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    20051 results match your criteria American Journal of Clinical Nutrition[Journal]

    1 OF 402

    Measurement of protein digestibility in humans by a dual-tracer method.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Department of Physiology, St John's Research Institute, St John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India.
    Background: Recent evaluations of the risk of dietary protein deficiency have indicated that protein digestibility may be a key limiting factor in the provision of indispensable amino acids (IAAs), particularly for vulnerable populations living in challenging environments where intestinal dysfunction may exist. Since the digestion of protein occurs only in the small intestine, and the metabolic activity of colonic bacteria confounds measurements at the fecal level, there is a need to develop noninvasive protein digestibility measurements at the ileal level.

    Objective: We used a dual-tracer method with stable isotopes to characterize the digestibility of uniformly labeled [13C]-spirulina protein as a standard protein, in comparison to a mixture of 2H-labeled crystalline amino acids, and then demonstrated the use of this standard protein to measure the digestibility of selected legumes (chick pea and mung bean) through the use of proteins that were intrinsically labeled with 2H. Read More

    Performance of plasma trigonelline as a marker of coffee consumption in an epidemiologic setting.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Background: Coffee is a widely consumed beverage, and studies suggest that drinking coffee has beneficial health effects. The phytohormone trigonelline is present in large amounts in coffee beans, and circulating concentrations of trigonelline have been shown to be positively related to dietary intake of coffee and to increase significantly after the consumption of a bolus dose of coffee.

    Objective: We cross-sectionally investigated the utility of plasma trigonelline as a marker of coffee consumption in an epidemiologic setting. Read More

    Adolescents at high risk of obesity show greater striatal response to increased sugar content in milkshakes.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Department of Nutritional Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.
    Background: Children of overweight or obese parents are at a high risk of developing obesity.

    Objective: This study sought to examine the underlying neural factors related to parental obesity risk and the relative impact of sugar and fat when consuming a palatable food, as well as the impact of obesity risk status on brain response to appetizing food images.

    Design: With the use of functional MRI, the responses of 108 healthy-weight adolescents [mean ± SD body mass index (kg/m2): 20. Read More

    Propensity for adverse pregnancy outcomes in African-American women may be explained by low energy expenditure in early pregnancy.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA.
    Background: African-American (AA) women have poorer pregnancy outcomes and studies in nonpregnant women suggest a different etiology of weight gain in AA compared with white women. We hypothesized that physiologic factors such as low energy expenditure and physical activity would be present in AA compared with white women in pregnancy.

    Objective: We aimed to identify physiologic risk factors for disordered energy balance in AA and white women early in pregnancy. Read More

    A comparison of methods for adjusting biomarkers of iron, zinc, and selenium status for the effect of inflammation in an older population: a case for interleukin 6.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Background: Older people are at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, which can be under- or overestimated in the presence of inflammation. Several methods have been proposed to adjust for the effect of inflammation; however, to our knowledge, none have been investigated in older adults in whom chronic inflammation is common.

    Objective: We investigated the influence of various inflammation-adjustment methods on micronutrient biomarkers associated with anemia in older people living in aged-care facilities in New Zealand. Read More

    Modeling the impact of folic acid fortification and supplementation on red blood cell folate concentrations and predicted neural tube defect risk in the United States: have we reached optimal prevention?
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, Atlanta, GA.
    Background: The US CDC and the Institute of Medicine recommend that women capable of becoming pregnant consume ≥400 µg synthetic folic acid/d to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). The United States has 3 sources of folic acid: fortified enriched cereal grain products (ECGPs), fortified ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals, and dietary supplements.

    Objective: Our objectives were as follows: 1) to estimate the usual daily folic acid intake and distributions of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations among women consuming folic acid from different sources; 2) to assess the usual daily total folic acid intake associated with optimal RBC folate concentrations for NTD prevention; 3) to predict NTD prevalence; and 4) to estimate the number of preventable folate-sensitive NTDs. Read More

    Dietary fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia.
    Background: Dysfunction of the gut microbiota is frequently reported as a manifestation of chronic diseases, and therefore presents as a modifiable risk factor in their development. Diet is a major regulator of the gut microbiota and certain types of dietary fiber may modify bacterial numbers and metabolism, including short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation.

    Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to assess the effect of dietary fiber interventions on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults. Read More

    Higher dietary glycemic index and glycemic load values increase the risk of osteoporotic fracture in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Reus trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Human Nutrition Unit, Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain.
    Background: High glucose and insulin concentrations seem to have a negative impact on bone health. However, the relation between the dietary glycemic index (DGI) and the dietary glycemic load (DGL), which has proved to be effective at modulating blood glucose concentrations after carbohydrate consumption, has yet to be explored in relation to bone health.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the associations between the DGI or DGL and the risk of osteoporotic-related fractures in an elderly Mediterranean population. Read More

    A regulatory insertion-deletion polymorphism in the FADS gene cluster influences PUFA and lipid profiles among Chinese adults: a population-based study.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Arachidonic acid (AA) is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) substrate for potent eicosanoid signaling to modulate inflammation and thrombosis and is controlled in part by tissue abundance. Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) catalyzes synthesis of omega-6 (n-3) AA and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The rs66698963 polymorphism, a 22-base pair (bp) insertion-deletion 137 bp downstream of a sterol regulatory element in FADS2 intron 1, mediates expression of FADS1 in vitro, as well as exerting positive selection in several human populations. Read More

    Replacement of dietary saturated fat with unsaturated fats increases numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and decreases numbers of microparticles: findings from the randomized, controlled Dietary Intervention and VAScular function (DIVAS) study.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences and Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research.
    Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and microparticles are emerging as novel markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, which could potentially be modified by dietary fat. We have previously shown that replacing dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with monounsaturated or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs or PUFAs, respectively) improved lipid biomarkers, blood pressure, and markers of endothelial activation, but their effects on circulating EPCs and microparticles are unclear.

    Objective: The Dietary Intervention and VAScular function (DIVAS) Study investigated the replacement of 9. Read More

    Effect of a high-egg diet on cardiometabolic risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) Study-randomized weight-loss and follow-up phase.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    The Boden Institute, Sydney Medical School, Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: Some country guidelines recommend that people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) limit their consumption of eggs and cholesterol. Our previously published 3-mo weight-maintenance study showed that a high-egg (≥12 eggs/wk) diet compared with a low-egg diet (<2 eggs/wk) did not have adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with T2D.

    Objective: The current study follows the previously published 3-mo weight-maintenance study and assessed the effects of the high-egg compared with the low-egg diets as part of a 3-mo weight-loss period, followed by a 6-mo follow-up period for a total duration of 12 mo. Read More

    Eating at food outlets and leisure places and "on the go" is associated with less-healthy food choices than eating at home and in school in children: cross-sectional data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Program (2008-2014).
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Medical Research Council (MRC) Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Background: Where children eat has been linked to variations in diet quality, including the consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense food, a recognized risk factor for obesity.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of consumption patterns and nutritional intake by eating location in British children with the use of a nationally representative survey.

    Design: Cross-sectional data from 4636 children (80,075 eating occasions) aged 1. Read More

    Calcium, magnesium, and whole-milk intakes and high-aggressive prostate cancer in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP).
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):799-807
    David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.
    Background: Calcium and dairy product intakes have been positively associated with prostate cancer risk. An imbalance in concentrations of calcium and magnesium has been associated with multiple chronic diseases, although few studies have examined the relation with prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the association between dietary intakes of calcium and magnesium, the calcium-to-magnesium ratio (Ca:Mg), and dairy products and prostate cancer aggressiveness. Read More

    An evidence-based approach to globally assess the covariate-dependent effect of the MTHFR single nucleotide polymorphism rs1801133 on blood homocysteine: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):817-825
    Department of Research and Development, USANA Health Science, Salt Lake City, UT.
    Background: The single nucleotide polymorphism of the gene 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T (or rs1801133) is the most established genetic factor that increases plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and consequently results in hyperhomocysteinemia. Yet, given the limited penetrance of this genetic variant, it is necessary to individually predict the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia for an rs1801133 carrier.

