20,378 results match your criteria American Journal of Clinical Nutrition[Journal]


Plasma oxylipins respond in a linear dose-response manner with increased intake of EPA and DHA: results from a randomized controlled trial in healthy humans.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Chair of Food Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.

Background: The health effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are partly mediated by their oxidized metabolites, i.e., eicosanoids and other oxylipins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz016DOI Listing

Effects of branched-chain amino acids on glucose metabolism in obese, prediabetic men and women: a randomized, crossover study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Recent studies have shown that circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are elevated in obese, insulin-resistant individuals. However, it is not known if supplementation of additional BCAAs will further impair glucose metabolism.

Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effects of BCAA supplementation on glucose metabolism in obese, prediabetic individuals. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz024DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

New insight into human sweet taste: a genome-wide association study of the perception and intake of sweet substances.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Individual differences in human perception of sweetness are partly due to genetics; however, which genes are associated with the perception and the consumption of sweet substances remains unclear.

Objective: The aim of this study was to verify previous reported associations within genes involved in the peripheral receptor systems (i.e. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz043DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

The MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism is associated with unmetabolized folic acid in breast milk in a cohort of Canadian women.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Nutrition Research Division.

Background: Maternal nutrition and genetics are determinants of breast-milk nutrient composition and, as such, are determinants of the nutritional exposure of breastfed infants.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether common maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-dependent enzymes are associated with breast-milk folate content in a cohort of mothers enrolled in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study.

Methods: The MIREC study is a Canadian prospective pregnancy cohort study that recruited 2001 participants between 2008 and 2011. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz056DOI Listing

Habitual coffee consumption and risk of falls in 2 European cohorts of older adults.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, IdiPaz (Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Universitario La Paz), and CIBERESP (CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Habitual coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and sarcopenia, which are strong risk factors of falls. In addition, caffeine intake stimulates attention and vigilance, and reduces reaction time. Therefore, a protective effect of coffee on the risk of falling can be hypothesized. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy369DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation does not increase kidney stone risk or serum calcium: results from a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: A growing number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are investigating the potential health benefits of high-dose vitamin D supplementation. However, there are limited RCT data on the safety of calcium-related adverse effects.

Objective: We investigated the incidence of kidney stone and hypercalcemia events in a large, population-based RCT of vitamin D supplementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy378DOI Listing

Elevated plasma cystathionine is associated with increased risk of mortality among patients with suspected or established coronary heart disease.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Clinical Science, KG Jebsen Centre for Diabetes Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Elevated circulating cystathionine levels are related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death globally.

Objective: We investigated whether plasma cystathionine was associated with mortality in patients with suspected or established coronary heart disease (CHD).

Methods: Data from 2 independent cohorts of patients with suspected stable angina pectoris (SAP) (3033 patients; median 10. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy391DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Corrections.

Authors:

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz065DOI Listing

Association between taste perception and adiposity in overweight or obese older subjects with metabolic syndrome and identification of novel taste-related genes.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The relation between taste perception, diet, and adiposity remains controversial. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge on the polymorphisms influencing taste given the scarcity of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) published.

Objectives: We studied the relation between perception of the basic tastes, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz038DOI Listing

Defining the plasma folate concentration associated with the red blood cell folate concentration threshold for optimal neural tube defects prevention: a population-based, randomized trial of folic acid supplementation.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Background: For women of reproductive age, a population-level red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration below the threshold 906 nmol/L or 400 ng/mL indicates folate insufficiency and suboptimal neural tube defect (NTD) prevention. A corresponding population plasma/serum folate concentration threshold for optimal NTD prevention has not been established.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma and RBC folate concentrations and estimated a population plasma folate insufficiency threshold (pf-IT) corresponding to the RBC folate insufficiency threshold (RBCf-IT) of 906 nmol/L. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz027DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Kansas University DHA Outcomes Study (KUDOS) clinical trial: long-term behavioral follow-up of the effects of prenatal DHA supplementation.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.

Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid that has been linked to improved vision and cognition in postnatal feeding studies and has been consistently associated with reduction of early preterm birth in prenatal supplementation trials. This is a report of the first long-term follow-up of infants from mothers receiving prenatal DHA supplementation in a US cohort.

Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the prenatal supplementation on both global and granular longitudinal assessments of cognitive and behavioral development. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz018DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Diet, weight gain, and head growth in hospitalized US very preterm infants: a 10-year observational study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Vermont Oxford Network, Burlington, VT.

Background: The benefits of human milk for hospitalized preterm infants are well documented, but the extent to which current human milk diets adequately support growth is uncertain.

Objectives: 1) To quantify differences in weight gain and head growth between very preterm infants fed human milk compared with infant formula; and 2) to describe trends in the magnitude of these differences over time.

Methods: We studied infants from 777 US NICUs in the Vermont Oxford Network database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz008DOI Listing

Increased body fatness adversely relates to 24-hour urine pH during childhood and adolescence: evidence of an adipo-renal axis.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

DONALD Study Center, Department of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Bonn, Dortmund, Germany.

Background: Reduced net acid excretion (NAE) capacity indicates a decrease in renal function. This reduction manifests as a disproportionally low 24-h urine pH in relation to the sum of actually excreted ammonium and titratable acidity by the kidney.

Objective: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that higher body fatness is one determinant of kidney function impairment with a lowered urine pH even at a young age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy379DOI Listing

Caloric compensation in infants: developmental changes around the age of 1 year and associations with anthropometric measurements up to 2 years.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, AgroSup Dijon, CNRS, INRA, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France.

Background: Previous results based on dietary recall suggest that the ability to adjust eaten quantities to food energy density (ED) may deteriorate around the age of 1 y. However, this hypothesis has not been investigated experimentally.

Objectives: The first aim of the study was to describe changes in the short-term caloric compensation ability of infants around the age of 1 y. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy357DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Changes in plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles over 13 years and correlates of change: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk Study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Little is known about changes in blood fatty acid compositions over time and the correlates of any changes in a general population.

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate changes in 27 individual plasma phospholipid fatty acids and fatty acid groups over time, and to identify potential correlates of these changes.

Methods: Plasma phospholipid fatty acids were profiled at 3 time-points (1993-1997, 1998-2000, 2004-2011) among 722 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk Study, UK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz030DOI Listing

A randomized controlled trial contrasting the effects of 4 low-calorie sweeteners and sucrose on body weight in adults with overweight or obesity.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Departments of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Background: Low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) provide sweetness with little or no energy. However, each LCS's unique chemical structure has potential to elicit different sensory, physiological, and behavioral responses that affect body weight.

Objective: The purpose of this trial was to compare the effects of consumption of 4 LCSs and sucrose on body weight, ingestive behaviors, and glucose tolerance over a 12-wk intervention in adults (18-60 y old) with overweight or obesity (body mass index 25-40 kg/m2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy381DOI Listing

Improved micronutrient status and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries following large-scale fortification: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Micronutrient malnutrition is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and disproportionately affects women and children. Although the effectiveness of large-scale food fortification (LSFF) of staple foods to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in high-income settings has been demonstrated, its effectiveness in LMICs is less well characterized. This is important as food consumption patterns, potential food vehicles, and therefore potential for impact may vary substantially in these contexts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz023DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The effect of high compared with low dairy consumption on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility in overweight adults: a randomized crossover trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Internal Medicinecal.

Background: Dairy products contain many nutritious components that may benefit metabolic health. There are indications that glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, which are generally disturbed in overweight and obese individuals, may improve by increased dairy intake. This may also affect one's metabolic flexibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz017DOI Listing

Low-calorie sweeteners: more complicated than sweetness without calories.

Authors:
John E Blundell

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz015DOI Listing

The Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project: a series of systematic reviews on diet and health.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):685S-697S

United States Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Rockville, MD.

Nutrition exposures during the earliest stages of life are integral to growth and development and may continue to affect health through adulthood. The purpose of the Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months (P/B-24) Project was to conduct a series of systematic reviews on diet and health for women who are pregnant and for infants and toddlers from birth to 24 mo of age. The P/B-24 Project was a joint initiative led by the USDA and the US Department of Health and Human Services. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/Supplement_7/685S/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy372DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Infant milk-feeding practices and diabetes outcomes in offspring: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):817S-837S

USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Alexandria, VA.

Background: During the Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project, the US Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services initiated a review of evidence on diet and health in these populations.

