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    19863 results match your criteria American Journal of Clinical Nutrition[Journal]

    1 OF 398

    Inflammatory potential of the diet and colorectal tumor risk in persons with Lynch syndrome.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands;
    Background: Persons with Lynch syndrome (LS) have high lifetime risk of developing colorectal tumors (CRTs) because of a germline mutation in one of their mismatch repair (MMR) genes. An important process in the development of CRTs is inflammation, which has been shown to be modulated by diet.Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of CRTs in persons with LS. Read More

    Genetic variation of habitual coffee consumption and glycemic changes in response to weight-loss diet intervention: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Departments of Epidemiology and
    Background: Coffee consumption has been associated with glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes.Objective: We examined whether the genetic variation determining habitual coffee consumption affected glycemic changes in response to weight-loss dietary intervention.Design: A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 8 habitual coffee consumption-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. Read More

    Biomarkers of food intake and nutrient status are associated with glucose tolerance status and development of type 2 diabetes in older Swedish women.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Division of Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden;
    Background: Diet is frequently associated with both the development and prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is a lack of objective tools for assessing the relation between diet and T2D. Biomarkers of dietary intake are unconfounded by recall and reporting bias, and using multiple dietary biomarkers could help strengthen the link between a healthy diet and the prevention of T2D.Objective: The objective of this study was to explore how diet is related to glucose tolerance status (GTS) and to future development of T2D irrespective of common T2D and cardiovascular disease risk factors by using multiple dietary biomarkers. Read More

    Effect of prior meal macronutrient composition on postprandial glycemic responses and glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA
    Background: The potential impact of prior meal composition on the postprandial glycemic response and glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations remains unclear.Objective: We determined the effect of meals that varied in macronutrient composition on the glycemic response and determination of GI and GL values of a subsequent standard test food.Design: Twenty healthy participants underwent 6 test sessions within 12 wk. Read More

    Within-day protein distribution does not influence body composition responses during weight loss in resistance-training adults who are overweight.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; and
    Background: Emerging research suggests that redistributing total protein intake from 1 high-protein meal/d to multiple moderately high-protein meals improves 24-h muscle protein synthesis. Over time, this may promote positive changes in body composition.Objective: We sought to assess the effects of within-day protein intake distribution on changes in body composition during dietary energy restriction and resistance training. Read More

    In the elderly, meat protein assimilation from rare meat is lower than that from meat that is well done.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Unit of Human Nutrition, French National Institute for Agricultural Research, University of Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France;
    Background: Meat cooking conditions in in vitro and in vivo models have been shown to influence the rate of protein digestion, which is known to affect postprandial protein metabolism in the elderly.Objectives: The present study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of cooking conditions on meat protein assimilation in the elderly. We used a single-meal protocol to assess the meat protein absorption rate and estimate postprandial meat protein utilization in elderly subjects. Read More

    Quantity and source of dietary protein influence metabolite production by gut microbiota and rectal mucosa gene expression: a randomized, parallel, double-blind trial in overweight humans.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Mixed research unit Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, AgroParisTech, French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), University of Paris-Saclay, Paris, France;
    Background: Although high-protein diets (HPDs) are frequently consumed for body-weight control, little is known about the consequences for gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and for large intestine mucosal homeostasis. Moreover, the effects of HPDs according to the source of protein need to be considered in this context.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the quantity and source of dietary protein on microbiota composition, bacterial metabolite production, and consequences for the large intestinal mucosa in humans. Read More

    Intake of potassium- and magnesium-enriched salt improves functional outcome after stroke: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind controlled trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Neurology, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; and.
    Background: Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and neurologic deficits. Management measures to improve neurologic outcomes are in great need. Our previous intervention trial in elderly subjects successfully used salt as a carrier for potassium, demonstrating a 41% reduction in cardiovascular mortality by switching to potassium-enriched salt. Read More

    Trajectories of maternal weight from before pregnancy through postpartum and associations with childhood obesity.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Division of Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
    Background: Prepregnancy body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], gestational weight gain, and postpartum weight retention may have distinct effects on the development of child obesity, but their combined effect is currently unknown.Objective: We described longitudinal trajectories of maternal weight from before pregnancy through the postpartum period and assessed the relations between maternal weight trajectories and offspring obesity in childhood.Design: We analyzed data from 4436 pairs of mothers and their children in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (1981-2014). Read More

    Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Sleep Health Institute and Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, and.
    Background: Weight gain and obesity have reached alarming levels. Eating at a later clock hour is a newly described risk factor for adverse metabolic health; yet, how eating at a later circadian time influences body composition is unknown. Using clock hour to document eating times may be misleading owing to individual differences in circadian timing relative to clock hour. Read More

    Randomized controlled trial on the impact of early-life intervention with bifidobacteria on the healthy infant fecal microbiota and metabolome.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Chair of Nutrition and Immunology,
    Background: Early-life colonization of the intestinal tract is a dynamic process influenced by numerous factors. The impact of probiotic-supplemented infant formula on the composition and function of the infant gut microbiota is not well defined.Objective: We sought to determine the effects of a bifidobacteria-containing formula on the healthy human intestinal microbiome during the first year of life. Read More

    Investigating predictors of eating: is resting metabolic rate really the strongest proxy of energy intake?
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Behavioral and Metabolic Research Unit, School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada;
    Background: Evidence suggests that fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate (RMR), but not fat mass, are strong predictors of energy intake (EI). However, body composition and RMR do not explain the entire variance in EI, suggesting that other factors may contribute to this variance.Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations between body mass index (in kg/m(2)), fat mass, fat-free mass, and RMR with acute (1 meal) and daily (24-h) EI and between fasting appetite ratings and certain eating behavior traits with daily EI. Read More

    Substitution of whole grains for refined grains: a means to avoid excess B-vitamin intake.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Sep;106(3):946-947
    From the Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College, Dalian University, Dalian, China (S-SZ); and the Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (YZ, e-mail:

    Plasma glucose and insulin responses after consumption of breakfasts with different sources of soluble fiber in type 2 diabetes patients: a randomized crossover clinical trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, and.
    Background: The amount and quality of carbohydrates are important determinants of plasma glucose after meals. Regarding fiber content, it is unclear whether the intake of soluble fibers from foods or supplements has an equally beneficial effect on lowering postprandial glucose.Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the acute effect of soluble fiber intake from foods or supplements after a common meal on postprandial plasma glucose and plasma insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Read More

    DHA-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases DNA methylation in blood leukocytes: the OmegAD study.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Departments of Medicine and Hematology (HERM) and
    Background: Dietary fish oils, rich in long-chain n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) [e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)], modulate inflammatory reactions through various mechanisms, including gene expression, which is measured as messenger RNA concentration. Read More

    Effects of dietary sodium on metabolites: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium Feeding Study.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Rockville, MD; and
    Background: High sodium intake is known to increase blood pressure and is difficult to measure in epidemiologic studies.Objective: We examined the effect of sodium intake on metabolites within the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial)-Sodium Trial to further our understanding of the biological effects of sodium intake beyond blood pressure.Design: The DASH-Sodium Trial randomly assigned individuals to either the DASH diet (low in fat and high in protein, low-fat dairy, and fruits and vegetables) or a control diet for 12 wk. Read More

    Vitamin D prenatal programming of childhood metabolomics profiles at age 3 y.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and
    Background: Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in a range of common complex diseases that may be prevented by gestational vitamin D repletion. Understanding the metabolic mechanisms related to in utero vitamin D exposure may therefore shed light on complex disease susceptibility.Objective: The goal was to analyze the programming role of in utero vitamin D exposure on children's metabolomics profiles. Read More

    Coffee consumption after myocardial infarction and risk of cardiovascular mortality: a prospective analysis in the Alpha Omega Cohort.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands; and
    Background: Consumption of coffee, one of the most popular beverages around the world, has been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in population-based studies. However, little is known about these associations in patient populations.Objective: This prospective study aimed to examine the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, and all-cause mortality in patients with a prior myocardial infarction (MI). Read More

    Home- and community-based growth monitoring to reduce early life growth faltering: an open-label, cluster-randomized controlled trial.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
    Background: Despite the continued high prevalence of faltering growth, height monitoring remains limited in many low- and middle-income countries.Objective: The objective of this study was to test whether providing parents with information on their child's height can improve children's height and developmental outcomes.Design: Villages in Chipata District, Zambia (n = 127), were randomly assigned with equal probability to 1 of 3 groups: home-based growth monitoring (HBGM), community-based growth monitoring including nutritional supplementation for children with stunted growth (CBGM+NS), and control. Read More