    Objective: We hypothesized that variability in this genetic risk is largely due to the presence of factors (covariates) that serve as effect modifiers, confounders, or both, such as folic acid (FA) intake, and aimed to assess this risk in the complex context of these covariates. Read More

    Dietary acid load and bone turnover during long-duration spaceflight and bed rest.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):834-844
    Human Health and Performance Directorate, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.
    Background: Bed rest studies document that a lower dietary acid load is associated with lower bone resorption.

    Objective: We tested the effect of dietary acid load on bone metabolism during spaceflight.

    Design: Controlled 4-d diets with a high or low animal protein-to-potassium (APro:K) ratio (High and Low diets, respectively) were given to 17 astronauts before and during spaceflight. Read More

    High-dose vitamin D3 in the treatment of severe acute malnutrition: a multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):725-733
    Centre for Primary Care and Public Health, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common in children with severe acute malnutrition, in whom it is associated with severe wasting. Ready-to-use therapeutic food (the standard treatment) contains modest amounts of vitamin D that do not reliably correct deficiency.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether high-dose oral vitamin D3 enhances weight gain and development in children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. Read More

    Mediterranean diet and risk of frailty syndrome among women with type 2 diabetes.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):763-771
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-IdiPaz, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Previous research indicates that patients with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk of becoming frail. Emerging evidence also indicates that the Mediterranean diet may prevent frailty in the older population.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether a Mediterranean-style diet pattern was associated with lower risk of frailty among older women with diabetes. Read More

    Joint effects of fatty acid desaturase 1 polymorphisms and dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake on circulating fatty acid proportions.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):826-833
    Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics.
    Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with a lower risk of multiple diseases. Fatty acid desaturase 1 gene (FADS1) polymorphisms and dietary PUFA intake are both established determinants of circulating PUFA proportions.

    Objective: We explored the joint effects of FADS1 polymorphisms and dietary PUFA intake on circulating PUFA proportions. Read More

    Diet quality among US-born and foreign-born non-Hispanic blacks: NHANES 2003-2012 data.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):695-706
    Tufts University, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Boston, MA.
    Background: Non-Hispanic blacks in the United States are less likely to not meet national dietary recommendations than non-Hispanic whites; however, most studies do not consider nativity of US blacks.

    Objective: With the use of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010) and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores, this cross-sectional study compared diet quality between US-born (n = 3,911) and foreign-born (n = 408) non-Hispanic black adults aged 22-79 y, based on pooled nationally representative data (NHANES 2003-2012) as well as by length of US residency.

    Design: The association between nativity and diet quality was determined by using multivariable-adjusted linear regression for the continuous total diet quality scores and their components or multinomial (polytomous) logistic regression for categorical tertiles (low, medium, or high) of the total scores and their components. Read More

    A dynamic model for predicting growth in zinc-deficient stunted infants given supplemental zinc.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):808-816
    Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA.
    Background: Zinc deficiency limits infant growth and increases susceptibility to infections, which further compromises growth. Zinc supplementation improves the growth of zinc-deficient stunted infants, but the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc supplementation required to restore growth in an individual child is unknown. A dynamic model of zinc metabolism that predicts changes in weight and length of zinc-deficient, stunted infants with dietary zinc would be useful to define effective zinc supplementation regimens. Read More

    A meat- or dairy-based complementary diet leads to distinct growth patterns in formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):734-742
    Section of Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.
    Background: Protein intake from cow milk-based infant formula has been associated with rapid weight gain and increased adiposity, but the effect of protein from complementary foods has not been prospectively evaluated, and the effect of protein from sources other than formula during complementary feeding is not clear.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to directly compare the effect of protein from 2 common complementary food sources, meat and dairy, on infant growth and weight trajectory.