Objectives: The aim of these systematic reviews was to examine the relation of 1) never versus ever feeding human milk, 2) shorter versus longer durations of any human milk feeding, 3) shorter versus longer durations of exclusive human milk feeding, and 4) feeding a lower versus higher intensity of human milk to mixed-fed infants with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in offspring.

Methods: The Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review team conducted systematic reviews with external experts. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/Supplement_7/817S/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy311DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads
6.770 Impact Factor

Complementary feeding and developmental milestones: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):879S-889S

USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, Alexandria, VA.

Background: Systematic reviews were conducted as part of the USDA and the US Department of Health and Human Services Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project to examine the relation between complementary feeding and developmental milestones.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe systematic reviews examining the relationship between timing of introduction of complementary foods and beverages (CFB), and the types and amounts of CFB consumed, and developmental milestones.

Methods: The literature was searched using 4 databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and CINAHL) to identify articles that met predetermined criteria for inclusion. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/Supplement_7/879S/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy321DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
6.770 Impact Factor

Infant milk-feeding practices and diagnosed celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease in offspring: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):838S-851S

Food and Nutrition Service, USDA, Alexandria, VA.

Background: During the Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project, the USDA and US Department of Health and Human Services initiated an evidence review on diet and health in these populations.

Objective: The aim of these systematic reviews was to examine the relationships of never versus ever feeding human milk, shorter versus longer durations of any and exclusive human milk feeding, and feeding a lower versus a higher intensity of human milk to mixed-fed infants with diagnosed celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Methods: The Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review team (formerly called the Nutrition Evidence Library) conducted systematic reviews with external experts. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/Supplement_7/838S/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy371DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads
6.770 Impact Factor

Repeated exposure to food and food acceptability in infants and toddlers: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):978S-989S

United States Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Rockville, MD.

Background: Repeated exposure has been found to be an effective strategy to increase acceptability of foods in older children and adults, but little is known about its effectiveness in the birth to 24-mo population.

Objectives: This systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of repeated exposure to a single or multiple foods on acceptance of those or other foods among infants and toddlers.

Methods: A search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles related to food acceptability, flavor, taste, and infants and toddlers in 12 databases (e. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/Supplement_7/978S/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy308DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
6.770 Impact Factor

Dietary patterns before and during pregnancy and birth outcomes: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):729S-756S

Food and Nutrition Service, USDA, Alexandria, VA.

Background: Maternal diet before and during pregnancy could influence fetal growth and birth outcomes.

Objective: Two systematic reviews aimed to assess the relationships between dietary patterns before and during pregnancy and 1) gestational age at birth and 2) gestational age- and sex-specific birth weight.

Methods: Literature was searched from January, 1980 to January, 2017 in 9 databases including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/Supplement_7/729S/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy353DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
6.770 Impact Factor

Infant milk-feeding practices and cardiovascular disease outcomes in offspring: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):800S-816S

USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Alexandria, VA.

Background: During the Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project, the US Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services initiated a review of evidence on diet and health in these populations.

Objectives: The aim of these systematic reviews was to examine the relation of 1) never versus ever feeding human milk, 2) shorter versus longer durations of any human milk feeding, 3) shorter versus longer durations of exclusive human milk feeding, and 4) lower versus higher intensities of human milk fed to mixed-fed infants with intermediate and endpoint cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in offspring.

Methods: The Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review team conducted systematic reviews with external experts. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/Supplement_7/800S/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy332DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads
6.770 Impact Factor

Infant milk-feeding practices and childhood leukemia: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):757S-771S

USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Alexandria, VA.

Background: During the Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project, the US Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services initiated a review of evidence on diet and health in these populations.

Objectives: The aim of these systematic reviews was to examine the relation of 1) never versus ever feeding human milk, 2) shorter versus longer durations of any human milk feeding, 3) shorter versus longer durations of exclusive human milk feeding, and 4) feeding a lower versus higher intensity of human milk to mixed-fed infants with acute childhood leukemia, generally, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, specifically.

Methods: The Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review team conducted systematic reviews with external experts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy306DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
6.770 Impact Factor

Infant milk-feeding practices and food allergies, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma throughout the life span: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):772S-799S

USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Alexandria, VA.

