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    1057 results match your criteria American Journal of Clinical Dermatology[Journal]

    1 OF 22

    Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, 10991 Twinleaf Court, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, 92131-3642, USA.
    Coagulase-negative staphylococcus organisms may be normal flora of human skin, however these bacteria can also be pathogens in skin and soft tissue infections. A summary of skin and soft tissue infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococcus species is provided in this review. We conducted a search of the PubMed database using the following terms: abscess, auricularis, biofilm, capitis, cellulitis, coagulase, contaminant, cyst, draining, epidermidis, felon, folliculitis, furuncle, haemolyticus, hominis, indolent, infection, lugdunensis, mecA, microbiome, negative, osteomyelitis, paronychia, saprophyticus, skin, simulans, sinus, soft, staphylococcus, systemic, tissue, virulence, virulent, and vulvar. Read More

    An Update on Calciphylaxis.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 May 28. Epub 2018 May 28.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital "Dr. José Eleuterio González", Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Av. Madero y Gonzalitos S/N 64460 Col. Mitras Centro, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Calciphylaxis, also known as calcific uremic arteriolopathy and uremic small artery disease with medial wall calcification and intimal hyperplasia, is a multifactorial cutaneous vascular disease characterized by chronic, painful, non-healing wounds that occur frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease, predominantly in those with end-stage renal disease. The pathogenesis remains unclear, and the development of calciphylaxis lesions depends on medial calcification, intimal fibrosis of arterioles and thrombotic occlusion. Despite an increase in reports of calciphylaxis in the literature and clinical recognition of demographic characteristics and risk factors associated with calciphylaxis, it remains a poorly understood disease with high morbidity and mortality. Read More

    Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratoses.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Dermatology, Bern, Switzerland.
    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) using daylight is effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses (AKs), offering the potential for treatment of large fields such as full face and balding scalp, but with minimal therapy-associated pain. Comparison with conventional PDT indicates similar efficacy for thin and moderate-thickness AKs, but with significantly less discomfort/pain, driving a patient preference for daylight-mediated PDT (DL-PDT) compared with conventional PDT using high-intensity office/hospital-based light sources. Treatment protocol involves the application of a photosensitizing agent without occlusion and subsequent exposure to ambient daylight within 30 min, with patients exposed to daylight for 1. Read More

    Acne Scarring Management: Systematic Review and Evaluation of the Evidence.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Department of Dermatology, Medical School of Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Modalities for atrophic acne scarring can be classified depending upon the needs they satisfy; that is, resurfacing, lifting/volumization, tightening, or surgical removal/movement of tissue that is required for correction. A plethora of treatment options have resulted from the need to treat various acne scar types, variability of responses noted in various skin types, and increasing popularity of minimally invasive modalities. Still, there is a lack of consensus guidelines on treatment or combination therapies for various clinical scenarios. Read More

    Underlying Systemic Diseases in Pyoderma Gangrenosum: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 May 2. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Department of Dermatology, University of California Irvine Health, Irvine, CA, USA.
    Background: There is little consensus regarding the prevalence and distribution of underlying systemic diseases among patients with pyoderma gangrenosum.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to synthesize existing data on the prevalence of associated systemic diseases in patients with pyoderma gangrenosum.

    Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus (1823-2017). Read More

    Skin Cancer Following Solid Organ Transplantation: A Review of Risk Factors and Models of Care.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Skin & Cancer Foundation Inc., Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    The number of solid organ transplants has been increasing annually worldwide. Advances in transplantation surgery and community awareness of organ donation have been key contributors. Combined with increased understanding of immunosuppression, there are a growing number of solid organ transplant recipients in the community as a result of improved long-term outcomes. Read More

    Correction to: Efficacy and Safety of Switching to Ixekizumab in Etanercept Non-Responders: A Subanalysis from Two Phase III Randomized Clinical Trials in Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis (UNCOVER-2 and -3).
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):457
    Institute for Health Services Research in Dermatology and Nursing (IVDP), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    The article Efficacy and Safety of Switching to Ixekizumab in Etanercept Non-Responders: A Subanalysis from Two Phase III Randomized Clinical Trials in Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis (UNCOVER-2 and -3) written by Andrew Blauvelt. Read More

