19,032 results match your criteria American Journal Of Veterinary Research[Journal]


Three-dimensional hydrogel culture systems support growth and determination of chemosensitivity of feline sarcoma and carcinoma cell lines.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Apr 14;83(6). Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.

Objective: To evaluate feline injection site-associated sarcoma (FISAS) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) cells in 3-D hydrogel-based cell cultures to determine chemosensitivity to carboplatin at concentrations comparable to those eluted from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (C-ICSH) beads.

Sample: 2 immortalized cell lines, each from a histologically confirmed primary FISAS and FOSCC.

Procedures: Hydrogels (10% wt/vol) were formed via UV exposure from methacrylamide-functionalized gelatin dissolved in PBSS. Read More

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Point-of-care ketone meters may be used to estimate serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in healthy African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 14;83(6). Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK.

Objective: To evaluate the agreement between 3 point-of-care (POC) devices and a reference laboratory for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) concentration in African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) whole blood (WB) and plasma samples and the precision of each POC device for measuring β-HB concentration in plasma samples.

Animals: 48 healthy African penguins.

Procedures: Blood was obtained from the right jugular vein of each penguin, and β-HB concentration was measured on each POC device using fresh WB and heparinized plasma and at the reference laboratory using plasma. Read More

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Three-dimensional hydrogel culture systems support growth and determination of chemosensitivity of feline sarcoma and carcinoma cell lines.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 14;83(6). Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.

Objective: To evaluate feline injection site-associated sarcoma (FISAS) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) cells in 3-D hydrogel-based cell cultures to determine chemosensitivity to carboplatin at concentrations comparable to those eluted from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (C-ICSH) beads.

Sample: 2 immortalized cell lines, each from a histologically confirmed primary FISAS and FOSCC.

Procedures: Hydrogels (10% wt/vol) were formed via UV exposure from methacrylamide-functionalized gelatin dissolved in PBSS. Read More

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Determination of the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in donkeys.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 8;83(6). Epub 2022 May 8.

Objective: To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in donkeys and characterize recovery from anesthesia.

Animals: 7 healthy castrated male adult donkeys.

Procedures: Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained under mechanical ventilation with 1. Read More

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Transpulmonary ultrasound dilution is an acceptable technique for cardiac output measurement in anesthetized pigs.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 8;83(6). Epub 2022 May 8.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

Objective: To evaluate cardiac output (CO) measurements using transpulmonary ultrasound (TPUD) technology and compare results with those of the gold standard, pulmonary arterial catheter thermodilution (PACTD), in 6 healthy anesthetized pigs during acute hemodynamic changes caused by manipulation of the blood volume.

Animals: 6 healthy male Landrace pigs.

Procedures: Over a period of 1 week, pigs were anesthetized with isoflurane, mechanically ventilated, and underwent instrumentation in dorsal recumbency. Read More

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Intravenous iron sucrose is safe but does not prevent development of anemia or iron deficiency in healthy cats undergoing serial venipuncture.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 8;83(6). Epub 2022 May 8.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.

Objective: To evaluate IV iron sucrose safety and impact on hematologic and iron indices in healthy cats.

Animals: 5 healthy research cats.

Procedures: Cats were administered iron sucrose (0. Read More

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High-dose buprenorphine results in a greater occurrence of postoperative hyperthermia than morphine in a randomized clinical trial in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 8;83(6). Epub 2022 May 8.

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY.

Objective: To compare the thermoregulatory and analgesic effects of high-dose buprenorphine versus morphine in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Animals: 94 client-owned cats.

Procedures: Cats were randomized to receive either buprenorphine 0. Read More

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A randomized clinical trial to compare ketamine-butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine and detomidine-etorphine-acepromazine for anesthesia of captive Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii).

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 8;83(6). Epub 2022 May 8.

The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and the Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK.

Objective: To compare ketamine-butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine (KBAM) to detomidine-etorphine-acepromazine (DEA) for field anesthesia in captive Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii).

Animals: 10 adult Przewalski horses.

Procedures: A prospective randomized crossover trial was conducted. Read More

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Quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasound estimates intrahepatic portal vascularity in dogs with single extrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 8;83(6). Epub 2022 May 8.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical impact on quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) on single extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (PSS) in dogs.

Animals: 21 client-owned dogs with single extrahepatic PSS and 5 healthy Beagles.

Procedures: In all dogs, CEUS was performed to calculate the rising time (RT), rising rate (RR), and portal vein-to-hepatic parenchyma transit time (ΔHP-PV) from the time-intensity curve obtained in the hepatic parenchyma and portal vein. Read More

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Bortezomib inhibits the proteasome, leading to cell death via apoptosis in feline injection site sarcoma cells in vitro.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 8;83(6). Epub 2022 May 8.

Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

Objective: To determine the in vitro effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in feline injection site sarcoma (FISS) cell lines.

