20,298 results match your criteria American Journal of Clinical Nutrition[Journal]


Vitamin D for the Immune System in Cystic Fibrosis (DISC): a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipids, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have increased risk of vitamin D deficiency owing to fat malabsorption and other factors. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of pulmonary exacerbations of CF.

Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of a single high-dose bolus of vitamin D3 followed by maintenance treatment given to adults with CF during an acute pulmonary exacerbation on future recurrence of pulmonary exacerbations. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy291DOI Listing
February 2019

Best (but oft-forgotten) practices: missing data methods in randomized controlled nutrition trials.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Departments of Mental Health.

Missing data ubiquitously occur in randomized controlled trials and may compromise the causal inference if inappropriately handled. Some problematic missing data methods such as complete case (CC) analysis and last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) are unfortunately still common in nutrition trials. This situation is partially caused by investigator confusion on missing data assumptions for different methods. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy271DOI Listing
February 2019

The use of whole body calorimetry to compare measured versus predicted energy expenditure in postpartum women.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Canada.

Background: Accurate assessment of energy expenditure may support weight-management recommendations. Measuring energy expenditure for each postpartum woman is unfeasible; therefore, accurate predictive equations are needed.

Objectives: This study compared measured with predicted resting energy expenditure (REE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in postpartum women. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy312DOI Listing
February 2019

An infant formula with large, milk phospholipid-coated lipid droplets containing a mixture of dairy and vegetable lipids supports adequate growth and is well tolerated in healthy, term infants.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Erasmus University Medical Centre/Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Lipid droplets in human milk have a mode diameter of ∼4 μm and are surrounded by a native phospholipid-rich membrane. Current infant milk formulas (IMFs) contain small lipid droplets (mode diameter ∼0.5 μm) primarily coated by proteins. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy322DOI Listing
February 2019

Consumption of cashew nuts does not influence blood lipids or other markers of cardiovascular disease in humans: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):269-275

USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD.

Background: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a qualified health claim for tree nuts and reduction of cardiovascular disease. However, cashews are excluded from that claim due to their content of saturated fats, which is predominantly stearic acid. Because stearic acid is neutral with respect to blood lipids, several studies have been conducted to test the effect of cashew nuts on blood lipids, and these studies have produced conflicting results. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy242DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Plasma alkylresorcinol metabolite, a biomarker of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and risk of ischemic stroke: a case-control study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):1-7

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety.

Background: Epidemiologic studies on whole grains and risk of stroke have reported inconsistent results, with some suggesting a protective effect but others showing a null association.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether plasma 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA), a biomarker of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, is associated with risk of ischemic stroke.

Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted between March 2011 and May 2016. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy323DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
6.770 Impact Factor

Grape or grain but never the twain? A randomized controlled multiarm matched-triplet crossover trial of beer and wine.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):345-352

Witten/Herdecke University, HELIOS University Hospital Wuppertal, Centre for Clinical and Translational Research, Department of Pediatrics, Wuppertal, Germany.

Background: Alcohol-induced hangover constitutes a significant, yet understudied, global hazard and a large socio-economic burden. Old folk wisdoms such as "Beer before wine and you'll feel fine; wine before beer and you'll feel queer" exist in many languages. However, whether these concepts in fact reduce hangover severity is unclear. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy309DOI Listing
February 2019

Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating oral glutamine on radiation-induced oral mucositis and dermatitis in head and neck cancer patients.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology.

Background: Glutamine is the primary fuel for the gastrointestinal epithelium and maintains the mucosal structure. Oncologists frequently encounter oral mucositis, which can cause unplanned breaks in radiotherapy (RT).

Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the association between oral glutamine and acute toxicities in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing RT. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy329DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Serum metabolites associated with dietary protein intake: results from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) randomized clinical trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Background: Accurate assessment of dietary intake is essential, but self-report of dietary intake is prone to measurement error and bias. Discovering metabolic consequences of diets with lower compared with higher protein intake could elucidate new, objective biomarkers of protein intake.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to identify serum metabolites associated with dietary protein intake. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy202DOI Listing
February 2019

The relationship between wasting and stunting: a retrospective cohort analysis of longitudinal data in Gambian children from 1976 to 2016.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

MRC Unit The Gambia at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: The etiologic relationship between wasting and stunting is poorly understood, largely because of a lack of high-quality longitudinal data from children at risk of undernutrition.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the interrelationships between wasting and stunting in children aged <2 y.

