20,815 results match your criteria American Journal of Clinical Nutrition[Journal]


Adherence to a plant-based diet in relation to adipose tissue volumes and liver fat content.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Institute of Epidemiology, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Background: Better adherence to plant-based diets has been linked to lower risk of metabolic diseases but the effect on abdominal fat distribution and liver fat content is unclear.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the association between different plant-based diet indices and measures of abdominal fat distribution and liver fat content.

Methods: In a population-based sample of 578 individuals from Northern Germany (57% male, median age 62 y), diet was assessed with a validated FFQ and an overall, a healthy, and an unhealthy plant-based diet index were derived. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa119DOI Listing

The association between dietary and skin advanced glycation end products: the Rotterdam Study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in tissues with age and in conditions such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and they may be involved in age-related diseases. Skin AGEs measured as skin autofluorescence (SAF) are a noninvasive reflection of long-term AGE accumulation in tissues. Whether AGEs present in the diet (dAGEs) contribute to tissue AGEs is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa117DOI Listing

Association between serum phosphorus and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic Korean individuals without kidney dysfunction.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: There are limited data regarding the relation between serum phosphorus concentration (SPC) and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in the asymptomatic healthy population without kidney dysfunction.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the relation between SPC and characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques and cardiac events according to SPCs using a large cohort of asymptomatic Korean individuals.

Methods: We evaluated 6329 asymptomatic Korean individuals [mean age: 53. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa091DOI Listing

Effects of coadministration of DHA and vitamin E on spermatogram, seminal oxidative stress, and sperm phospholipids in asthenozoospermic men: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: It is unknown which compounds in spermatozoa or seminal plasma may be involved in the regulation of sperm motility.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DHA (22:6n-3), vitamin E, and their probable interactions in men with asthenozoospermia.

Methods: A factorial, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in infertility clinics in Tehran, Iran. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa124DOI Listing

Supplementation with vitamin D or ω-3 fatty acids in adolescent girls and young women with endometriosis (SAGE): a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Boston Center for Endometriosis, Boston Children's Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Adolescents with endometriosis are a particularly underserved population who struggle with chronic pain. Despite widespread use, there are no published trials examining the individual effects of vitamin D and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation on endometriosis-associated pain in adolescents.

Objectives: We aimed to determine whether supplementation with vitamin D or ω-3 fatty acids remediates pain, changes frequency of pain medication usage, or affects quality of life in young women with endometriosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa096DOI Listing

Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: findings from 3 large US cohort studies of men and women and a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Whether egg consumption is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unsettled.

Objectives: We evaluated the association between egg consumption and T2D risk in 3 large US prospective cohorts, and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Methods: We followed 82,750 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1980-2012), 89,636 women from the NHS II (1991-2017), and 41,412 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; 1986-2016) who were free of T2D, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa115DOI Listing

Fetal adiposity epidemic in the modern world: a thrifty phenotype aggravated by maternal obesity and diabetes.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Diabetes and Endocrinology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa122DOI Listing

Mycoprotein ingestion stimulates protein synthesis rates to a greater extent than milk protein in rested and exercised skeletal muscle of healthy young men: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Sport and Health Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Heavitree Road, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background: Mycoprotein is a fungal-derived sustainable protein-rich food source, and its ingestion results in systemic amino acid and leucine concentrations similar to that following milk protein ingestion.

Objective: We assessed the mixed skeletal muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of a single bolus of mycoprotein compared with a leucine-matched bolus of milk protein, in rested and exercised muscle of resistance-trained young men.

Methods: Twenty resistance-trained healthy young males (age: 22 ± 1 y, body mass: 82 ± 2 kg, BMI: 25 ± 1 kg·m-2) took part in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa092DOI Listing

Milk protein loses its crown?

Authors:
D Joe Millward

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa112DOI Listing

Association of nut intake with risk factors, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in 16 countries from 5 continents: analysis from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: The association of nuts with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated mostly in Europe, the USA, and East Asia, with few data available from other regions of the world or from low- and middle-income countries.

Objective: To assess the association of nuts with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study is a large multinational prospective cohort study of adults aged 35-70 y from 16 low-, middle-, and high-income countries on 5 continents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa108DOI Listing

Iodine supplements for mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women: are they worthwhile?