Sample: In vitro cultures of the FISS cell lines Ela-1, Hamilton, and Kaiser.

Procedures: Cells were treated with increasing doses of bortezomib or vehicle alone (dimethyl sulfoxide) and evaluated for cell viability via an adenosine triphosphate concentration assay, proteasome activity via a commercially available proteasome assay, accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins via Western blot, and apoptosis via flow cytometry. Read More

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Characterization of fungal exposure and dectin-1 expression in healthy horses and horses with severe asthma.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 8;83(6). Epub 2022 May 8.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada.

Objective: To quantify dectin-1 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), create polyclonal antibodies against equine dectin-1 and localize it in tissues, and quantify fungal exposure in pastured and stabled asthmatic and nonasthmatic horses.

Samples: BALF samples from 6 controls and 6 horses with severe asthma. Stored lung and nasal wash samples. Read More

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Effect of different contrast medium injection protocols for analysis of hepatic computed tomography perfusion in healthy dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 8;83(6). Epub 2022 May 8.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan.

Objective: To evaluate the hepatic CT perfusion (CTP) for determining the appropriate protocol for the dual-input maximum-slope model in dogs.

Animals: 5 healthy dogs.

Procedures: Each dog underwent CTP with different contrast medium administration protocols. Read More

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In vitro effect of hydroxyethyl starch on coagulation in dogs as assessed by dynamic viscoelastic coagulometry.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 11;83(6). Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Statistics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 670/0.75 and 6% HES 130/0.4 dilution of canine whole blood on coagulation using dynamic viscoelastic coagulometry (DVC). Read More

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Absorption of grapiprant in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) is decreased when administered with food.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 11;83(6). Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA.

Objective: Describe the pharmacokinetics of grapiprant administered orally with food to red-tailed hawks (RTHAs; Buteo jamaicensis) and compare the results with previously described grapiprant pharmacokinetics administered without food in this species.

Animals: 6 healthy adult RTHA (3 males, 3 females) under human care.

Procedures: A single dose of grapiprant (30 mg/kg) was given orally to RTHAs, followed by force-feeding. Read More

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Escherichia coli pathotype contamination in raw canine diets.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 12;83(6). Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Escherichia coli contamination and E coli virulence gene signatures consistent with known E coli pathotypes in commercially available conventional diets and raw-meat-based diets (RMBDs).

Sample: 40 diets in total (19 conventionally cooked kibble or canned diets and 21 RMBDs) obtained from retail stores or online distributors.

Procedures: Each diet was cultured for E coli contamination in 3 separate container locations using standard microbiological techniques. Read More

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Comparative veterinary geroscience: mechanism of molecular, cellular, and tissue aging in humans, laboratory animal models, and companion dogs and cats.

Am J Vet Res 2022 May 8;83(6). Epub 2022 May 8.

Aging is the single most important cause of disease, disability, and death in companion animal species. Contrary to the common view of aging as mysterious and inevitable, it is more usefully understood as a set of complex but comprehensible and modifiable biological processes that are highly conserved across species. The purpose of this Currents in One Health manuscript is to describe key mechanisms of aging at the cellular and molecular level and the manifestations of these in the tissues of the musculoskeletal system, adipose, and the brain. Read More

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The unmet potential of artificial intelligence in veterinary medicine.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Mar 30;83(5):385-392. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Veterinary medicine is a broad and growing discipline that includes topics such as companion animal health, population medicine and zoonotic diseases, and agriculture. In this article, we provide insight on how artificial intelligence works and how it is currently applied in veterinary medicine. We also discuss its potential in veterinary medicine. Read More

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The many opportunities of a fully open access AJVR.

Authors:
Lisa A Fortier

Am J Vet Res 2022 Mar 16;83(4):289. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

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Intratracheal oxygen administration increases FIO2 and PaO2 compared with intranasal administration in healthy, standing horses.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Mar 8;83(5):450-454. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of 2 different oxygen delivery strategies-intranasal and tracheal insufflation-on the inspired fraction of oxygen (FIO2) in standing horses and to determine the time needed for arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) equilibration.

Animals: 6 healthy adult horses.

Procedures: In this blinded, randomized crossover design study, horses were randomly assigned to receive oxygen via nasal cannula (group N) or transcutaneous tracheal catheter (group T). Read More

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MicroRNAs are differentially expressed in the serum and renal tissues of cats with experimentally induced chronic kidney disease: a preliminary study.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Mar 3;83(5):426-433. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

Objective: To identify differentially expressed microRNA in the serum and renal tissues of cats with experimentally induced chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Sample: Banked renal tissues and serum from 4 cats.

