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    19918 results match your criteria American Journal of Clinical Nutrition[Journal]

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    The effects of dietary protein intake on appendicular lean mass and muscle function in elderly men: a 10-wk randomized controlled trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 1;106(6):1375-1383. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Liggins Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand;
    Background: The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein intake in the adult population is widely promoted as 0.8 g · kg-1 · d-1 Aging may increase protein requirements, particularly to maintain muscle mass.Objective: We investigated whether controlled protein consumption at the current RDA or twice the RDA (2RDA) affects skeletal muscle mass and physical function in elderly men. Read More

    Efficacy of iron supplementation may be misinterpreted using conventional measures of iron status in iron-depleted, nonanemic women undergoing aerobic exercise training.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 1;106(6):1529-1538. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
    Background: Despite its known detrimental effects, iron deficiency remains the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Many interventions that aim to improve iron status involve physically active populations. Intense aerobic exercise training negatively affects iron status; however, the impact of regular moderate aerobic exercise on the effectiveness of iron supplementation remains unclear. Read More

    Breastfeeding and motor development in term and preterm infants in a longitudinal US cohort.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 1;106(6):1456-1462. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD;
    Background: The relation between breastfeeding and early motor development is difficult to characterize because of the problems in existing studies such as incomplete control for confounding, retrospective assessment of infant feeding, and even the assessment of some motor skills too early.Objective: We sought to estimate associations between infant feeding and time to achieve major motor milestones in a US cohort.Design: The Upstate New York Infant Development Screening Program (Upstate KIDS Study) enrolled mothers who delivered live births in New York (2008-2010). Read More

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of nutrition therapy compared with dietary advice in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 1;106(6):1394-1400. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Endocrinology, Hvidovre, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark
    Background: Despite recommendations, many patients with type 2 diabetes receive dietary advice from nurses or doctors instead of individualized nutrition therapy (INT) that is provided by a dietitian.Objective: We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of INT that is provided by a registered dietitian with the effect of dietary advice that is provided by other healthcare professionals.Design: A systematic review was conducted of Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, CINAHL, and MEDLINE in the period 2004-2017 for guidelines, reviews, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the outcomes glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), and LDL cholesterol. Read More

    Complementary feeding with cowpea reduces growth faltering in rural Malawian infants: a blind, randomized controlled clinical trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 1;106(6):1500-1507. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Pediatrics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO;
    Background: Growth faltering is common in rural African children and is attributed to inadequate dietary intake and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED).Objective: We tested the hypothesis that complementary feeding with cowpea or common bean flour would reduce growth faltering and EED in 6-mo-old rural Malawians compared with the control group receiving a corn-soy blend.Design: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in which children received daily feeding for 6 mo (200 kcal/d when 6-9 mo old and 300 kcal/d when 10-12 mo old). Read More

    Effects of potassium supplements on glucose metabolism in African Americans with prediabetes: a pilot trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 1;106(6):1431-1438. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Departments of Medicine and.
    Background: Low potassium has been identified both as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and as a mediator of the racial disparity in diabetes risk. Low potassium could be a potentially modifiable risk factor, particularly for African Americans.Objective: We sought to determine the effects of potassium chloride (KCl) supplements, at a commonly prescribed dose, on measures of potassium and glucose metabolism. Read More

    Eggs early in complementary feeding increase choline pathway biomarkers and DHA: a randomized controlled trial in Ecuador.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 1;106(6):1482-1489. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA.
    Background: Choline status has been associated with stunting among young children. Findings from this study showed that an egg intervention improved linear growth by a length-for-age z score of 0.63. Read More

    Effects of isolated soluble fiber supplementation on body weight, glycemia, and insulinemia in adults with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 1;106(6):1514-1528. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, and
    Background: There is strong epidemiologic evidence that dietary fiber intake is protective against overweight and obesity; however, results of intervention studies have been mixed. Soluble fiber beneficially affects metabolism, and fiber supplementation may be a feasible approach to improve body composition and glycemia in adults with overweight and obesity.Objective: We evaluated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of isolated soluble fiber supplementation in overweight and obese adults on outcomes related to weight management [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), body weight, percentage of body fat, and waist circumference] and glucose and insulin metabolism (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and fasting insulin) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Read More