Methods: This study involved a retrospective cohort analysis, based on growth-monitoring records spanning 4 decades from clinics in rural Gambia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy326DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The effect of nuts on markers of glycemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):297-314

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

Background: Observational evidence suggests higher nut consumption is associated with better glycemic control; however, it is unclear if this association is causal.

Objectives: We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to examine the effect of tree nuts and peanuts on markers of glycemic control in adults.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy236DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads
6.770 Impact Factor

Attenuation of satiety gut hormones increases appetitive behavior after curative esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):335-344

Metabolic Medicine, Conway Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Research, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Reduced appetite and weight loss are common after esophagectomy (ES), and this cohort demonstrates an exaggerated postprandial satiety gut hormone response. Satiety gut hormones modulate food reward, resulting in reduced energy intake.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of satiety gut hormone modulation by measuring the effect of the somatostatin analog octreotide on appetitive behavior among patients after ES. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy324DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Balancing the benefits of maternal nutritional interventions; time to put women first!

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):249-250

Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy336DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Disentangling the genetics of lean mass.

Authors:
David Karasik M Carola Zillikens Yi-Hsiang Hsu Ali Aghdassi Kristina Akesson Najaf Amin Inês Barroso David A Bennett Lars Bertram Murielle Bochud Ingrid B Borecki Linda Broer Aron S Buchman Liisa Byberg Harry Campbell Natalia Campos-Obando Jane A Cauley Peggy M Cawthon John C Chambers Zhao Chen Nam H Cho Hyung Jin Choi Wen-Chi Chou Steven R Cummings Lisette C P G M de Groot Phillip L De Jager Ilja Demuth Luda Diatchenko Michael J Econs Gudny Eiriksdottir Anke W Enneman Joel Eriksson Johan G Eriksson Karol Estrada Daniel S Evans Mary F Feitosa Mao Fu Christian Gieger Harald Grallert Vilmundur Gudnason Launer J Lenore Caroline Hayward Albert Hofman Georg Homuth Kim M Huffman Lise B Husted Thomas Illig Erik Ingelsson Till Ittermann John-Olov Jansson Toby Johnson Reiner Biffar Joanne M Jordan Antti Jula Magnus Karlsson Kay-Tee Khaw Tuomas O Kilpeläinen Norman Klopp Jacqueline S L Kloth Daniel L Koller Jaspal S Kooner William E Kraus Stephen Kritchevsky Zoltán Kutalik Teemu Kuulasmaa Johanna Kuusisto Markku Laakso Jari Lahti Thomas Lang Bente L Langdahl Markus M Lerch Joshua R Lewis Christina Lill Lars Lind Cecilia Lindgren Yongmei Liu Gregory Livshits Östen Ljunggren Ruth J F Loos Mattias Lorentzon Jian'an Luan Robert N Luben Ida Malkin Fiona E McGuigan Carolina Medina-Gomez Thomas Meitinger Håkan Melhus Dan Mellström Karl Michaëlsson Braxton D Mitchell Andrew P Morris Leif Mosekilde Maria Nethander Anne B Newman Jeffery R O'Connell Ben A Oostra Eric S Orwoll Aarno Palotie Munro Peacock Markus Perola Annette Peters Richard L Prince Bruce M Psaty Katri Räikkönen Stuart H Ralston Samuli Ripatti Fernando Rivadeneira John A Robbins Jerome I Rotter Igor Rudan Veikko Salomaa Suzanne Satterfield Sabine Schipf Chan Soo Shin Albert V Smith Shad B Smith Nicole Soranzo Timothy D Spector Alena Stancáková Kari Stefansson Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen Lisette Stolk Elizabeth A Streeten Unnur Styrkarsdottir Karin M A Swart Patricia Thompson Cynthia A Thomson Gudmar Thorleifsson Unnur Thorsteinsdottir Emmi Tikkanen Gregory J Tranah André G Uitterlinden Cornelia M van Duijn Natasja M van Schoor Liesbeth Vandenput Peter Vollenweider Henry Völzke Jean Wactawski-Wende Mark Walker Nicholas J Wareham Dawn Waterworth Michael N Weedon H-Erich Wichmann Elisabeth Widen Frances M K Williams James F Wilson Nicole C Wright Laura M Yerges-Armstrong Lei Yu Weihua Zhang Jing Hua Zhao Yanhua Zhou Carrie M Nielson Tamara B Harris Serkalem Demissie Douglas P Kiel Claes Ohlsson