Procedures: Cats previously underwent 90-minute unilateral ischemia with delayed contralateral nephrectomy 3 months after ischemia. Read More

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X-ray tube operators can be exposed to equal or higher scattered radiation doses to the hand as cassette holders during diagnostic radiographic procedures of the equine vertebral column and limbs.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Mar 3;83(5):412-418. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate scattered radiation doses to the hands of equine workers holding the cassette and the x-ray tube by hand, for both limb and vertebral column studies, and to compare the scattered radiation attenuation of lead with radiation protection lead-free gloves. Radiation doses to the hands of the cassette holder in the primary beam were also investigated.

Sample: A whole-body horse cadaver. Read More

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Denervating the pelvic suspensory ligaments of horses causes morphological and histological changes in the ligaments.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Feb 24;83(5):399-404. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Services, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.

Objective: To examine changes occurring in normal pelvic suspensory ligaments (SLs) of horses after denervating these ligaments and to investigate the effect chronic inflammation might have on these changes.

Animals: 10 horses.

Procedures: The SL of 1 randomly selected pelvic limb of each of 5 horses was injected with collagenase to induce desmitis, and 42 days later, the proximal aspect of both pelvic SLs were denervated. Read More

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February 2022

The oromaxillofacial region as a model for a one-health approach in regenerative medicine.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Feb 16;83(4):291-297. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Veterinary Institute for Regenerative Cures, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA.

The concept of a one-health approach in regenerative medicine has gained tremendous momentum in the scientific and public communities in recent years. Knowledge derived from this approach informs innovative biomedical research, clinical trials, and practice. The ultimate goal is to translate regenerative strategies for curing diseases and improving the quality of life in animals and people. Read More

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February 2022

Flow-controlled expiration improves respiratory mechanics, ventilation, and gas exchange in anesthetized horses.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Feb 16;83(5):393-398. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Objective: Mechanical ventilation is usually achieved by active lung inflation during inspiration and passive lung emptying during expiration. By contrast, flow-controlled expiration (FLEX) ventilation actively reduces the rate of lung emptying by causing linear gas flow throughout the expiratory phase. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of FLEX on lung compliance and gas exchange in anesthetized horses in dorsal recumbency. Read More

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February 2022

Evaluation of the accuracy of three-dimensionally printed patient-specific guides for transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in small-breed dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Feb 16;83(5):465-472. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Objective: To assess the accuracy of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy using 3-D printed patient-specific guides (3D-PSGs) in small-breed dogs.

Animals: Heads obtained from the cadavers of 19 small-breed dogs (ex vivo portion of study) and 3 healthy adult (3 to 4 years) purpose-bred Beagles with a median body weight of 9.2 kg. Read More

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February 2022

Short course of immune-suppressive doses of prednisolone, evaluated through a prospective double-masked placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy Beagles, is associated with sustained modifications in renal, hydration, and electrolytic status.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Feb 16;83(5):434-442. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Innovations thérapeutiques et résistances, Université de Toulouse, Institut national de recherche pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, Université Paul-Sabatier, Toulouse, France.

Objective: To investigate the effects and duration of orally administered prednisolone on renal function evaluated by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determination and creatinine (Cr) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations as well as on urinalysis, electrolytes, and hydric status in healthy dogs.

Animals: 14 healthy Beagles.

Procedures: In this prospective double-masked placebo-controlled study, dogs were randomized after baseline evaluation to receive a 7-day course of either prednisolone (1. Read More

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February 2022

Positive-pressure breath-hold positron emission tomography/computed tomography is feasible for respiratory-induced artifact reduction in healthy dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Feb 16;83(5):405-411. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Objective: To perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT images using spontaneous ventilation (SV) and positive-pressure breath-hold (PPBH) techniques in order to demonstrate the feasibility of PPBH PET/CT to decrease respiration-induced artifacts.

Animals: 5 healthy female mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures: 2-([18F]fluoro)-2-deoxy-D-glucose (was administered to each anesthetized dog. Read More

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February 2022

Computed tomographic geometrical analysis of surgical treatments for equine recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Feb 8;83(5):443-449. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Objectives: To characterize the 3-D geometry of the equine larynx replicating laryngeal hemiplegia and 4 surgical interventions by use of CT under steady-state airflow conditions. Secondly, to use fluid mechanic principles of flow through a constriction to establish the relationship between measured airflow geometries with impedance for each surgical procedure.

Sample: 10 cadaveric horse larynges. Read More

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February 2022

Comparison of the zip skin closure system with conventional suture for skin closure of ventral midline incisions in horses.

Am J Vet Res 2022 Feb 2;83(5):455-464. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA.

Objective: To compare the application and healing of the zip skin closure system (ZSCS) with sutured closure by use of a split-scar model of ventral midline incisions in horses in a prospective, randomized experimental study.

Animals: 8 adult horses.

Procedures: All horses underwent an exploratory ventral midline celiotomy with a standardized 30-cm skin incision. Read More

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February 2022