    Emerging Therapies for Acne Vulgaris.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis, 3301 C Street, Suite 1400, Sacramento, CA, 95816, USA.
    As we gain a greater understanding of acne pathogenesis, both new agents as well as new uses for established drugs are being considered for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Multiple clinical trials assessing new formulations or combinations of established acne treatments have been conducted, and novel uses of antimicrobials such as modified diallyl disulfide oxide and nitric oxide are being assessed in clinical trials. There are also a multitude of new therapies currently being studied that target the inflammatory cascade of acne pathogenesis, including sebosuppressive and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, and  small molecule inhibitors targeting sebaceous glands and enzymes, among others. Read More

    Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects of Linear Psoriasis: A Study of 30 Cases.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Service de Dermatologie, Hôpital Victor Dupouy, 69 rue du Lieutenant-Colonel Prud'hon, 95100, Argenteuil, France.
    Background: Psoriasis affects 2-4% of the population, with the most common clinical type being plaque psoriasis. The linear form of psoriasis is very rare. The literature on linear psoriasis (LP) consists of only case reports, and data are few. Read More

    Field Cancerization Therapies for Management of Actinic Keratosis: A Narrative Review.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Mar 26. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, 808 S. Wood St., Suite 380, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.
    Actinic keratoses (AKs) are atypical, precancerous proliferations of keratinocytes that develop because of chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Treatment of AK can be lesion-directed or field-directed. Field cancerization theory postulates that the skin surrounding AK is also at increased risk for possible malignant transformation since it has been exposed to the same chronic UV light. Read More

    The Use of Hormonal Antiandrogen Therapy in Female Patients with Acne: A 10-Year Retrospective Study.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):449-455
    The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University Langone Health, 240 East 38th Street, 12th Floor, New York, NY, 10016, USA.
    Background: Little is known about how dermatologists prescribe hormonal antiandrogen acne treatment (HAAT).

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate dermatologists' HAAT-prescribing habits and HAAT's impact on systemic antibiotic use in women with acne.

    Methods: We performed a retrospective study at an academic medical center of female patients receiving HAAT (combined oral contraceptive [COC], spironolactone) for acne from January 2005 to October 2015. Read More

    Prevention and Reduction of Atrophic Acne Scars with Adapalene 0.3%/Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% Gel in Subjects with Moderate or Severe Facial Acne: Results of a 6-Month Randomized, Vehicle-Controlled Trial Using Intra-Individual Comparison.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr;19(2):275-286
    University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: Very few clinical trials have investigated the effect of topical acne treatment on scarring.

    Objectives: Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of adapalene 0.3%/benzoyl peroxide 2. Read More

    Therapeutics for Adult Nail Psoriasis and Nail Lichen Planus: A Guide for Clinicians.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Feb 27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Pittsburgh, UPMC North Hills Dermatology, 9000 Brooktree Rd Suite 200, Wexford, PA, 15090, USA.
    Nail psoriasis (NP) and nail lichen planus (NLP) can be limiting, stigmatizing and difficult to treat. Dermatologists commonly treat psoriasis and lichen planus but when associated onychodystrophy is present or is an isolated finding, some develop apprehension. The goal of this review is to develop therapeutic ladders to be used as a guide for the management of NP and NLP in everyday clinical practice. Read More

    Author Correction to: Psoriasis in Skin of Color: Insights into the Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Genetics, Quality-of-Life Impact, and Treatment of Psoriasis in Non-White Racial/Ethnic Groups.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):425
    Mount Sinai St. Luke's, 1090 Amsterdam Avenue, Suite 11B, New York, NY, 10025, USA.
    In the original publication, section 5, paragraph 1 was incorrectly published. Read More