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):276-287

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy272DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
6.770 Impact Factor

Potential effects of reduced red meat compared with increased fiber intake on glucose metabolism and liver fat content: a randomized and controlled dietary intervention study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):288-296

Department of Internal Medicine IV, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that an increased red meat intake is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas an increased fiber intake is associated with a lower risk.

Objectives: We conducted an intervention study to investigate the effects of these nutritional factors on glucose and lipid metabolism, body-fat distribution, and liver fat content in subjects at increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

Methods: This prospective, randomized, and controlled dietary intervention study was performed over 6 mo. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy307DOI Listing
February 2019

A multicountry randomized controlled trial of comprehensive maternal nutrition supplementation initiated before conception: the Women First trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):457-469

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Nutrition, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO.

Background: Reported benefits of maternal nutrition supplements commenced during pregnancy in low-resource populations have typically been quite limited.

Objectives: This study tested the effects on newborn size, especially length, of commencing nutrition supplements for women in low-resource populations ≥3 mo before conception (Arm 1), compared with the same supplement commenced late in the first trimester of pregnancy (Arm 2) or not at all (control Arm 3).

Methods: Women First was a 3-arm individualized randomized controlled trial (RCT). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367966PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Prenatal and postnatal lipid-based nutrient supplementation and cognitive, social-emotional, and motor function in preschool-aged children in Ghana: a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):322-334

Program in International and Community Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA.

Background: Adequate nutrition is necessary for brain development during pregnancy and infancy. Few randomized controlled trials of supplementation during these periods have measured later developmental outcomes.

Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effects of provision of prenatal and postnatal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on child development at preschool age. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367954PMC
February 2019
1 Read

A report of activities related to the Dietary Reference Intakes from the Joint Canada-US Dietary Reference Intakes Working Group.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):251-259

Office of Nutrition and Food Labeling, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD.

The governments of the United States and Canada have jointly undertaken the development of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) since the mid-1990s. The Federal DRI committees from each country work collaboratively to identify DRI needs, prioritize nutrient reviews, advance work to resolve methodological issues that is necessary for new reviews, and sponsor DRI-related committees through the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. In recent years, the Joint Canada-US DRI Working Group, consisting of members from both Federal DRI committees, developed an open and transparent nomination process for prioritizing nutrients for DRI review, by which sodium, the omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, vitamin E, and magnesium were identified. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/2/251/5307115
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy293DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Measure for measure?

Authors:
Marc Hellerstein

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):247-248

Department of Nutritional Sciences & Toxicology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA; and Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy365DOI Listing
February 2019

Fruit and vegetable consumption, cigarette smoke, and leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):424-432

Department of Epidemiology, Richard M Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN.

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important component of the aging process and has been implicated in the development of many human diseases. Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), an indirect biomarker of mitochondrial function, is sensitive to oxidative damage. Few population-based studies have investigated the impact of fruit and vegetable consumption and cigarette smoke (2 major sources of exogenous antioxidants and oxidants) on leukocyte mtDNAcn. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367969PMC
February 2019

Fasting hepatic de novo lipogenesis is not reliably assessed using circulating fatty acid markers.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):260-268

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Observational studies often infer hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) by measuring circulating fatty acid (FA) markers; however, it remains to be elucidated whether these markers accurately reflect hepatic DNL.

Objectives: We investigated associations between fasting hepatic DNL and proposed FA markers of DNL in subjects consuming their habitual diet.