    Assessment of iron status in settings of inflammation: challenges and potential approaches.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1626S-1633S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Helen Keller International and Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally, Arlington, VA.
    The determination of iron status is challenging when concomitant infection and inflammation are present because of confounding effects of the acute-phase response on the interpretation of most iron indicators. This review summarizes the effects of inflammation on indicators of iron status and assesses the impact of a regression analysis to adjust for inflammation on estimates of iron deficiency (ID) in low- and high-infection-burden settings. We overviewed cross-sectional data from 16 surveys for preschool children (PSC) (n = 29,765) and from 10 surveys for nonpregnant women of reproductive age (WRA) (n = 25,731) from the Biomarkers Reflecting the Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project. Read More

    A high-glycemic diet is associated with cerebral amyloid burden in cognitively normal older adults.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(6):1463-1470. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Center, Fairway, KS
    Background: Little is known about the relation between dietary intake and cerebral amyloid accumulation in aging.Objective: We assessed the association of dietary glycemic measures with cerebral amyloid burden and cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults.Design: We performed cross-sectional analyses relating dietary glycemic measures [adherence to a high-glycemic-load diet (HGLDiet) pattern, intakes of sugar and carbohydrates, and glycemic load] with cerebral amyloid burden (measured by florbetapir F-18 positron emission tomography) and cognitive performance in 128 cognitively normal older adults who provided eligibility screening data for the University of Kansas's Alzheimer's Prevention through Exercise (APEX) Study. Read More

    U-shaped curve for risk associated with maternal hemoglobin, iron status, or iron supplementation.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1694S-1702S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Program in International and Community Nutrition and Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA.
    Both iron deficiency (ID) and excess can lead to impaired health status. There is substantial evidence of a U-shaped curve between the risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy; however, it is unclear whether those relations are attributable to conditions of low and high iron status or to other mechanisms. We summarized current evidence from human studies regarding the association between birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations or iron status. Read More

    No metabolic effects of mustard allyl-isothiocyanate compared with placebo in men.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Nov 25;106(5):1197-1205. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council, Institute of Metabolic Science, and.
    Background: Induction of nonshivering thermogenesis can be used to influence energy balance to prevent or even treat obesity. The pungent component of mustard, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), activates the extreme cold receptor transient receptor potential channel, subfamily A, member 1 and may thus induce energy expenditure and metabolic changes.Objective: The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential of mustard AITC to induce thermogenesis (primary outcome) and alter body temperature, cold and hunger sensations, plasma metabolic parameters, and energy intake (secondary outcomes). Read More

    Low serum ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and other metabolites are associated with poor linear growth in young children from rural Malawi.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(6):1490-1499. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Pediatrics, Washington University at St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.
    Background: Stunting affects ∼25% of children <5 y of age and is associated with impaired cognitive and motor development and increased morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood.Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify altered metabolic pathways associated with child stunting. Read More

    Comparison of global nutrient profiling systems for restricting the commercial marketing of foods and beverages of low nutritional quality to children in Canada.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(6):1471-1481. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Background: The Canadian government recently committed to introduce legislation to restrict the commercial marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children.Objective: We compared the degree of strictness and agreement between nutrient profile (NP) models relevant to marketing restrictions by applying them in the Canadian context.Design: With the use of data from the University of Toronto 2013 Food Label Information Program (n = 15,342 prepackaged foods), 4 NP models were evaluated: the Food Standards Australia New Zealand-Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC), the WHO Regional Office for Europe (EURO) model, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) model, and a modified version of the PAHO model (Modified-PAHO), which did not consider the extent of food processing because the application of this characteristic was prone to ambiguity. Read More

    Development of iron homeostasis in infants and young children.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1575S-1580S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA
    Healthy, term, breastfed infants usually have adequate iron stores that, together with the small amount of iron that is contributed by breast milk, make them iron sufficient until ≥6 mo of age. The appropriate concentration of iron in infant formula to achieve iron sufficiency is more controversial. Infants who are fed formula with varying concentrations of iron generally achieve sufficiency with iron concentrations of 2 mg/L (i. Read More

    Serum ferritin as an indicator of iron status: what do we need to know?
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1634S-1639S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Medical Research Council Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Determination of iron status in pregnancy and in young children is essential for both clinical and public health practice. Clinical diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID) through sampling of bone marrow to identify the absence of body iron stores is impractical in most cases. Serum ferritin (SF) concentrations are the most commonly deployed indicator for determining ID, and low SF concentrations reflect a state of iron depletion. Read More