Background: During the Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project, the USDA and Department of Health and Human Services initiated a review of evidence on diet and health in these populations.

Objectives: The aim of these systematic reviews was to examine the relation of 1) never versus ever feeding human milk, 2) shorter versus longer durations of any human milk feeding, 3) shorter versus longer durations of exclusive human milk feeding prior to infant formula introduction, 4) feeding a lower versus higher intensity of human milk to mixed-fed infants, and 5) feeding a higher intensity of human milk by bottle versus breast with food allergies, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma.

Methods: The Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review team conducted systematic reviews with external experts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy283DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
6.770 Impact Factor

Complementary feeding and micronutrient status: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):852S-871S

USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Alexandria, VA.

Background: Proper nutrition during early life is critical for growth and development.

Objectives: The aim was to describe systematic reviews conducted by the Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review team for the USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project to answer the following: What is the relation between 1) timing of introduction of complementary foods and beverages (CFBs) or 2) types and/or amounts of CFBs consumed and micronutrient status (iron, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, folate, and fatty acid status)?

Methods: A literature search identified articles from developed countries published from January 1980 to July 2016 that met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and risk of bias assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy266DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
6.770 Impact Factor

Dietary patterns before and during pregnancy and maternal outcomes: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):705S-728S

Food and Nutrition Service, USDA, Alexandria, VA.

Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are common maternal complications during pregnancy, with short- and long-term sequelae for both mothers and children.

Objective: Two systematic review questions were used to examine the relation between 1) dietary patterns before and during pregnancy, 2) HDP, and 3) GDM.

Methods: A search was conducted from January 1980 to January 2017 in 9 databases including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy216DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads
6.770 Impact Factor

Influence of maternal diet on flavor transfer to amniotic fluid and breast milk and children's responses: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):1003S-1026S

US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Rockville, MD.

Background: Maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation may provide the earliest opportunity to positively influence child food acceptance.

Objective: Systematic reviews were completed to examine the relation among maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation, amniotic fluid flavor, breast-milk flavor, and children's food acceptability and overall dietary intake.

Design: A literature search was conducted in 10 databases (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy240DOI Listing
March 2019
6.770 Impact Factor

Types and amounts of complementary foods and beverages consumed and growth, size, and body composition: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):956S-977S

USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Alexandria, VA.

Background: Systematic reviews (SRs) were conducted by the Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review (NESR) team for the USDA's and the Department of Health and Human Services' Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project.

Objectives: The aim was to describe the SRs examining the relationship between types and amounts of complementary foods and beverages (CFBs) and growth, size, and body-composition outcomes.

Methods: The NESR team collaborated with subject matter experts to conduct this SR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy281DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
6.770 Impact Factor

Caregiver feeding practices and child weight outcomes: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):990S-1002S

US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Rockville, MD.

Background: As part of the USDA-Department of Health and Human Services Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project, we conducted systematic reviews (SRs) on topics important for health and nutrition of young children.

Objectives: The purpose of the present SR was to examine the relation between caregiver feeding practices in children from birth to 24 mo and child weight gain, size, and body composition.

Methods: A search of articles published from January 1980 to January 2017 in 4 databases identified 8739 references. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy276DOI Listing
March 2019
6.770 Impact Factor

Complementary feeding and food allergy, atopic dermatitis/eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):890S-934S

USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Alexandria, VA.

Background: Nutrition during infancy and toddlerhood may influence health and disease prevention across the life span. Complementary feeding (CF) starts when human milk or infant formula is complemented by other foods and beverages, beginning during infancy and continuing to age 24 mo.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe systematic reviews conducted for the USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project to answer the following question: What is the relationship between the timing of the introduction of complementary foods and beverages (CFBs), or types and amounts of CFBs consumed, and the development of food allergy, atopic dermatitis/eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis?

Methods: The literature was searched using 4 databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, PubMed) to identify articles published from January 1980 to February 2017 that met predetermined inclusion criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy220DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads
6.770 Impact Factor

Timing of introduction of complementary foods and beverages and growth, size, and body composition: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Mar;109(Supplement_7):935S-955S

USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Alexandria, VA.

Background: The systematic review described in this article was conducted as part of the USDA and Department of Health and Human Services Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project.

