18,885 results match your criteria American Journal Of Veterinary Research[Journal]


Development and validation of a flow cytometric assay for detecting reactive oxygen species in the erythrocytes of healthy dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2021 May;82(5):343-351

Objective: To validate the use of a flow cytometric assay that uses 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) to measure reactive oxygen species in the erythrocytes of healthy dogs.

Animals: 50 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures: Erythrocytes were incubated with DCFH-DA or a vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide), then incubated with (stimulated) or without (unstimulated) hydrogen peroxide. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

News Digest.

Authors:

Am J Vet Res 2021 May;82(5):332-337

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In vitro effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dobutamine on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 in blood from healthy dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2021 May;82(5):374-380

Objective: To determine the in vitro effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dobutamine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in blood from healthy dogs.

Samples: Blood samples from 9 healthy dogs.

Procedures: Blood samples were incubated with LPS from O127:B8 or PBSS (control) for 1 hour. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of whether acepromazine maleate causes fentanyl to decrease the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cats.

Am J Vet Res 2021 May;82(5):352-357

Objective: To determine whether isoflurane-anesthetized cats with demonstrated resistance to the immobilizing effects of fentanyl would exhibit naltrexone-reversible sparing of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane when fentanyl was coadministered with the centrally acting catecholamine receptor antagonist acepromazine.

Animals: 5 healthy male purpose-bred cats.

Procedures: Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment of the physical compatibility of injectable enrofloxacin with commonly used intravenous fluids and drugs during simulated Y-port administration.

Am J Vet Res 2021 May;82(5):358-366

Objective: To evaluate physical compatibility of small animal (SAE) and large animal (LAE) injectable formulations of enrofloxacin with select IV fluids and drugs.

Sample: 162 admixtures containing SAE or LAE with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, lactated Ringer solution (LRS), Plasma-Lyte A (PLA), 6% hydroxyethylstarch 130/0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of withholding food on serum concentrations of cobalamin, folate, trypsin-like immunoreactivity, and pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in healthy dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2021 May;82(5):367-373

Objective: To evaluate the effects of withholding food on the results for measurements of serum concentrations of cobalamin, folate, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI), and canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) in healthy dogs.

Animals: 11 healthy employee- or student-owned dogs.

Procedures: Food was withheld from the dogs for 12 hours, baseline blood samples were collected, then dogs were fed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for rapid measurement of progesterone concentration in bitches.

Am J Vet Res 2021 May;82(5):417-424

Objective: To compare progesterone (P4) concentrations measured with surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) in serum and plasma samples of client-owned bitches of various ages and breeds and to determine reference ranges for P4 concentrations at various stages of the estrous cycle.

Samples: 102 serum samples and 104 plasma samples.

Procedures: In experiment 1, 1 aliquot each of serum and plasma was analyzed for P4 concentration by use of SPFS incorporated in a veterinary-specific point-of-care immunologic analyzer and CLIA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Randomized, placebo-controlled, 28-day safety and pharmacokinetics evaluation of repeated oral cannabidiol administration in healthy dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2021 May;82(5):405-416

Objective: To determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of various doses of plant-derived cannabidiol (CBD) versus placebo following repeated oral administration.

Animals: 20 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedures: In a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial, dogs were randomized to 5 groups balanced in body weight and sex (n = 4 dogs/group) and received a CBD (1, 2, 4, or 12 mg/kg; from cannabis extract) or placebo oil formulation PO once daily for 28 days. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigation of the use of microwave ablation with and without cooling urethral perfusion for thermal ablation of the prostate gland in canine cadavers.

Am J Vet Res 2021 May;82(5):395-404

Objective: To investigate the use of microwave ablation (MWA) with cooling urethral perfusion and with no perfusion (MWA-UP and MWA-NP, respectively) for prostate gland ablation in canine cadavers.

Animals: Cadavers of 18 sexually intact male dogs.