    Iron status of toddlers, nonpregnant females, and pregnant females in the United States.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1640S-1646S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Nutrition Branch, CDC, Atlanta, GA; and
    Background: Total-body iron stores (TBI), which are calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, can be used to assess the iron status of populations in the United States.Objective: This analysis, developed to support workshop discussions, describes the distribution of TBI and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and ID anemia (IDA) among toddlers, nonpregnant females, and pregnant females.Design: We analyzed data from NHANES; toddlers aged 12-23 mo (NHANES 2003-2010), nonpregnant females aged 15-49 y (NHANES 2007-2010), and pregnant females aged 12-49 y (NHANES 1999-2010). Read More

    Harmonization of blood-based indicators of iron status: making the hard work matter.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1615S-1619S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
    Blood-based indicators that are used in the assessment of iron status are assumed to be accurate. In practice, inaccuracies in these measurements exist and stem from bias and variability. For example, the analytic variability of serum ferritin measurements across laboratories is very high (>15%), which increases the rate of misclassification in clinical and epidemiologic studies. Read More

    Iron status of North American pregnant women: an update on longitudinal data and gaps in knowledge from the United States and Canada.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1647S-1654S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency due to the high iron demands of pregnancy. To avoid the adverse birth outcomes that are associated with maternal iron deficiency anemia, both Canada and the United States recommend universal iron supplementation for pregnant women. Although the benefits of iron supplementation in anemic women are well recognized, insufficient data are currently available on the maternal and neonatal benefits and harms of universal iron supplementation in developed countries as evidenced by the recent conclusions of the US Preventive Services Task Force on the need for further data that address existing gaps. Read More

    Integrating themes, evidence gaps, and research needs identified by workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1703S-1712S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH, Bethesda, MD.
    This report addresses the evidence and the uncertainties, knowledge gaps, and research needs identified by participants at the NIH workshop related to iron screening and routine iron supplementation of largely iron-replete pregnant women and young children (6-24 mo) in developed countries. The workshop presentations and panel discussions focused on current understanding and knowledge gaps related to iron homeostasis, measurement of and evidence for iron status, and emerging concerns about supplementing iron-replete members of these vulnerable populations. Four integrating themes emerged across workshop presentations and discussion and centered on 1) physiologic or developmental adaptations of iron homeostasis to pregnancy and early infancy, respectively, and their implications, 2) improvement of the assessment of iron status across the full continuum from iron deficiency anemia to iron deficiency to iron replete to iron excess, 3) the linkage of iron status with health outcomes beyond hematologic outcomes, and 4) the balance of benefit and harm of iron supplementation of iron-replete pregnant women and young children. Read More

    Ethnic and genetic factors of iron status in women of reproductive age.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1594S-1599S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, and.
    Background: African Americans are at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID) but also have higher serum ferritin (SF) concentrations than those of the general population. The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study was a multicenter study of ethnically diverse participants that tested for the hemochromatosis (HFE) C282Y genotype and iron status.Objective: We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of ID (SF concentration ≤15 μg/L) and elevated iron stores (SF concentration >300 μg/L) in HEIRS women of reproductive age (25-44 y). Read More

    Dietary iron intake, iron status, and gestational diabetes.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1672S-1680S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD.
    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency and related adverse pregnancy outcomes and, as such, are routinely recommended for iron supplementation. Emerging evidence from both animal and population-based studies, however, has raised potential concerns because significant associations have been observed between greater iron stores and disturbances in glucose metabolism, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes among nonpregnant individuals. Yet, the evidence is uncertain regarding the role of iron in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common pregnancy complication which has short-term and long-term adverse health ramifications for both women and their children. Read More

    Introduction to workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1547S-1554S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH, Bethesda, MD; and.
    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements convened a public workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children in 2016 in Bethesda, Maryland. The starting point for the workshop was the recent reports from the US Preventive Services Task Force concluding that there was insufficient evidence to evaluate the benefits and harms associated with iron screening and routine supplementation among asymptomatic pregnant women and young children (6-24 mo old) in the United States. The goal of the workshop was to explore and refine understanding about the existing knowledge gaps and research needs associated with these preventive services for these groups. Read More