    Effects of protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise on body composition and physical function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and
    Background: Overweight and obese older people face a high risk of muscle loss and impaired physical function, which may contribute to sarcopenic obesity. Resistance exercise training (RET) has a beneficial effect on muscle protein synthesis and can be augmented by protein supplementation (PS). However, whether body weight affects the augmentation of muscular and functional performance in response to PS in older people undergoing RET remains unclear. Read More

    Mediation and modification of genetic susceptibility to obesity by eating behaviors.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, and.
    Background: Many genetic variants show highly robust associations with body mass index (BMI). However, the mechanisms through which genetic susceptibility to obesity operates are not well understood. Potentially modifiable mechanisms, including eating behaviors, are of particular interest to public health. Read More

    Modeling the dose effects of soybean oil in salad dressing on carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability in salad vegetables.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Unilever R&D, Vlaardingen, Netherlands.
    Background: Previously, we showed that vegetable oil is necessary for carotenoid absorption from salad vegetables. Research is needed to better define the dose effect and its interindividual variation for carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins.Objective: The objective was to model the dose-response relation between the amount of soybean oil in salad dressing and the absorption of 1) carotenoids, phylloquinone, and tocopherols in salad vegetables and 2) retinyl palmitate formed from the provitamin A carotenoids. Read More

    Plasma lipidomic profiles and cardiovascular events in a randomized intervention trial with the Mediterranean diet.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain;
    Background: Lipid metabolites may partially explain the inverse association between the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and cardiovascular disease (CVD).Objective: We evaluated the associations between 1) lipid species and the risk of CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death); 2) a MedDiet intervention [supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) or nuts] and 1-y changes in these molecules; and 3) 1-y changes in lipid species and subsequent CVD.Design: With the use of a case-cohort design, we profiled 202 lipid species at baseline and after 1 y of intervention in the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial in 983 participants [230 cases and a random subcohort of 790 participants (37 overlapping cases)]. Read More

    Association of TCN2 rs1801198 c.776G>C polymorphism with markers of one-carbon metabolism and related diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic association studies.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Personalized Therapeutics,
    Background: Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) deficiency may produce severe neurologic and hematologic manifestations. Approximately 20-25% of circulating cobalamin binds to transcobalamin 2 (TCN2), which is referred to as active vitamin B-12. The G allele of the TCN2 c. Read More

    Consumption of galacto-oligosaccharides increases iron absorption from a micronutrient powder containing ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA: a stable-isotope study in Kenyan infants.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Laboratories of Human Nutrition and
    Background: Whether consumption of prebiotics increases iron absorption in infants is unclear.Objective: We set out to determine whether prebiotic consumption affects iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) containing a mixture of ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA (FeFum+NaFeEDTA) in Kenyan infants.Design: Infants (n = 50; aged 6-14 mo) consumed maize porridge that was fortified with an MNP containing FeFum+NaFeEDTA and 7. Read More

    Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine concentrations in healthy adults.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA;
    Background: Emerging evidence suggests novel roles for bacterially derived vitamin K forms known as menaquinones in health and disease, which may be attributable in part to anti-inflammatory effects. However, the relevance of menaquinones produced by gut bacteria to vitamin K requirements and inflammation is undetermined.Objective: This study aimed to quantify fecal menaquinone concentrations and identify associations between fecal menaquinone concentrations and serum vitamin K concentrations, gut microbiota composition, and inflammation. Read More

    Dynamics of intrapericardial and extrapericardial fat tissues during long-term, dietary-induced, moderate weight loss.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel;
    Background: In view of evidence linking pericardial fat accumulation with increased cardiovascular disease risk, strategies to reduce its burden are needed. Data comparing the effects of specific long-term dietary interventions on pericardial fat tissue mobilization are sparse.Objective: We sought to evaluate intrapericardial-fat (IPF) and extrapericardial-fat (EPF) changes during weight-loss interventions by different dietary regimens. Read More

    Soya, maize, and sorghum-based ready-to-use therapeutic food with amino acid is as efficacious as the standard milk and peanut paste-based formulation for the treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children: A noninferiority individually randomized controlled efficacy clinical trial in Malawi.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Valid International, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Background: Development of more cost-effective ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is a global public health priority. To date, previous lower-cost recipes have been less effective than the standard peanut and milk (PM)-based RUTF, particularly in children aged <24 mo.Objective: We aimed to compare the efficacy of the PM-RUTF to a milk-free soya, maize, and sorghum (FSMS)-RUTF enriched with crystalline amino acids without cow milk powder and a milk, soya, maize, and sorghum (MSMS)-RUTF containing 9. Read More

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