Methods: Fasting hepatic DNL was assessed using 2H2O (deuterated water) in 149 nondiabetic men and women and measuring the synthesis of very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) palmitate. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367991PMC
February 2019

Assessment of lactase activity in humans by measurement of galactitol and galactonate in serum and urine after milk intake.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):470-477

Agroscope, Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Lactase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose into glucose and galactose in the small intestine, where they are absorbed. Hypolactasia is a common condition, primarily caused by genetic programming, that leads to lactose maldigestion and, in certain cases, lactose intolerance. Galactitol and galactonate are 2 products of hepatic galactose metabolism that are candidate markers for the intake of lactose-containing foods. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367971PMC
February 2019
1 Read

From nutrigenomics to personalizing diets: are we ready for precision medicine?

Authors:
Ruth J F Loos

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):1-2

Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, and The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358032PMC
January 2019

Onward and upward.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):245-246

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA; and the Departments of Nutrition and Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz003DOI Listing
February 2019

The effect of vitamin D supplementation on lower-extremity power and function in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):369-379

Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA.

Background: The effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function in older adults has been tested in randomized trials with mixed results, which may be due to differences in the study participant characteristics, including baseline vitamin D status. The results of 2 meta-analyses of randomized trials suggested a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function in older adults with low baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D].

Objectives: We aimed to test the effect of 12 mo of vitamin D supplementation on lower-extremity power and function in older community-dwelling adults screened for low serum 25(OH)D. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy290DOI Listing
February 2019

Carbon footprint of self-selected US diets: nutritional, demographic, and behavioral correlates.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

University of Michigan, Center for Sustainable Systems, School for Environment and Sustainability, Ann Arbor, MI.

Background: A substantial portion of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) has been attributed to the food sector, but little is known about the association between the carbon footprint of individual self-selected diets in the United States and nutritional quality.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess the GHGE from individual self-selected diets in the United States and examine their association with nutritional quality of the diets, demographic patterns, and food-related behaviors.

Methods: The dietary GHGE from US adults (>18 y, N = 16,800) in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were calculated by linking all foods consumed in their 24-h recall diets to our new database of food environmental impacts. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy327DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Associations of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive and neuroimaging phenotypes of dementia in healthy older adults.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):361-368

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that higher Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) adherence is associated with higher global cognitive performance and brain structural integrity as well as decreased risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD).

Objectives: We directly examined cross-sectional associations between the MedDiet and cognitive and neuroimaging phenotypes associated with AD and VaD (separately) in a cohort of nondemented, nondepressed older adults.

Methods: Community-dwelling older adults (n = 82; aged ∼68. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367961PMC
February 2019
8 Reads

Urinary excretion of sex steroid hormone metabolites after consumption of cow milk: a randomized crossover intervention trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):402-410

Institute for Prevention and Cancer Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Current cow milk production practices introduce considerable levels of pregnancy hormones into the milk. Humans are exposed to these hormones when cow milk is consumed, and this may explain the observed association between cow milk consumption and several hormone-sensitive cancers.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether cow milk consumption is associated with an increase in urinary excretion of sex steroid hormones and their metabolites in humans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy279DOI Listing
February 2019

Antioxidant supplementation and breast cancer prognosis in postmenopausal women undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):69-78

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: There is a paucity of information on the prevalence of dietary supplement use in breast cancer survivors. Only a few studies have examined the impact of dietary supplements, particularly antioxidants, on breast cancer prognosis and the results are inconclusive.

Objective: We examined pre- and postdiagnosis use of supplements in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors in Germany and investigated associations between postdiagnosis use of antioxidants and other supplements, and prognosis (total and breast cancer mortality, and recurrence-free survival) both overall and in women who received chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy223DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

The quest for evidence for calcium requirements for bone during pregnancy and lactation.

Authors:
Connie M Weaver

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):3-4

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, 700 W Street, West Lafayette, IN.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy335DOI Listing
January 2019

Best practices in nutrition science to earn and keep the public's trust.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):225-243

Center for Bioethics and Humanities, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO.