    Melanoma Brain Metastases: Local Therapies, Targeted Therapies, Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Their Combinations-Chances and Challenges.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Dermatology, Medical Faculty of Technische Universität Dresden, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.
    Recent phase II trials have shown that BRAF/MEK inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors are active in patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBM), reporting intracranial disease control rates of 50-75%. Furthermore, retrospective analyses suggest that combining stereotactic radiosurgery with immune checkpoint inhibitors or BRAF/MEK inhibitors prolongs overall survival. These data stress the need for inter- and multidisciplinary cooperation that takes into account the individual prognostic factors in order to establish the best treatment for each patient. Read More

    A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of a Topical Minocycline Foam, FMX103, for the Treatment of Facial Papulopustular Rosacea.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):427-436
    Foamix Pharmaceuticals, Ltd, 2 Holzman Street, Weizmann-Science Park, 7670402, Rehovot, Israel.
    Objective: Our objective was to demonstrate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a minocycline foam, FMX103, in the treatment of moderate-to-severe facial papulopustular rosacea.

    Methods: This was a phase II, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study. Healthy subjects aged ≥ 18 years with moderate-to-severe rosacea that had been diagnosed ≥ 6 months previously and with ≥ 12 inflammatory facial lesions were randomized (1:1:1) to receive once-daily 1. Read More

    Treatment of Autoimmune Bullous Disorders in Pregnancy.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):391-403
    Corporal Michael J. Crescenz VAMC, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBD), including pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, mucous membrane pemphigoid, and pemphigoid gestationis, pose significant therapeutic challenges, especially in pregnant and post-partum breastfeeding patients or those planning to conceive. Data on the safety and efficacy of therapeutic interventions during the perinatal period are lacking because randomized controlled trials are typically not performed in this setting. However, many of the treatments for AIBD are also used in other diseases, so data can be extrapolated from studies or case reports in these other patient populations. Read More

    Safety of Adalimumab Dosed Every Week and Every Other Week: Focus on Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Psoriasis.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):437-447
    AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background: Adalimumab is approved for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), plaque psoriasis, and other inflammatory conditions.

    Objective: Our objective was to examine the safety of adalimumab administered every other week (EOW) and every week (EW) in patients with HS and psoriasis and to investigate informative data from non-dermatologic indications.

    Methods: The safety of adalimumab 40-mg EOW versus EW dosing was examined during placebo-controlled and open-label study periods in patients with HS (three studies), psoriasis (two studies), Crohn's disease (six studies), ulcerative colitis (three studies), and rheumatoid arthritis (one study). Read More

    Comparison of Urticaria Activity Score Over 7 Days (UAS7) Values Obtained from Once-Daily and Twice-Daily Versions: Results from the ASSURE-CSU Study.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr;19(2):267-274
    Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: The Urticaria Activity Score summed over 7 days (UAS7) assesses the itch severity and hive count in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) using once- or twice-daily diary-based documentation.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparability of twice-daily versus once-daily versions of the UAS and the resulting UAS7 values.

    Methods: Data came from the ASSURE-CSU study. Read More

    Understanding and Addressing Hair Disorders in Transgender Individuals.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jan 19. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Dermatology, The Permanente Medical Group, 975 Sereno Drive, Vallejo, CA, 94589, USA.
    In the United States, an increasing number of individuals are identifying as transgender. Males at birth who identify as females are called male-to-female (MTF) transgender individuals or trans women, and females at birth who identify as males are called female-to-male (FTM) transgender individuals or trans men. The transgender patient population possess unique health concerns disparate from those of the general populace. Read More

    The Role and Diagnosis of Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):293-302
    Departments of Dermatology, Preventive Medicine and Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 N. St. Clair St, Suite 1600, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.
    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have increased penetration of allergens, immune dysregulation (including shared cytokine pathways), and frequent use of emollients and topical medications, all of which may predispose toward developing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Recent systematic reviews have suggested that ACD is a significant clinical problem in both children and adults with AD. While this remains controversial, ACD remains an important comorbidity and potential exacerbant of AD in clinical practice. Read More

    A Review on Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):377-390
    National Skin Centre, 1 Mandalay Rd, Singapore, 308205, Republic of Singapore.
    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is an idiopathic, papulosquamous inflammatory dermatosis. It is characterized by hyperkeratotic follicular papules coalescing into orange-red scaly plaques, islands of sparing, and palmoplantar keratoderma. PRP can be subdivided into six clinical subtypes according to Griffiths' classification, based on age of onset, disease extent, prognosis, and other associated features. Read More