Procedures: After technique refinement in 2 cadavers, laparotomy with ultrasound-guided MWA-UP (n = 8) or MWA-NP (8) of the prostate gland was performed in 16 cadavers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Use of unbiased metagenomic and transcriptomic analyses to investigate the association between feline calicivirus and feline chronic gingivostomatitis in domestic cats.

Am J Vet Res 2021 May;82(5):381-394

Objective: To identify associations between microbes and host genes in cats with feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS), a debilitating inflammatory oral mucosal disease with no known cause, compared with healthy cats and cats with periodontitis (control cats).

Animals: 19 control cats and 23 cats with FCGS.

Procedures: At least 1 caudal oral mucosal swab specimen was obtained from each cat. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment of a vessel and tissue-sealing device for ovariectomy in chickens to evaluate the potential application of the procedure to other avian species.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Apr;82(4):310-317

Objective: To assess the feasibility of a novel technique involving a vessel and tissue-sealing device (VTSD) for ovariectomy in chickens to evaluate the potential application of the procedure to other avian species.

Animals: 20 domestic laying hens (), of which 10 were immature (< 4 months old) and 10 were adults (> 18 months old).

Procedures: Ovariectomy was performed with a VTSD through a left lateral celiotomy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Repeatability and accuracy of fingertip pulse oximeters for measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in arterial blood and pulse rate in anesthetized dogs breathing 100% oxygen.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Apr;82(4):268-273

Objective: To evaluate the repeatability and accuracy of fingertip pulse oximeters (FPO) for measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in arterial blood and pulse rate (PR) in anesthetized dogs breathing 100% O.

Animals: 29 healthy client-owned anesthetized dogs undergoing various surgical procedures.

Procedures: In randomized order, each of 7 FPOs or a reference pulse oximeter (PO) was applied to the tongue of each intubated anesthetized dog breathing 100% O. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of a continuous locking novel epitendinous suture pattern with and without a core locking-loop suture on the biomechanical properties of tenorrhaphy constructs in an ex vivo model of canine superficial digital flexor tendon laceration.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Apr;82(4):302-309

Objective: To evaluate the effect of a continuous locking novel epitendinous suture (nES) pattern with and without a core locking-loop (LL) suture on the biomechanical properties of ex vivo canine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) tenorrhaphy constructs.

Sample: 54 cadaveric forelimb SDFTs from 27 musculoskeletally normal adult dogs.

Procedures: Tendons were assigned to 3 groups (18 SDFTs/group): sharply transected and repaired with a core LL suture alone (group 1), an nES pattern alone (group 2), or a combination of a core LL suture and nES pattern (group 3). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial of the effects of coenzyme Q supplementation on plasma coenzyme Q concentration in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Apr;82(4):280-285

Objective: To determine the dose of coenzyme Q (CoQ) needed to achieve at least a 3-fold increase in plasma CoQ concentration in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and congestive heart failure (CHF).

Animals: 18 dogs with CHF due to MMVD and 12 healthy dogs.

Procedures: In a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, dogs with MMVD were given 50 or 100 mg of water-soluble CoQ (ubiquinone; total daily dose, 100 mg [n = 5] or 200 mg [6]) or a placebo (7), PO, twice a day for 2 weeks in addition to regular cardiac treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of recombinant equine interleukin-1β on function of equine endothelial colony-forming cells in vitro.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Apr;82(4):318-325

Objective: To investigate the effects of recombinant equine IL-1β on function of equine endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) in vitro.

Sample: ECFCs derived from peripheral blood samples of 3 healthy adult geldings.

Procedures: Function testing was performed to assess in vitro wound healing, tubule formation, cell adhesion, and uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3' tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL) by cultured ECFCs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment of the effect of horseshoes with and without traction adaptations on the gait kinetics of nonlame horses during a trot on a concrete runway.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Apr;82(4):292-301

Objective: To assess the effect of horseshoes with and without traction adaptations on the gait kinetics of nonlame horses during a trot on a concrete runway.