    Design: Healthy term, formula-fed infants were recruited from the metro Denver area, matched by sex and race/ethnicity and randomly assigned to a meat or a dairy complementary food group from 5 to 12 mo of age. Read More

    Vitamin A and D intake in pregnancy, infant supplementation, and asthma development: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):789-798
    Division of Mental and Physical Health.
    Background: Western diets may provide excess vitamin A, which is potentially toxic and could adversely affect respiratory health and counteract benefits from vitamin D.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine child asthma at age 7 y in relation to maternal intake of vitamins A and D during pregnancy, infant supplementation with these vitamins, and their potential interaction.

    Design: We studied 61,676 school-age children (born during 2002-2007) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort with data on maternal total (food and supplement) nutrient intake in pregnancy (food-frequency questionnaire validated against biomarkers) and infant supplement use at age 6 mo (n = 54,142 children). Read More

    Early nutrition and signs of metabolic syndrome at 6 y of age in children born very preterm.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):717-724
    Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, and Faculty of Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Background: In term-born infants, the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been shown to be associated with formula feeding and early rapid growth. Breastfeeding, however, seems to be associated with a lower risk of MetS among term-born infants.

    Objective: The possible association between type of early nutrition, early growth, and possible influence on different metabolic outcomes at 6 y of age was investigated in very-preterm-born children. Read More

    Adverse effects on thyroid of Chinese children exposed to long-term iodine excess: optimal and safe Tolerable Upper Intake Levels of iodine for 7- to 14-y-old children.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):780-788
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
    Background: The adverse effects of iodine excess on the thyroid in children are not well understood, and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for iodine in children is unclear.

    Objective: The aims of this study were to assess the effects of chronic long-term iodine excess on thyroid function in children and to explore the safe Tolerable Upper Intake Level of iodine in Chinese children.

    Design: A multistage cross-sectional study was conducted in 2224 children from areas with adequate to excessive iodine content in drinking water. Read More

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with intestinal failure receiving home parenteral support: risks related to a catheter-salvage strategy.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):743-753
    Departments of Medical Gastroenterology and Clinical Microbiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: In intestinal failure (IF) patients receiving home parenteral support (HPS), catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) frequently result in replacement of their tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), which may lead to future loss of central venous access.

    Objective: This observational study investigated the consequences of a catheter-salvage strategy related to CRBSIs.

    Design: All CRBSIs from 2002 to 2016 in the Copenhagen IF and microbiological databases were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

    Effects of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners on antroduodenal motility, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite-related sensations in healthy subjects.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):707-716
    Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Background: Activation of gastrointestinal (GI) sweet taste receptors by caloric sweeteners triggers secretion of anorexigenic and inhibition of orexigenic GI hormones to regulate food intake. The effect of noncaloric sweeteners on these mechanisms is controversial. We have recently shown that motilin-induced gastric phase III contractions signal hunger feelings, thereby identifying GI motility, and its regulatory hormone motilin, as novel players in food intake regulation. Read More

    An 18-mo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DHA-rich fish oil to prevent age-related cognitive decline in cognitively normal older adults.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):754-762
    School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
    Background: Fish oil trials in cognitively healthy older adults have yielded inconsistent results. Supplementation may differentially affect the domains that underpin cognitive performance, and effects may differ across sex or genotype.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil slows 18-mo cognitive decline in cognitively healthy elders. Read More

    Effect of dietary fat intake and genetics on fat taste sensitivity: a co-twin randomized controlled trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May;107(5):683-694
    Centre for Advanced Sensory Science.
    Background: Individuals with impaired fat taste (FT) sensitivity have reduced satiety responses after consuming fatty foods, leading to increased dietary fat intake. Habitual consumption of dietary fat may modulate sensitivity to FT, with high consumption decreasing sensitivity [increasing fatty acid taste threshold (FATT)] and low consumption increasing sensitivity (decreasing FATT). However, some individuals may be less susceptible to diet-mediated changes in FATT due to variations in gene expression. Read More