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa116DOI Listing

When two heads are better than one: nutritional epidemiology meets machine learning.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Computer Science and Engineering, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa113DOI Listing

Standardization of laboratory practices and reporting of biomarker data in clinical nutrition research.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Centre for Global Child Health and SickKids Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa036DOI Listing

Fat mobilization without weight loss is a potentially rapid response to nicotinamide riboside in obese people: it's time to test with exercise.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa109DOI Listing

Snacking on whole almonds for 6 weeks improves endothelial function and lowers LDL cholesterol but does not affect liver fat and other cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy adults: the ATTIS study, a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Diet and Cardiometabolic Health Research Group, Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: There is convincing evidence that daily whole almond consumption lowers blood LDL cholesterol concentrations, but effects on other cardiometabolic risk factors such as endothelial function and liver fat are still to be determined.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether isoenergetic substitution of whole almonds for control snacks with the macronutrient profile of average snack intakes, had any impact on markers of cardiometabolic health in adults aged 30-70 y at above-average risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: The study was a 6-wk randomized controlled, parallel-arm trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa100DOI Listing

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) authorization of discount variety stores: leveraging the private sector to modestly increase availability of healthy foods.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Background: Many lower-income communities in the United States lack a full-line grocery store. There is evidence that the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) increases the availability of healthy foods in stores. One national discount variety store chain (DVS) that is often located in low-income neighborhoods became an authorized WIC vendor in 8 pilot stores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa097DOI Listing

Calcium supplementation for improving bone density in lactating women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

Background: Clinical trials evaluating the effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in lactating women have been small, with inconsistent results.

Objectives: We aimed to determine the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) in lactating women.

Methods: An electronic search of databases was conducted from inception to January 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa103DOI Listing

Human milk oligosaccharides and their association with late-onset neonatal sepsis in Peruvian very-low-birth-weight infants.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Alberto Hurtado Faculty of Medicine, Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University, Lima, Peru.

Background: Oligosaccharides are the third most abundant component in human milk. They are a potential protective agent against neonatal sepsis.

Objectives: We aimed to explore the association between human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and late-onset sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants, and to describe the composition and characteristics of HMOs in Peruvian mothers of these infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa102DOI Listing

Human milk composition differs by maternal BMI in the first 9 months postpartum.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Background: Studies indicate that maternal weight status modulates human milk composition; however, results are conflicting.

Objectives: Our objective was to examine the relation between maternal body composition and human milk macronutrients and bioactive components and also their association with infant daily intakes and body composition.

Methods: Human milk samples were obtained from a longitudinal study (NCT01131117) in normal weight (NW: 18. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa098DOI Listing

Genetic susceptibility, plant-based dietary patterns, and risk of cardiovascular disease.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Background: Plant-based dietary patterns may be related to better cardiovascular profiles. Whether a healthy plant-based dietary index is predictive of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) across people with different genetic susceptibility remains uncertain.

Objective: We investigated associations of adherence to healthy plant-based diets with the incidence of CVD considering the genetic susceptibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa107DOI Listing

Afternoon distraction: a high-saturated-fat meal and endotoxemia impact postmeal attention in a randomized crossover trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Saturated-fat intake and endotoxemia can impair cognition. However, their acute impact on cognitive performance is unknown.

Objective: This study assessed the impact of 2 high-fat meals and endotoxemia on attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa085DOI Listing

Metabolic adaptation is not a major barrier to weight-loss maintenance.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: The existence of metabolic adaptation, at the level of resting metabolic rate (RMR), remains highly controversial, likely due to lack of standardization of participants' energy balance. Moreover, its role as a driver of relapse remains unproven.

Objective: The main aim was to determine if metabolic adaptation at the level of RMR was present after weight loss and at 1- and 2-y follow-up, with measurements taken under condition of weight stability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa086DOI Listing

Population studies of TMAO and its precursors may help elucidate mechanisms.

Authors:
Katie A Meyer

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Nutrition and Nutrition Research Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, NC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa068DOI Listing

Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, Mediterranean, and Alternative Healthy Eating indices are associated with bone health among Puerto Rican adults from the Boston Puerto Rican Osteoporosis Study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Biomedical and Nutritional Sciences, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA.

Background: Conflicting results on associations between dietary quality and bone have been noted across populations, and this has been understudied in Puerto Ricans, a population at higher risk of osteoporosis than previously appreciated.

Objective: To compare cross-sectional associations between 3 dietary quality indices [Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Alternative Health Eating Index (AHEI-2010), and Mediterranean Diet Score (MeDS)] with bone outcomes.