    Management of Itch in Atopic Dermatitis.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):319-332
    Department of Dermatology and Itch Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common itchy dermatosis that affects millions of children and adults worldwide. Chronic itch in this condition has significant impact on measures of quality of life, such as sleep. Treating itch in AD has been challenging for decades, but new drugs have emerged in the last year with significant anti-pruritic effect. Read More

    Malignancy Risk and Recurrence with Psoriasis and its Treatments: A Concise Update.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):363-375
    Dermatology Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 16 East 60th Street, New York, NY, 10022, USA.
    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory cutaneous disease that affects approximately 120 million people worldwide. Systemic treatments have significantly improved disease burden, but concerns persist regarding their association with increased risk of malignancy. Patients with psoriasis have a slightly elevated baseline risk of lymphoproliferative diseases. Read More

    Dermatologic Reactions to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors : Skin Toxicities and Immunotherapy.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):345-361
    Oncodermatology, Institut Claudius REGAUD and Institut Universitaire du Cancer Toulouse Oncopole, 1 avenue Irène Joliot-Curie, 31059, Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors [monoclonal antibodies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)] represents a major breakthrough in cancer therapy. Although they present a favorable risk/benefit ratio, immune checkpoint blockade therapies have a very specific safety profile. Due to their unique mechanism of action, they entail a new spectrum of adverse events that are mostly immune related [immune-related adverse events (irAEs)], notably mediated by the triggering of cytotoxic CD4+/CD8+ T cell activation. Read More

    Granuloma Annulare: A Focused Review of Therapeutic Options.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):333-344
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 800 Poly Place, Brooklyn, 11209, NY, USA.
    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign inflammatory disease associated with many conditions such as malignancy, trauma, thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, and HIV infection. Common clinical subtypes include localized GA, generalized GA, subcutaneous GA, perforating GA, and patch GA. There exists an abundance of literature on GA, yet we know relatively little about its exact etiology and even less about its treatment. Read More

    Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Pathogenesis and Treatment.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Mount Sinai St. Luke's and West, 1090 Amsterdam Avenue, Suite 11B, New York, NY, 10025, USA.
    Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is a reactive hypermelanosis that develops following cutaneous inflammation. Common causes of PIH include intrinsic skin conditions (e.g. Read More

    Psoriasis in Skin of Color: Insights into the Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Genetics, Quality-of-Life Impact, and Treatment of Psoriasis in Non-White Racial/Ethnic Groups.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):405-423
    Mount Sinai St. Luke's, 1090 Amsterdam Avenue, Suite 11B, New York, NY, 10025, USA.
    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition affecting diverse racial/ethnic groups throughout the world. Large population-based studies suggest that psoriasis occurs most often in individuals of European ancestry, followed by black and Hispanic individuals, although the true prevalence of psoriasis in non-white individuals is likely underestimated. Despite similarities in psoriasis between ethnic groups, there are notable differences in the presentation, quality-of-life impact, and treatment of psoriasis with important implications for the management of non-white individuals. Read More

    Advanced Melanoma: Current Treatment Options, Biomarkers, and Future Perspectives.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Jun;19(3):303-317
    Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Malignant melanoma accounts for the highest number of deaths from skin cancer, and the prognosis of patients with stage IV disease has historically been poor. Novel insights into both mutations driving tumorigenesis and immune escape mechanisms of these tumors have led to effective treatment options that have revolutionized the treatment of this disease. Targeting the MAPK kinase pathway (with BRAF and MEK inhibitors), as well as targeting checkpoints, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) or programmed death 1 (PD-1), have improved overall survival in patients with late-stage melanoma, and biomarker research for personalized therapy is ongoing for each of these treatment modalities. Read More