    The effects of iron fortification and supplementation on the gut microbiome and diarrhea in infants and children: a review.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1688S-1693S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    In infants and young children in Sub-Saharan Africa, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is common, and many complementary foods are low in bioavailable iron. In-home fortification of complementary foods using iron-containing micronutrient powders (MNPs) and oral iron supplementation are both effective strategies to increase iron intakes and reduce IDA at this age. However, these interventions produce large increases in colonic iron because the absorption of their high iron dose (≥12. Read More

    Current understanding of iron homeostasis.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1559S-1566S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Iron Metabolism Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia; and Schools of.
    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Read More

    Iron assessment to protect the developing brain.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1588S-1593S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Division of Neonatology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine and University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital, Minneapolis, MN
    Iron deficiency (ID) before the age of 3 y can lead to long-term neurological deficits despite prompt diagnosis of ID anemia (IDA) by screening of hemoglobin concentrations followed by iron treatment. Furthermore, pre- or nonanemic ID alters neurobehavioral function and is 3 times more common than IDA in toddlers. Given the global prevalence of ID and the enormous societal cost of developmental disabilities across the life span, better methods are needed to detect the risk of inadequate concentrations of iron for brain development (i. Read More

    Iron status of young children in Europe.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1663S-1671S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Nutricia Advanced Medical Nutrition, Nutricia Research, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in young children aged 6-36 mo. Although the hazards associated with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are well known, concerns about risks associated with excess iron intake in young children are emerging. To characterize iron status in Europe, we describe the prevalence of ID, IDA, iron repletion, and excess stores with the use of published data from a systematic review on iron intake and deficiency rates, combined with other selected iron status data in young European children. Read More

    Excess iron: considerations related to development and early growth.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1600S-1605S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases. In addition, efforts to understand how iron exposure influences stem cell biology could be enhanced by establishing platforms to collect biological specimens, including umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid, to be made available to the research community. Read More

    Emerging understanding and measurement of plasma volume expansion in pregnancy.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1620S-1625S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO
    Plasma volume expansion is an important component of a successful pregnancy. The failure of maternal plasma volume expansion has been implicated in adverse obstetric outcomes such as pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and preterm birth. Altered iron homeostasis and elevated maternal hemoglobin concentrations have also been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes; limited data have suggested that these effects may be mediated by inadequate plasma volume expansion. Read More

    Impact of chronic and acute inflammation on extra- and intracellular iron homeostasis.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1581S-1587S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
    Inflammation has a major impact on iron homeostasis. This review focuses on acute and chronic inflammation as it affects iron trafficking and, as a result, the availability of this essential micronutrient to the host. In situations of microbial infection, not only the host is affected but also the offending microorganisms, which, in general, not only require iron for their own growth but have evolved mechanisms to obtain it from the infected host. Read More

    Laboratory methodologies for indicators of iron status: strengths, limitations, and analytical challenges.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1606S-1614S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    Biochemical assessment of iron status relies on serum-based indicators, such as serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), as well as erythrocyte protoporphyrin. These indicators present challenges for clinical practice and national nutrition surveys, and often iron status interpretation is based on the combination of several indicators. The diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID) through SF concentration, the most commonly used indicator, is complicated by concomitant inflammation. Read More

    Excess iron intake as a factor in growth, infections, and development of infants and young children.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1681S-1687S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA
    The provision of iron via supplementation or the fortification of foods has been shown to be effective in preventing and treating iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in infants and young children. However, iron is a pro-oxidative element and can have negative effects on biological systems even at moderate amounts. An increasing number of studies have reported adverse effects of iron that was given to infants and young-children populations who initially were iron replete. Read More

    Iron status in pregnant women and women of reproductive age in Europe.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1655S-1662S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH, Bethesda, MD; and.
    Understanding the iron status in pregnant women in Europe provides a foundation for considering the role of iron screening and supplementation. However, available reports and studies have used different approaches that challenge the devising of overall summaries. Moreover, data on pregnant women are limited, and thus, data on women of reproductive age provide useful background information including baseline iron stores in pregnant women. Read More

    Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1567S-1574S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Center for Iron Disorders, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. Read More