Objectives: The aim was to describe the relationship between timing of introduction of complementary foods and beverages (CFBs) and growth, size, and body-composition outcomes across the life span.

Methods: The literature was searched and selected using predetermined criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy267DOI Listing
March 2019
6.770 Impact Factor

Transcriptional changes in prostate of men on active surveillance after a 12-mo glucoraphanin-rich broccoli intervention-results from the Effect of Sulforaphane on prostate CAncer PrEvention (ESCAPE) randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr;109(4):1133-1144

Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich, United Kingdom.

Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer progression, largely attributed to the biological activity of glucosinolate degradation products, such as sulforaphane derived from glucoraphanin. Because there are few therapeutic interventions for men on active surveillance for prostate cancer to reduce the risk of cancer progression, dietary approaches are an appealing option for patients.

Objective: We evaluated whether consumption of a glucoraphanin-rich broccoli soup for 1 y leads to changes in gene expression in prostate tissue of men with localized prostate cancer. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/4/1133/5455624
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462431PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Salivary α-amylase copy number is not associated with weight trajectories and glycemic improvements following clinical weight loss: results from a 2-phase dietary intervention study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr;109(4):1029-1037

Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences, Nestlé Research, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Several studies recently reported contradicting results regarding the link between amylase 1 (AMY1) copy numbers (CNs), obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of AMY1 CN on anthropometrics and glycemic outcomes in obese individuals following a 2-phase dietary weight loss intervention.

Methods: Using the paralog ratio test, AMY1 CNs were accurately measured in 761 obese individuals from the DiOGenes study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy363DOI Listing

Estimation of protein requirements in Indian pregnant women using a whole-body potassium counter.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr;109(4):1064-1070

Department of Physiology, St. John's Medical College, Bengaluru, India.

Background: The 2007 World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/United Nations University (WHO/FAO/UNU) recommendation for the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of additional protein during pregnancy for a gestational weight gain (GWG) of 12 kg (recalculated from a GWG of 13.8 kg) is 6.7 and 21. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/4/1064/5455619
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz011DOI Listing
April 2019
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Associations of circulating very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr;109(4):1216-1223

Cardiovascular Health Research Unit.

Background: Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) of different chain lengths have unique metabolic and biological effects, and a small number of recent studies suggest that higher circulating concentrations of the very-long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs) arachidic acid (20:0), behenic acid (22:0), and lignoceric acid (24:0) are associated with a lower risk of diabetes. Confirmation of these findings in a large and diverse population is needed.

Objective: We investigated the associations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident type 2 diabetes in prospective studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz005DOI Listing
April 2019
6.770 Impact Factor

Improvement of diet sustainability with increased level of organic food in the diet: findings from the BioNutriNet cohort.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr;109(4):1173-1188

Université Paris 13, Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, Centre d'Epidémiologie et Statistiques Sorbonne Paris Cité, INSERM (U1153), INRA (U1125), CNAM, COMUE Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France.

Background: Organic food consumption has steadily increased over the past decade in westernized countries.

Objective: The aim of this study, based on observational data, was to compare some sustainability features of diets from consumers with varying levels of organic food.

Methods: The diet sustainability among 29,210 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study was estimated using databases developed within the BioNutriNet project. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/4/1173/5455612
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy361DOI Listing
April 2019
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Improved feeding tolerance and growth are linked to increased gut microbial community diversity in very-low-birth-weight infants fed mother's own milk compared with donor breast milk.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr;109(4):1088-1097

Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics.

Background: Mother's own milk (MOM) is protective against gut microbiota alterations associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and feeding intolerance among preterm infants. It is unclear whether this benefit is preserved with donor milk (DM) feeding.

Objective: We aimed to compare microbiota development, growth, and feeding tolerance in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants fed an exclusively human milk diet of primarily MOM or DM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462428PMC

Iodine deficiency among Italian children and adolescents assessed through 24-hour urinary iodine excretion.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr;109(4):1080-1087

Departments of 3Clinical Medicine and Surgery.

Background: Iodine is an essential micronutrient for intellectual development in children. Information on iodine intakes based on 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE) is scant, because iodine status is only assessed by the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in spot urine samples.

Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate the iodine intake of school-age children and adolescents, using UIE measurement in 24-h urine collections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy393DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
6.770 Impact Factor

β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and its impact on skeletal muscle mass and physical function in clinical practice: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr;109(4):1119-1132

Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Life Course Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Loss of skeletal muscle mass and muscle weakness are common in a variety of clinical conditions with both wasting and weakness associated with an impairment of physical function. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a nutrition supplement that has been shown to favorably influence muscle protein turnover and thus potentially plays a role in ameliorating skeletal muscle wasting and weakness.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of HMB alone, or supplements containing HMB, on skeletal muscle mass and physical function in a variety of clinical conditions characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass and weakness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy373DOI Listing

Portion size has sustained effects over 5 days in preschool children: a randomized trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Departments of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

Background: Although short-term studies have found that serving larger portions of food increases intake in preschool children, it is unknown whether this portion size effect persists over a longer period or whether energy intake is moderated through self-regulation.

Objectives: We tested whether the portion size effect is sustained in preschool children across 5 consecutive days, a period thought to be sufficient for regulatory systems to respond to the overconsumption of energy.

Methods: With the use of a crossover design, over 2 periods we served the same 5 daily menus to 46 children aged 3-5 y in their childcare centers. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy383DOI Listing
April 2019
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Within-individual differences in plasma ferritin, retinol-binding protein, and zinc concentrations in relation to inflammation observed during a short-term longitudinal study are similar to between-individual differences observed cross-sectionally.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Program in International and Community Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA.

Background: Cross-sectional (CS) surveys indicate that individuals with acute inflammation have higher plasma ferritin (pF), and lower retinol-binding protein (RBP) and zinc (pZn) concentrations than those without. In populations with a high burden of infection, correction factors (CFs) or regression corrections (RCs) are applied to biomarkers to estimate the prevalence of micronutrient (MN) deficiencies adjusted for inflammation. This assumes that individuals with and without inflammation have the same nutritional status, which may not be the case. Read More

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http://fdslive.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/production_in_progres
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz014DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Restricting carbohydrates at breakfast is sufficient to reduce 24-hour exposure to postprandial hyperglycemia and improve glycemic variability.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia, Okanagan, Canada.

Background: The breakfast meal often results in the largest postprandial hyperglycemic excursion in people with type 2 diabetes.

Objective: Our purpose was to investigate whether restricting carbohydrates at breakfast would be a simple and feasible strategy to reduce daily exposure to postprandial hyperglycemia.

Design: Adults with physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes [n = 23; mean ± SD age: 59 ± 11 y; glycated hemoglobin: 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy261DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Dietary proteins and protein sources and risk of death: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: Previous studies investigating protein intake in relation to mortality have provided conflicting results.

Objective: We investigated the associations of dietary protein and protein sources with risk of disease death in the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

Methods: The study population consisted of 2641 Finnish men, aged 42-60 y at baseline in 1984-1989. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz025DOI Listing

Maternal obesity and the human milk metabolome: associations with infant body composition and postnatal weight gain.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK.

Background: Maternal obesity is a risk factor for childhood obesity; this is a major public health concern given that ∼40% of pregnant women are either overweight or obese. Whether differences in milk composition in lean compared with obese women contribute to childhood obesity is unclear.

Objectives: We aimed to analyze relationships between maternal obesity and human milk metabolites, infant body composition, and postnatal weight gain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy334DOI Listing

Dietary index scores and invasive breast cancer risk among women with a family history of breast cancer.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Background: Many epidemiologic studies have analyzed the relations of individual foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Few studies have examined recommendation-based dietary indices and breast cancer risk.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine associations between recommendation-based dietary index scores and incident invasive breast cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy392DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Effect of acute Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration on subjective and metabolic hormone responses to food stimuli and food intake in healthy humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr;109(4):1051-1063

Laboratory for Brain-Gut Axis Studies (LABGAS).

Background: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is considered a key player in the neurophysiology of food reward. Animal studies suggest that the ECS stimulates the sensory perception of food, thereby increasing its incentive-motivational and/or hedonic properties and driving consumption, possibly via interactions with metabolic hormones. However, it remains unclear to what extent this can be extrapolated to humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz007DOI Listing