Public trust in nutrition science is the foundation on which nutrition and health progress is based, including sound public health. An ASN-commissioned, independent Advisory Committee comprehensively reviewed the literature and available public surveys about the public's trust in nutrition science and the factors that influence it and conducted stakeholder outreach regarding publicly available information. The Committee selected 7 overlapping domains projected to significantly influence public trust: 1) conflict of interest and objectivity; 2) public benefit; 3) standards of scientific rigor and reproducibility; 4) transparency; 5) equity; 6) information dissemination (education, communication, and marketing); and 7) accountability. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy337DOI Listing
January 2019
20 Reads

Ensuring trust in nutrition science: request for stakeholder input.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):223-224

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy338DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Changes in blood lipid concentrations associated with changes in intake of dietary saturated fat in the context of a healthy low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet: a secondary analysis of the Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success (DIETFITS) trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):433-441

Stanford Prevention Research Center.

Background: For low-carbohydrate diets, a public health approach has focused on the replacement of carbohydrates with unsaturated fats. However, little research exists on the impacts of saturated fat intake on the lipid profile in the context of whole-food-based low-carbohydrate weight-loss diets.

Objectives: The primary aim of this secondary analysis of the DIETFITS weight loss trial was to evaluate the associations between changes in percentage of dietary saturated fatty acid intake (%SFA) and changes in low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, and triglyceride concentrations for those following a healthy low-carbohydrate (HLC) diet. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367958PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Effect of prenatal calcium supplementation on bone during pregnancy and 1 y postpartum.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):197-206

Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA.

Background: Low calcium intake during pregnancy may cause maternal skeletal calcium mobilization to meet fetal needs. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for calcium in nonpregnant, pregnant, or lactating women aged 19-50 y is 1000 mg/d; most women in the United States report consuming 60-80% of the calcium RDA. An insufficient calcium intake could increase maternal bone loss during pregnancy and reduce bone recovery postpartum. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy233DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

High iron intake is associated with poor cognition among Chinese old adults and varied by weight status-a 15-y longitudinal study in 4852 adults.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):109-116

Human Nutrition Department, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Background: High body iron status has been shown to be associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the relation between high body iron status, body mass index (BMI), and cognition is still understudied.

Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between iron intake and cognitive function in Chinese adults and tested the interaction effect of iron intake and BMI on cognition. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy254DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Effect of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements on growth, psychomotor development, iron status, and morbidity among 6- to 12-mo-old infants in South Africa: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):55-68

Center of Excellence for Nutrition, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Background: Evidence on the effect of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs) on early child growth and development is mixed.

Objective: This study assessed the effect of daily consumption of 2 different SQ-LNS formulations on linear growth (primary outcome), psychomotor development, iron status (secondary outcomes), and morbidity in infants from age 6 to 12 mo within the context of a maize-based complementary diet.

Methods: Infants (n = 750) were randomly assigned to receive SQ-LNS, SQ-LNS-plus, or no supplement. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358035PMC
January 2019
10 Reads
6.770 Impact Factor

Habitual consumption of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and fish attenuates genetically associated long-term weight gain.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.

Background: A growing amount of data suggests that n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake may modify the genetic association with weight change.

Objectives: We aimed to prospectively test interactions of habitual consumption of n-3 PUFAs or fish, the major food source, with overall genetic susceptibility on long-term weight change.

Design: Gene-diet interactions were examined in 11,330 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 6773 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), and 6254 women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy238DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in older people to optimize bone health.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):207-217

MRC Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is common in older people and may lead to increased bone resorption, bone loss, and increased falls and fractures. However, clinical trials assessing the effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded conflicting results.

Objectives: This study examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation on BMD at the hip, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358029PMC
January 2019
13 Reads

Mechanisms of action of a carbohydrate-reduced, high-protein diet in reducing the risk of postprandial hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Endocrinology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Postprandial hypoglycemia is a risk after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).

Objectives: We speculated that a carbohydrate-reduced, high-protein (CRHP) diet might reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and therefore compared the acute effects of a conventionally recommended (CR) diet and CRHP diet [55/30 energy percent (E%) carbohydrate and 15/30 E% protein, respectively] in RYGB patients.