    Are Biologics Efficacious in Atopic Dermatitis? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr;19(2):145-165
    Department of Dermatology, Beilinson Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, 4941492, Petah Tikva, Israel.
    Background: Current systemic treatments for atopic dermatitis (AD) offer limited efficacy and are often restricted by safety concerns. Biologics may address the unmet need for improved AD therapeutics.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biologic agents in AD. Read More

    Choosing First-Line Biologic Treatment for Moderate-to-Severe Psoriasis: What Does the Evidence Say?
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Feb;19(1):1-13
    Department of Dermatology, Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, 1515 North Vermont Ave, 5th Floor, Los Angeles, CA, 90027, USA.
    An advanced understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriasis has led to the development of multiple therapeutic options for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, ustekinumab, interleukin-17 inhibitors, and guselkumab (an interleukin-23 inhibitor recently approved for psoriasis) are commercially available biologic agents for psoriasis. Evidence from clinical trials provides pertinent information regarding the safety and efficacy of biologic agents for psoriasis, which should be integrated into clinical decision making. Read More

    Crisaborole Ointment 2%: A Review in Mild to Moderate Atopic Dermatitis.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2017 Dec;18(6):837-843
    Springer, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, 0754, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Crisaborole ointment 2% (Eucrisa™) is a novel, anti-inflammatory inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) that is available in the USA for the topical treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis in patients aged ≥ 2 years. In two short-term (28 days), identically designed, multicentre, phase III studies in this patient population, topical therapy with crisaborole ointment 2% reduced disease severity and pruritus severity compared with vehicle, with the effect established early and sustained over the course of treatment. Improvements in the other signs of atopic dermatitis (erythema, exudation, excoriation, induration/papulation, and lichenification) were also seen. Read More

    Vitamin D and the Skin: An Update for Dermatologists.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr;19(2):223-235
    Department of Dermatology, Hôpital Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 94010, Créteil, France.
    Vitamin D plays a key role in skeletal and cardiovascular disorders, cancers, central nervous system diseases, reproductive diseases, infections, and autoimmune and dermatological disorders. The two main sources of vitamin D are sun exposure and oral intake, including vitamin D supplementation and dietary intake. Multiple factors are linked to vitamin D status, such as Fitzpatrick skin type, sex, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. Read More

    A Practical Guide About Tattooing in Patients with Chronic Skin Disorders and Other Medical Conditions.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr;19(2):167-180
    Department of Dermatology, AZ Sint-Jan Brugge-Oostende AV, 8000, Brugge, Belgium.
    With tattoos becoming increasingly mainstream, dermatologists are more and more often consulted by patients who are considering getting an ornamental, cosmetic, or even a medical tattoo, and who subsequently ask for advice. This includes not only patients with chronic skin diseases such as psoriasis or atopic dermatitis but also patients with other medical conditions. This review first explores the reasons why patients may want to get a tattoo and aims to offer some key information to dermatologists on what they should know about tattooing and the main risks associated with this procedure. Read More

    Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics in Moderate-to-Severe Psoriasis.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr;19(2):209-222
    Dermatology Department, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria la Princesa (IIS-IP), Madrid, Spain.
    Pharmacogenetics is the study of variations in DNA sequence related to drug response. Moreover, the evolution of biotechnology and the sequencing of human DNA have allowed the creation of pharmacogenomics, a branch of genetics that analyzes human genes, the RNAs and proteins encoded by them, and the inter-and intra-individual variations in expression and function in relation to drug response. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are being used to search for biomarkers that can predict response to systemic treatments, including those for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Read More

    Acne Scars: How Do We Grade Them?
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr;19(2):139-144
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis, 3301 C Street, Suite 1400, Sacramento, CA, 95816, USA.
    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that can lead to permanent scarring. Although grading scales exist for acne scarring, there are many limitations, and there is still a need for a well validated gold standard scale for use in clinical practice or research trials. An objective measure of scar severity should be a component of global acne severity evaluations. Read More

    Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Hedgehog Pathway in the Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr;19(2):195-207
    Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Mail Stop F703, 1665, North Aurora Court, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.
    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer, with rising incidence rates primarily attributed to an aging population and ultraviolet radiation exposure. While the majority of BCCs are localized and respond to standard therapies, a very small minority of these tumors become locally destructive or metastasize. These advanced BCCs may not be amenable to localized treatment with surgery and/or radiation therapy. Read More