Method: Participants (n = 865-896) from the Boston Puerto Rican Osteoporosis Study (BPROS) with complete bone and dietary data were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa090DOI Listing

Associations between consumption of dietary fibers and the risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, type 2 diabetes, and mortality in the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

Sorbonne Paris Nord University, INSERM, INRAE, CNAM, Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team (EREN), Epidemiology and Statistics Research Centre-University of Paris (CRESS), Bobigny, France.

Background: Mounting evidence, yet with varying levels of proof, suggests that dietary fibers (DFs) may exert a protective role against various chronic diseases, but this might depend on the DF type and source.

Objectives: Our objectives were to assess the associations between the intake of DFs of different types [total (TDF), soluble (SF), insoluble (IF)] and from different sources (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, potatoes and tubers) and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and mortality in the large-scale NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort (2009-2019).

Methods: Overall, 107,377 participants were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa063DOI Listing

Eat fiber, live better!

Authors:
Nicola Veronese

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

University of Palermo, Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Geriatric Unit, Palermo, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa080DOI Listing

Reply to Mantha OL et al.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May;111(5):1110-1111

Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases/NIH, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198297PMC

Reply to BC Johnston and GH Guyatt.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May;111(5):1108-1109

From the Cancer Prevention Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa038DOI Listing

Natural isotopic abundances as markers of compliance in clinical trials.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May;111(5):1109-1110

From INSERM UMR1069 "Nutrition, Croissance et Cancer", Tours, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa053DOI Listing

Causal inference, interpreting and communicating results on red and processed meat.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May;111(5):1107-1108

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa043DOI Listing

Vitamin K status, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a participant-level meta-analysis of 3 US cohorts.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 2. Epub 2020 May 2.

Tufts Medical Center, Division of Nephrology, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Vitamin K-dependent proteins in vascular tissue affect vascular stiffness and calcification, which is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality.

Objective: To determine the association of circulating vitamin K concentrations with CVD and all-cause mortality by conducting a participant-level meta-analysis.

Methods: We obtained individual participant-level data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and the Framingham Offspring Study, known cohorts with available measures of fasting circulating phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) and confirmed CVD events and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa082DOI Listing

Dose-response effects of dietary protein on muscle protein synthesis during recovery from endurance exercise in young men: a double-blind randomized trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 2. Epub 2020 May 2.

NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Background: Protein ingestion increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates during recovery from endurance exercise.

Objectives: We aimed to determine the effect of graded doses of dietary protein co-ingested with carbohydrate on whole-body protein metabolism, and skeletal muscle myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis rates during recovery from endurance exercise.

Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design, 48 healthy, young, endurance-trained men (mean ± SEM age: 27 ± 1 y) received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine, l-[ring-3,5-2H2]-tyrosine, and l-[1-13C]-leucine and ingested 45 g carbohydrate with either 0 (0 g PRO), 15 (15 g PRO), 30 (30 g PRO), or 45 (45 g PRO) g intrinsically l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine and l-[1-13C]-leucine labeled milk protein after endurance exercise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa073DOI Listing

Can dietary flavonoids play a role in Alzheimer's disease risk prevention? Tantalizing population-based data out of Framingham.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 2. Epub 2020 May 2.

Institute for Global Food Security, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa087DOI Listing

Association between Mediterranean diet adherence and colorectal cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 2. Epub 2020 May 2.

Medical Center for Digestive Diseases, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Mounting epidemiologic studies have investigated the potential inverse association between Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality.

Objectives: This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between MD adherence and CRC incidence and mortality.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched to identify eligible studies through September 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa083DOI Listing

Association between regional selenium status and reported outcome of COVID-19 cases in China.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

and Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197590PMC

Dietary patterns related to cardiovascular disease based on reduced rank regression analysis of healthy middle-aged Koreans: data from the community-based Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) cohort.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Statistics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Dietary patterns (DPs) provide a comprehensive picture of the foods consumed by an individual.

Objectives: Using 12-y follow-up data from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES), we determined the associations of DPs with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) using reduced rank regression (RRR).

Methods: This study analyzed the data of 7354 CVD-free subjects aged 40-69 y drawn from the community-based KoGES cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa078DOI Listing

The power of protein.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Charles Perkins Centre and School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa088DOI Listing

Neonatal diet alters fecal microbiota and metabolome profiles at different ages in infants fed breast milk or formula.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Background: Neonatal diet has a large influence on child health and might modulate changes in fecal microbiota and metabolites.