Methods: Ten individuals (2 males, 8 females, mean ± SD age 47 ± 7 y; stable body mass index 31 ± 6 kg/m2; 6 ± 3 y post-RYGB) with recurrent postprandial hypoglycemia documented by plasma glucose (PG) ≤3. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy310DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Fine mapping of genome-wide association study signals to identify genetic markers of the plasma triglyceride response to an omega-3 fatty acid supplementation.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):176-185

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach, our group previously computed a genetic risk score (GRS) from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 10 loci that affect the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation.

Objectives: The objective was to compute a novel and more refined GRS using fine mapping to include a large number of genetic variants.

Methods: A total of 208 participants of the Fatty Acid Sensor (FAS) Study received 5 g fish oil/d, containing 1. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358031PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Serial measures of circulating biomarkers of dairy fat: something is missing.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):219-220

Adjunct Faculty, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy277DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements and infant and young child feeding counseling with or without improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) on anemia and micronutrient status: results from 2 cluster-randomized trials in Kenya and Bangladesh.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):148-164

Innovations for Poverty Action, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Anemia in young children is a global health problem. Risk factors include poor nutrient intake and poor water quality, sanitation, or hygiene.

Objective: We evaluated the effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition interventions on micronutrient status and anemia among children in rural Kenya and Bangladesh. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358037PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Effect of a hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan on bone density and quality in older adults with obesity: a randomized trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):478-486

Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: Dietary protein and micronutrients are important to the maintenance of bone health and may be an effective countermeasure to weight-loss-associated bone loss.

Objectives: We aimed to determine the effect of a 6-mo hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan on change in bone density and quality as compared with weight stability in older adults using a randomized post-test design. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to this meal plan would maintain similar bone density and quality to weight-stable controls, despite significant reductions in body mass. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367970PMC
February 2019
9 Reads

Combined effects of lactotripeptide and aerobic exercise on cognitive function and cerebral oxygenation in middle-aged and older adults.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):353-360

Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

Background: Age-related declines in cognitive function and cerebral perfusion increase the risk of dementia. Although nutrition and exercise may be effective in reducing cognitive decline, the effect of lactotripeptide (LTP) on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics remains unclear.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LTP ingestion on cerebral oxygenation, cognitive function, and vascular function in middle-aged and older adults with or without an exercise intervention. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy235DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Complementary feeding and bone health: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Food and Nutrition Service, USDA, Alexandria, VA.

Background: Proper nutrition during infancy and toddlerhood is crucial for supporting healthy growth and development, including bone health. Complementary feeding is the process that starts when human milk or infant formula is complemented by other foods and beverages, beginning during late infancy and continuing to 24 mo of age.

Objectives: This article aims to describe systematic reviews (SRs) conducted by the Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review team for the USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project to answer these questions: what is the relationship between 1) timing of introduction of complementary foods and beverages (CFBs) or 2) types and/or amounts of CFBs consumed and bone health?

Methods: The literature was searched with the use of 4 databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, and PubMed) to identify articles published from January 1980 to July 2016 that addressed these topics and met predetermined criteria for inclusion. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy227DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads
6.770 Impact Factor

Reply to H Kahleova and ND Barnard.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):220-221

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy278DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Inflammatory response to dietary linoleic acid depends on FADS1 genotype.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):165-175

Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: The health benefits of substituting dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for saturated fatty acids are well known. However, limited information exists on how the response to dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) is modified by polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster.

Objectives: The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the FADS1 rs174550 genotype modifies the effect of dietary LA intake on the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids, fasting glucose, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy287DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Plasma retinol and the risk of first stroke in hypertensive adults: a nested case-control study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;109(2):449-456

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Identification of novel risk factors is needed to further lower stroke risk. Data concerning the association between plasma retinol concentrations and the risk of stroke are limited.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of plasma retinol on the risk of first stroke and to examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy320DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Dietary vitamin and carotenoid intake and risk of age-related cataract.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Jan;109(1):43-54

School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China.

Background: Existing studies suggest that dietary vitamins and carotenoids might be associated with a reduced risk of age-related cataract (ARC), although a quantitative summary of these associations is lacking.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies of dietary vitamin and carotenoid intake and ARC risk.

Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to June 2018. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy270DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads
6.770 Impact Factor