Animals: 5 nonlame adult light-breed horses.

Procedures: Kinetic data were obtained for each horse when it was trotted across a force platform within a concrete runway unshod (control) and shod with standard horseshoes; standard horseshoes with high profile-low surface area calks, with low profile-high surface area calks, and coated with a thin layer of tungsten carbide (TLTC); and plastic-steel composite (PSC) horseshoes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cardiopulmonary effects of an intravenous infusion of fentanyl in cats during isoflurane anesthesia and with concurrent acepromazine or dexmedetomidine administration during anesthetic recovery.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Apr;82(4):261-267

Objective: To determine the cardiopulmonary effects of IV administration of fentanyl to cats anesthetized with isoflurane and during anesthetic recovery with concurrent administration of acepromazine or dexmedetomidine.

Animals: 6 healthy adult cats.

Procedures: Cats received an IV bolus (5 μg/kg) followed by an IV infusion (5 μg/kg/h) of fentanyl for 120 minutes during isoflurane anesthesia and for 30 minutes after discontinuing isoflurane. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Point shear wave elastography of the liver in healthy adult cats.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Apr;82(4):286-291

Objective: To evaluate stiffness of the liver parenchyma in healthy adult cats by means of point shear wave elastography (PSWE).

Animals: 18 client-owned adult (1- to 6-year-old) healthy cats.

Procedures: Echogenicity and echotexture of the liver parenchyma were assessed by means of conventional B-mode ultrasonography. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Repeatability, reproducibility, and reference intervals for indices of right atrial longitudinal strain derived from speckle-tracking echocardiography in healthy dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Apr;82(4):274-279

Objective: To determine repeatability, reproducibility, and reference intervals of indices of right atrial longitudinal strain (RALS) derived from speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) in dogs without heart disease.

Animals: 110 client-owned dogs and 10 laboratory Beagles.

Procedures: To determine intraobserver within-day (repeatability) and interobserver (reproducibility) coefficients of variation, RALS during ventricular systole (ϵS), ventricular early diastole (ϵE), and atrial systole (ϵA), as derived with STE, were obtained by 2 investigators for 5 randomly selected client-owned dogs and analyzed by linear regression. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In vitro assessment of the motion of equine proximal sesamoid bones relative to the third metacarpal bone under physiologic midstance loads.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Mar;82(3):198-206

Objective: To assess the motion of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) relative to the third metacarpal bone (MC3) of equine forelimbs during physiologic midstance loads.

Sample: 8 musculoskeletally normal forelimbs (7 right and 1 left) from 8 adult equine cadavers.

Procedures: Each forelimb was harvested at the mid-radius level and mounted in a material testing system so the hoof could be moved in a dorsal direction while the radius and MC3 remained vertical. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus, thalamus, and basal ganglia and the volume of the hippocampus in dogs before and during treatment with prednisolone.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Mar;82(3):230-236

Objective: To examine whether glucocorticoid (GC) administration alters hippocampal cerebral blood flow (CBF) or volume in dogs.

Animals: 6 clinically normal adult Beagles.

Procedures: Each dog underwent CT and MRI to measure the CBF in the hippocampus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebral cortex and the volume of the hippocampus in each hemisphere of the brain before (day 0) and during (days 7 and 21) a 21-day treatment with prednisolone (1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and opioid effects of a novel analgesic with a deterrent to human opioid abuse (methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone) after oral administration in dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Mar;82(3):171-180

Objective: To assess the pharmacokinetics and opioid effects of methadone after administration of multiple doses by means of 2 dosing regimens of methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone.

Animals: 12 healthy Beagles.

Procedures: Dogs were randomly allocated (6 dogs/group) to receive 1 of 2 oral dosing regimens of methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methadone administered intravenously and intramuscularly to isoflurane-anesthetized chickens.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Mar;82(3):181-188

Objective: To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methadone after IV or IM administration to isoflurane-anesthetized chickens.