    Teledermatology: A Review and Update.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr;19(2):253-260
    Department of Dermatology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Telemedicine is slowly transforming the way in which healthcare is delivered and has the potential to improve access to subspecialty expertise, reduce healthcare costs, and improve the overall quality of care. While many subspecialty fields within medicine today have either experimented with or begun to implement telemedicine platforms to enable remote consultation and care, dermatology is particularly suited for this care system as skin disorders are uniquely visible to the human eye. Through teledermatology, diagnostic images of skin disorders with accompanying clinical histories can be remotely reviewed by teledermatologists by any number of modalities, such as photographic clinical images or live video teleconferencing. Read More

    Combinatorial Therapies in Melanoma: MAPK Inhibitors and Beyond.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr;19(2):181-193
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
    Melanoma is the most aggressive of the skin cancers, with historically high rates of morbidity and mortality due to its resistance to traditional cytotoxic therapies. Recently, however, breakthroughs in new therapies have dramatically changed clinical outcomes of this disease. These advances emerged from an improved understanding of tumor oncogenesis and the interacting tumor microenvironment. Read More

    Topical Corticosteroid Concerns Among Parents of Children with Psoriasis versus Atopic Dermatitis: A French Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr;19(2):261-265
    Dermatology Department, University Hospital of Nancy, Batiment P Canton, 6 allée du Morvan, 54500, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.
    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are chronic inflammatory cutaneous disorders for which the gold standard treatment is topical corticosteroids. Although fears about topical corticosteroids are known to be a primary cause of poor therapeutic adherence in AD, this has not been evaluated in psoriasis. TOPICOP is a helpful and easy-to-use tool for the evaluation of topical corticosteroid concerns (TCC). Read More

    Inherited Nonsyndromic Ichthyoses: An Update on Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Feb;19(1):51-66
    Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hereditary ichthyoses are due to mutations on one or both alleles of more than 30 different genes, mainly expressed in the upper epidermis. Syndromic as well as nonsyndromic forms of ichthyosis exist. Irrespective of etiology, virtually all types of ichthyosis exhibit a defective epidermal barrier that constitutes the driving force for hyperkeratosis, skin scaling, and inflammation. Read More

    Evaluation of the Relationship between Alopecia Areata and Viral Antigen Exposure.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Feb;19(1):119-126
    Rochester General Hospital Research Institute, 1425 Portland Avenue, Rochester, NY, 14621, USA.
    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring alopecia with T-cell infiltration at the affected hair follicle.

    Objective: Our aim was to study the potential link between hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen exposure and AA.

    Methods: Two pediatric patients with AA following hepatitis B vaccination were identified in a general dermatology clinic. Read More

    Laser and Light Treatments for Hair Reduction in Fitzpatrick Skin Types IV-VI: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr;19(2):237-252
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Hospital, 1475 NW 12th Ave. Suite 2175, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.
    Unwanted facial and body hair presents as a common finding in many patients, such as females with hirsutism. With advances in laser and light technology, a clinically significant reduction in hair can be achieved in patients with light skin. However, in patients with darker skin, Fitzpatrick skin types (FST) IV-VI, the higher melanin content of the skin interferes with the proposed mechanism of laser-induced selective photothermolysis, which is to target the melanin in the hair follicle to cause permanent destruction of hair bulge stem cells. Read More

    Natural Oils for Skin-Barrier Repair: Ancient Compounds Now Backed by Modern Science.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Feb;19(1):103-117
    Department of Medicine, Dermatology Division, Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, PO BOX 245024, 1515 N. Campbell Ave., Building #222, Levy Bldg., 1906E, Tucson, AZ, 85724-5024, USA.
    Natural plant oils are commonly used as topical therapy worldwide. They are usually easily accessible and are relatively inexpensive options for skin care. Many natural oils possess specific compounds with antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itch properties, making them attractive alternative and complementary treatments for xerotic and inflammatory dermatoses associated with skin-barrier disruption. Read More

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