    A small dose of whey protein co-ingested with mixed-macronutrient breakfast and lunch meals improves postprandial glycemia and suppresses appetite in men with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Apr;107(4):550-557
    Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Background: Large doses of whey protein consumed as a preload before single high-glycemic load meals has been shown to improve postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. It is unclear if this effect remains with smaller doses of whey co-ingested at consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals. Moreover, whether hydrolyzed whey offers further benefit under these conditions is unclear. Read More

    Identifying the effect of shelf nutrition labels on consumer purchases: results of a natural experiment and consumer survey.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Apr;107(4):647-651
    Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.
    Background: NuVal, developed by NuVal, LLC, is a shelf nutrition label that rates the nutritional quality of foods on a scale of 1 (worst) to 100 (best).

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the impact of the NuVal labels on food-purchasing patterns.

    Design: In 2014, NuVal updated its nutrient profiling system, which changed the NuVal score on many foods. Read More

    Portion size and later food intake: evidence on the "normalizing" effect of reducing food portion sizes.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Apr;107(4):640-646
    Institute of Psychology, Health, and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Background: Historical increases in the size of commercially available food products have been linked to the emergence of a worldwide obesity crisis. Although the acute effect that portion size has on food intake is well established, the effect that exposure to smaller portion sizes has on future portion size selection has not been examined.

    Objective: We tested whether reducing a food portion size "renormalizes" perceptions of what constitutes a normal amount of that food to eat and results in people selecting and consuming smaller portions of that food in the future. Read More

    Infant feeding and growth: putting the horse before the cart.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Apr;107(4):635-639
    Departments of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Montreal, Canada.
    Background: Previous observational studies have consistently shown slower weight and length gains in infants with prolonged breastfeeding than in those who were formula-fed from birth or breastfed for a shorter duration. These studies inferred that prolonged breastfeeding causes slower growth in infancy.

    Objective: We compared infant growth associated with ≥12 mo of breastfeeding with a shorter duration of breastfeeding on the basis of 3 different analytic approaches to the same data from a randomized trial: intention-to-treat (ITT; "as randomized"), observational ("as fed"), and instrumental variable (IV; by using randomization as an "instrument" to achieve ≥12 mo of breastfeeding). Read More

    Changes in susceptibility to life-threatening infections after treatment for complicated severe malnutrition in Kenya.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Apr;107(4):626-634
    KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.
    Background: Goals of treating childhood severe acute malnutrition (SAM), in addition to anthropometric recovery and preventing short-term mortality, include reducing the risks of subsequent serious infections. How quickly and how much the risk of serious illness changes during rehabilitation are unknown but could inform improving the design and scope of interventions.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the risk of life-threatening events (LTEs) in relation to anthropometric recovery from SAM. Read More

    Normal-weight obesity and clinical outcomes in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease patients: a cohort study.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Apr;107(4):664-672
    Division of Nephrology, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, and School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.
    Background: Normal-weight obesity (NWO), defined by a normal body mass index (BMI) and high body fat percentage, has been shown to be associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population. However, little is known about the clinical implications of NWO among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of nondiabetic CKD patients with NWO. Read More

    Neither body mass nor sex influences beverage hydration index outcomes during randomized trial when comparing 3 commercial beverages.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Apr;107(4):544-549
    US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA.
    Background: The beverage hydration index (BHI) assesses the hydration potential of any consumable fluid relative to water. The BHI is a relatively new metric, and the impact of body mass, sex, and reproducibility has yet to be investigated.

    Objectives: To assess the independent impact of body mass and sex on BHI using beverages not previously assessed, including an amino acid-based oral rehydration solution (AA-ORS), a glucose-containing ORS (G-ORS), and a sports drink (SpD), compared with water (control). Read More

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