Animals: 6 healthy adult Hy-Line hens.

Procedures: In a randomized crossover-design study, methadone (6 mg/kg) was administered IV and IM to isoflurane-anesthetized chickens with a 1-week washout period between experiments. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of duodenal endoscopic and histologic findings, including counts of forkhead box P3-positive regulatory T cells, in dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Mar;82(3):218-224

Objective: To prospectively evaluate the clinical and prognostic importance of duodenal endoscopic and histologic findings, including duodenal mucosal counts of forkhead box P3-positive regulatory T cells (Foxp3+ Tregs), in dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy (IRE).

Animals: 57 client-owned dogs with IRE.

Procedures: The canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) was used to assess each dog when IRE was diagnosed (T0) and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months later. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of electrocardiographic repolarization parameters after administration of trimethoprim-sulfadiazine, detomidine, or their combination in horses.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Mar;82(3):207-217

Objective: To determine whether administration of trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (TMS), detomidine (DET), or TMS plus DET would be associated with changes in ECG repolarization parameters in horses.

Animals: 9 healthy adult horses.

Procedures: Each horse received 4 treatments in a blinded, randomized, crossover study design as follows: TMS, 16 to 24 mg/kg, IV; DET, 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparison of intra- and postoperative variables between laparoscopic and open ovariectomy in rabbits ().

Am J Vet Res 2021 Mar;82(3):237-248

Objective: To compare intraoperative and short-term postoperative variables pertaining to laparoscopic ovariectomy (LapOVE) and open ovariectomy (OVE) in rabbits ().

Animals: Twelve 4- to 5-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits.

Procedures: Rabbits were randomly assigned to undergo LapOVE (n = 6) or OVE (6), with a vessel-sealing device used to seal and transect the ovarian pedicles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparison of basilar sesamoidean and distal approaches for synoviocentesis of the forelimb digital flexor tendon sheath in horses.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Mar;82(3):225-229

Objective: To evaluate synoviocentesis of the equine forelimb digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) via a basilar sesamoidean approach (BSA) or distal approach (DA).

Animals: 21 healthy adult horses without DFTS-related lameness.

Procedures: The forelimbs of each horse underwent the BSA or DA (21 limbs/approach) performed by 1 individual. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of various wound dressings on microbial growth in perfused equine musculocutaneous flaps.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Mar;82(3):189-197

Objective: To compare the effect of multiple wound dressings on microbial growth in a perfused equine wound model.

Sample: Abdominal musculocutaneous flaps from 16 equine cadavers.

Procedures: 8 full-thickness skin wound covered were created in each flap. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Urodynamic and morphometric characteristics of the lower urogenital tract of male Beagle littermates from four months to two years of age.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Feb;82(2):144-151

Objective: To describe functional and anatomic changes of the lower urogenital tract of healthy male dogs during the sexually immature period and up to 2 years of age by urodynamic and morphometric assessment.

Animals: 6 sexually intact male Beagle littermates.

Procedures: Dogs underwent electromyography-coupled urodynamic tests, CT-assisted retrograde urethrography, prostatic washes, and blood sampling monthly from 4 through 12 months of age and then at 3-month intervals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Evaluation of cell-based and tissue-based immunofluorescent assays for detection of glial fibrillary acidic protein autoantibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown origin and other central nervous system disorders.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Feb;82(2):132-137

Objective: To evaluate whether cell-based and tissue-based immunofluorescent assays (IFAs) run in parallel could be used to detect glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) autoantibodies in the CSF of dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown origin (MUO) and other CNS disorders.

Animals: 15 CSF samples obtained from dogs with presumed MUO (n = 5), CNS disease other than MUO (5), and idiopathic epilepsy (5).

Procedures: All CSF samples underwent parallel analysis with a cell-based IFA that targeted the α isoform of human GFAP and a tissue-based IFA that involved mouse brain cryosections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021