Objectives: The aim is to investigate fecal microbiota and metabolites at different ages in infants who were breastfed (BF), received dairy-based milk formula (MF), or received soy-based formula (SF).

Methods: Fecal samples were collected at 3 (n = 16, 12, and 14, respectively), 6 (n = 20, 19, and 15, respectively), 9 (n = 12, 11, and 12, respectively), and 12 mo (n = 14, 14, and 15, respectively) for BF, MF, and SF infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa076DOI Listing

Diet and long-term weight loss: what can we learn from our gut microbes?

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa084DOI Listing

Ultra-processed food consumption and the risk of short telomeres in an elderly population of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

University of Navarra, Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, Pamplona, Spain.

Background: Telomere length (TL) is a marker of biological age that may be affected by dietary factors through oxidation and inflammation mechanisms. In addition, ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption has increased worldwide and it has been associated with the risk of developing several diseases.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the association between UPF consumption and the risk of having short telomeres in an elderly population of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa075DOI Listing

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of iodine supplementation on thyroid function and child neurodevelopment in mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

Background: Mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, particularly in pregnancy, is prevalent; this is of concern because observational studies have shown negative associations with child neurodevelopment. Although neither the benefits nor the safety of iodine supplementation in pregnancy in areas of mild-to-moderate deficiency are well researched, such supplementation is increasingly being recommended by health authorities in a number of countries.

Objectives: By reviewing the most recent published data on the effects of iodine supplementation in mildly-to-moderately deficient pregnant women on maternal and infant thyroid function and child cognition, we aimed to determine whether the evidence was sufficient to support recommendations in these areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa071DOI Listing

Effect of chicory inulin-type fructan-containing snack bars on the human gut microbiota in low dietary fiber consumers in a randomized crossover trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Sensus BV (Royal Cosun), Roosendaal, Netherlands.

Background: The low intake of dietary fiber compared to recommended amounts has been referred to as the dietary fiber gap. The addition of fiber to snack foods could favorably alter gut microbiota and help individuals meet intake recommendations.

Objectives: Our objective was to examine the effect of low- and moderate-dose fiber-containing snack bars, comprising mainly chicory root inulin-type fructans (ITF), on gut microbiota in healthy adults with habitual low dietary fiber intake using 16S ribosomal RNA-based approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa074DOI Listing

Long-term dietary flavonoid intake and risk of Alzheimer disease and related dementias in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Nutritional Epidemiology Program, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Findings from existing prospective observational studies on the protective associations of flavonoid intake and the risk of Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD) are inconsistent largely due to limitations of these studies.

Objectives: To examine the prospective relation between total and 6 classes of dietary flavonoid intake and risk of ADRD and Alzheimer disease (AD) while addressing limitations of earlier observational studies.

Methods: We used data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort exams 5 through 9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa079DOI Listing

Proof is still needed that an anti-inflammatory diet can benefit rheumatoid arthritis patients.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa081DOI Listing

Plasma phospholipid very-long-chain SFAs in midlife and 20-year cognitive change in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC): a cohort study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Very-long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs) have recently gained considerable attention as having beneficial effects on health and aging.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the associations of plasma phospholipid VLSFAs [arachidic acid (20:0), behenic acid (22:0), tricosanoic acid (23:0), and lignoceric acid (24:0)] with 20-y cognitive decline in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) participants. Furthermore, this study compared the associations of plasma phospholipid VLSFAs with 5 common groups of fatty acids [i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa048DOI Listing

Nicotinamide riboside supplementation alters body composition and skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine concentrations in healthy obese humans.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Background: Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is an NAD+ precursor that boosts cellular NAD+ concentrations. Preclinical studies have shown profound metabolic health effects after NR supplementation.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the effects of 6 wk NR supplementation on insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial function, and other metabolic health parameters in overweight and obese volunteers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa072DOI Listing

How oro-sensory exposure and eating rate affect satiation and associated endocrine responses-a randomized trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Background: Longer oral processing decreases food intake. This can be attributed to greater oro-sensory exposure (OSE) and a lower eating rate (ER). How these factors contribute to food intake, and the underlying physiological mechanisms, remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa067DOI Listing