on medication use and adherence among Medicare beneficiaries with chronic heart failure.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Feb 20;10(1):69-80. Epub 2012 Jan 20.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Background: Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) are prevalent in older adults, increase the costs of chronic heart failure (CHF) management, and may be associated with undertreatment of cardiovascular disease.

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between comorbid ADRD and CHF medication use and adherence among Medicare beneficiaries with CHF.

    Methods: This 2-year (1/1/2006-12/31/2007) cross-sectional study used data from the Chronic Condition Data Warehouse of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Read More

    Medication adherence among geriatric outpatients prescribed multiple medications.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Feb 20;10(1):61-8. Epub 2012 Jan 20.
    Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Background: Poor medication adherence (PMA) is associated with higher risks of morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality. Polypharmacy is not only a determinant of PMA but is also associated with many adverse health outcomes.

    Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of PMA in an older population with polypharmacy. Read More

    Tolerability of topical diclofenac sodium 1% gel for osteoarthritis in seniors and patients with comorbidities.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Feb 20;10(1):47-60. Epub 2012 Jan 20.
    Center for Rheumatology and Bone Research, a division of Arthritis and Rheumatism Associates, PC, Wheaton, Maryland, USA.
    Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with a dose-related risk of cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs). Topical NSAIDs produce lower systemic NSAID exposure compared with oral NSAIDs, offering potential benefits.

    Objective: To evaluate the safety of topical diclofenac sodium 1% gel (DSG) for knee and hand osteoarthritis (OA) in older and younger patients and in patients with versus without comorbid hypertension, type 2 diabetes, or cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease. Read More

    Clostridium difficile infection in older adults: a review and update on its management.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Feb 20;10(1):14-24. Epub 2012 Jan 20.
    Iowa Drug Information Service, University of Iowa College of Pharmacy, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
    Background: Clostridium difficile is a main cause of health care-associated infections. The incidence and severity have been increasing. Elderly persons are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from C. Read More

    Warfarin use in nursing home residents: results from the 2004 national nursing home survey.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2012 Feb 9;10(1):25-36.e2. Epub 2012 Jan 9.
    Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Program, Department of Pharmacotherapy and Outcomes Science, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.
    Background: Practice guidelines recommend anticoagulation therapy with warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Despite this, warfarin is underused in older adults.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of AF in nursing home (NH) residents and the use of warfarin or other antiplatelet medications in NH residents with AF who have indications for and no contraindications against warfarin use. Read More

    Potentially harmful drug-drug interactions in the elderly: a review.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2011 Dec 11;9(6):364-77. Epub 2011 Nov 11.
    Center for Health Outcomes and PharmacoEconomic Research, University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson, USA.
    Background: Elderly patients are vulnerable to drug interactions because of age-related physiologic changes, an increased risk for disease associated with aging, and the consequent increase in medication use.

    Objective: The purpose of this narrative review was to describe findings from rigorously designed observational cohort and case-control studies that have assessed specific drug interactions in elderly patients.

    Methods: The PubMed and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases were searched for studies published in English over the past 10 years (December 2000-December 2010) using relevant Medical Subject Headings terms (aged; aged, 80 and over; and drug interactions) and search terms (drug interaction and elderly). Read More

    Medication errors during patient transitions into nursing homes: characteristics and association with patient harm.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2011 Dec 13;9(6):413-22. Epub 2011 Nov 13.
    Division of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Background: Patients transitioning to a nursing home from their home or other facility are at high risk for medication errors.

    Objective: Our aim was to describe characteristics of medication errors occurring during transitions to nursing homes, to compare characteristics of transition errors with errors not involving a transition, and to evaluate the impact of these errors on patient harm.

    Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of individual medication error incidents reported by North Carolina nursing homes to the Medication Error Quality Initiative during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. Read More

    Medication use and functional status decline in older adults: a narrative review.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2011 Dec 6;9(6):378-91. Epub 2011 Nov 6.
    Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Background: Functional status is the cornerstone of geriatric care and serves as an indicator of general well-being. A decline in function can increase health care use, worsen quality of life, threaten independence, and increase the risk of mortality. One of several risk factors for decline in functional status is medication use. Read More

    Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability profile of liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analog, in patients with type 2 diabetes ≥65 and <65 years of age: a pooled analysis from phase III studies.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2011 Dec 4;9(6):423-33. Epub 2011 Nov 4.
    Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Georgia, USA.
    Background: Managing elderly patients with type 2 diabetes poses particular challenges, so it is important to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability profile of antidiabetic therapies specifically in this patient population.

    Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability profile of liraglutide, a GLP-1 analog, in elderly (≥65 years) and younger (<65 years) patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: A pooled analysis of 6 randomized, placebo-controlled, multinational trials included data from 3967 patients aged18 to 80 years with type 2 diabetes and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) of 7% to 11%. Read More

    Development and testing of a tool for assessing and resolving medication-related problems in older adults in an ambulatory care setting: the individualized medication assessment and planning (iMAP) tool.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2011 Dec 4;9(6):451-60. Epub 2011 Nov 4.
    Department of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina Hospitals and Clinics, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Background: Medication is one of the most important interventions for improving the health of older adults, yet it has great potential for causing harm. Clinical pharmacists are well positioned to engage in medication assessment and planning. The Individualized Medication Assessment and Planning (iMAP) tool was developed to aid clinical pharmacists in documenting medication-related problems (MRPs) and associated recommendations. Read More

    Impact of a multidisciplinary intervention on antibiotic use for nursing home-acquired pneumonia.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2011 Dec 4;9(6):442-450.e1. Epub 2011 Nov 4.
    University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, USA.
    Background: Academic detailing in nursing homes (NHs) has been shown to improve drug use patterns and adherence to guidelines.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a multidisciplinary intervention that included academic detailing on adherence to national nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) guidelines related to use of antibiotics.

    Methods: This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a 2-year multifaceted and multidisciplinary intervention targeting implementation of national evidence-based guidelines for NHAP. Read More

    Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination in older adults.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2011 Dec 2;9(6):392-404. Epub 2011 Nov 2.
    Department of Pharmacy, University of Rochester Medical Center, New York, USA.
    Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Vaccination in older adults is intended to prevent S pneumoniae infections, yet little information is available regarding its efficacy in this patient population.

    Objective: The aim of this article was to review the current literature to determine the efficacy and tolerability of S pneumoniae vaccination in older adults. Read More

    Trajectory classes of depression in a randomized depression trial of heart failure patients: a reanalysis of the SADHART-CHF trial.
    Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2011 Dec 28;9(6):483-94. Epub 2011 Oct 28.
    Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Objective: The objective of this article was to determine whether, in drug intervention trials, growth mixture modeling (GMM) is able to identify drug-responsive trajectory classes that are not evident in traditional growth modeling approaches.

    Methods: We reanalyzed acute phase (biweekly data up to 7 occasions) and longitudinal (12 months) data on the 469 patients in the SADHART-CHF study of the safety and efficacy of sertraline for depression in patients with heart failure. GMM was used to identify the trajectory classes present in the treatment and placebo groups, based on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Read More

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