    Gaps in evidence regarding iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women and young children: summary of US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 25;106(Suppl 6):1555S-1558S. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, Providence, RI.
    The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) makes recommendations to primary care providers regarding preventive services for asymptomatic patients. Recommendations are based on the scientific evidence that the delivery of the preventive service leads to improvements in meaningful patient outcomes. After a review of the available evidence, the USPSTF found insufficient evidence to recommend routine iron supplementation for pregnant women or routine screening for iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women or young children. Read More

    Neuromodulation directed at the prefrontal cortex of subjects with obesity reduces snack food intake and hunger in a randomized trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 18;106(6):1347-1357. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Obesity and Diabetes Clinical Research Section, Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Phoenix, AZ;
    Background: Obesity is associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region of the brain that plays a key role in the support of self-regulatory aspects of eating behavior and inhibitory control. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity.Objectives: We tested whether repeated anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC (compared with sham tDCS) has an immediate effect on eating behavior during ad libitum food intake, resulting in weight change, and whether it might influence longer-term food intake-related appetite ratings in individuals with obesity. Read More

    Comparison among criteria to define successful weight-loss maintainers and regainers in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) and Diabetes Prevention Program trials.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 18;106(6):1337-1346. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and
    Background: Given the low rates of successful weight maintenance after lifestyle-induced weight loss, it is critical to develop approaches that distinguish successful weight-loss maintainers from regainers.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare published categorization criteria that differentiate maintainers and regainers via quantitative agreement.Design: The study used publicly available data from Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes; n = 1791) and Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP; n = 613) participants with ≥3% initial weight loss after lifestyle interventions and 4-y follow-up data. Read More

    A 1-h time interval between a meal containing iron and consumption of tea attenuates the inhibitory effects on iron absorption: a controlled trial in a cohort of healthy UK women using a stable iron isotope.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 18;106(6):1413-1421. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, and Life Sciences, University of Chester, Chester, United Kingdom;
    Background: Tea has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of nonheme iron absorption, but it remains unclear whether the timing of tea consumption relative to a meal influences iron bioavailability.Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a 1-h time interval of tea consumption on nonheme iron absorption in an iron-containing meal in a cohort of iron-replete, nonanemic female subjects with the use of a stable isotope (57Fe).Design: Twelve women (mean ± SD age: 24. Read More

    Bone mineral density during pregnancy in women participating in a randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 18;106(6):1422-1430. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, and
    Background: Little is known about bone mineral density (BMD) during pregnancy. Advances in technology with lower radiation emissions by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry instruments now permit the safe measurement of BMD during pregnancy.Objective: We evaluated maternal BMD during pregnancy as a function of vitamin D status in women of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Read More

    Surrogate disease markers as substitutes for chronic disease outcomes in studies of diet and chronic disease relations.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Nov 11;106(5):1175-1189. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Office of the Director, NIH, Bethesda, MD; and.
    Surrogate biomarkers for clinical outcomes afford scientific and economic efficiencies when investigating nutritional interventions in chronic diseases. However, valid scientific results are dependent on the qualification of these disease markers that are intended to be substitutes for a clinical outcome and to accurately predict benefit or harm. In this article, we examine the challenges of evaluating surrogate markers and describe the framework proposed in a 2010 Institute of Medicine report. Read More

    Pomegranate juice, but not an extract, confers a lower glycemic response on a high-glycemic index food: randomized, crossover, controlled trials in healthy subjects.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 11;106(6):1384-1393. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; and
    Background: Low-glycemic index diets have demonstrated health benefits associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes.Objectives: We tested whether pomegranate polyphenols could lower the glycemic response of a high-glycemic index food when consumed together and the mechanism by which this might occur.Design: We compared the acute effect of a pomegranate juice and a polyphenol-rich extract from pomegranate (supplement) on the bread-derived postprandial blood glucose concentration in 2 randomized, crossover, controlled studies (double-blinded for the supplements), each on 16 healthy volunteers. Read More

    Placental vitamin D metabolism and its associations with circulating vitamin D metabolites in pregnant women.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Dec 11;106(6):1439-1448. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
    Background: Little is known about placental vitamin D metabolism and its impact on maternal circulating vitamin D concentrations in humans.Objective: This study sought to advance the current understanding of placental vitamin D metabolism and its role in modulating maternal circulating vitamin D metabolites during pregnancy.Design: Nested within a feeding study, 24 healthy pregnant women (26-29 wk of gestation) consumed a single amount of vitamin D (511 IU/d from diet and a cholecalciferol supplement) for 10 wk. Read More

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