635 results match your criteria American Journal Of Tropical Medicine And Hygiene[Journal]


Risk Factors for Death Among 120,804 Hospitalized Patients with Confirmed COVID-19 in São Paulo, Brazil.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

1Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Brazil.

São Paulo is a state in Brazil with one of the highest numbers of confirmed and severe cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), with an incidence of 294 hospitalizations per 100,000 inhabitants. We report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 120,804 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 from February 26 to October 10, 2020, in São Paulo. Characteristics of patients who died and survived were compared using a survival analysis. Read More

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Seasonal Influenza Prevention and Control Progress in Latin America and the Caribbean in the Context of the Global Influenza Strategy and the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

4Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado.

Each year in Latin America and the Caribbean, seasonal influenza is associated with an estimated 36,500 respiratory deaths and 400,000 hospitalizations. Since the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, the Region has made significant advances in the prevention and control of seasonal influenza, including improved surveillance systems, burden estimates, and vaccination of at-risk groups. The Global Influenza Strategy 2019-2030 provides a framework to strengthen these advances. Read More

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Case Report: Acute Kidney Failure due to Massive Envenomation of a Two-Year-Old Child Caused by Killer Bee Stings.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

1Service de Médecine et Chirurgie Pédiatrique, Cayenne Hospital, Cayenne, French Guiana.

A hybrid species of Brazilian bee has proliferated on the South American continent since 1956. We describe a "killer bee" swarm attack on a 2-year-old girl in French Guiana. The patient weighed 10 kg, and approximately hundreds of bees' stingers were removed, that is, 10 stings/kg. Read More

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Case Report: Recent Case Reports of Levant Blunt-Nosed Viper Macrovipera lebetina obtusa Snakebites in Iran.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

5Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt.

Envenomation and death resulting from snakebites represent a significant public health problem worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The WHO has defined snakebite as a neglected tropical health concern. Bites from Macrovipera lebetina obtusa usually cause life-threatening systemic hemodynamic disturbances, reduced functionality of the kidneys, and other serious symptoms, including hypotension shock, edema, and tissue necrosis, at the bite site. Read More

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Expanding Opportunities for American Descendants of Slavery to Build a More Inclusive and Diverse Global Health Workforce.

Authors:
Tishina Okegbe

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Historically, the terms African American and Black have been used interchangeably to describe any person with African ancestry living in the United States. However, Black Americans are not a monolith, and legitimate differences exist between those with generational roots in the United States and either African or Caribbean immigrants. American descendants of slavery (ADOS) are underrepresented in many fields, but I have noticed during my decades long career in global health that they are acutely absent in this field. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Swabbed Samples from Latrines and Flushing Toilets: A Case-Control Study in a Rural Latin American Setting.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

4Omics Sciences Laboratory, Universidad Espíritu Santo - Ecuador, Samborondón, Ecuador.

Information about factors potentially favoring the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in rural settings is limited. Following a case-control study design in a rural Ecuadorian village that was severely struck by the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 RNA were detected by real-time PCR in swabs obtained from inner and upper walls in 24/48 randomly selected latrines from case-houses and in 12/48 flushing toilets from paired control-houses (P = 0.014; McNemar's test). Read More

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January 2021

Chagas Disease in the United States: A Perspective on Diagnostic Testing Limitations and Next Steps.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

9Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease that affects an estimated 300,000 people in the United States. This perspective piece reviews diagnostic challenges and proposes next steps to address these shortfalls. Read More

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February 2021

Limited Secondary Transmission of the Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) by Asymptomatic and Mild COVID-19 Patients in Bhutan.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Dec 10. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Ministry of Health, Thimphu, Bhutan.

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, there is growing concordance and persisting conflicts on the virus and the disease process. We discuss limited transmissibility of the virus by asymptomatic and mild cases of COVID-19 patients in Bhutan. We followed up the secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the contacts of asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients in Bhutan. Read More

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December 2020

Inadequate Minority Representation within SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Trials.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jan;104(1):32-34

3Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Minority communities have borne the brunt of COVID-19 disease in the United States. Nonwhites have contracted most of the SARS-CoV-2 infections; COVID-19 mortality rates for Black Americans are more than twice those for whites. Given this, studying the most effective ways to prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 in these populations should be a research priority, particularly with respect to vaccine trials. Read More

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January 2021

Validity of a Four-Item Household Water Insecurity Experiences Scale for Assessing Water Issues Related to Health and Well-Being.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 01;104(1):391-394

6School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

We sought to determine whether a shortened version of the 12-item Household Water Insecurity Experiences (HWISE) Scale, which measures water insecurity equivalently in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), is valid for broad use. Using data from 9,261 households in 25 LMICs, subsets of candidate items were evaluated on their predictive accuracy, criterion validity, and sensitivity-specificity. A subset with items assessing "worry," "changing plans," "limited drinking water," and "inability to wash hands" because of problems with water (range: 0-12) were highly correlated with full HWISE Scale scores (correlation coefficient: 0. Read More

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January 2021

Something Big that Matters: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Commitment to Combat Climate Change.

Authors:
Chandy C John

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 11;103(5):1751-1752

Ryan White Center for Pediatric Infectious Disease and Global Health, Indianapolis, Indiana.

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November 2020

Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Academic Conferences: The Example of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 11;103(5):1758-1761

Clinton Health Access Initiative, Boston, Massachusetts.

We calculated carbon emissions associated with air travel of 4,834 participants at the 2019 annual conference of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH). Together, participants traveled a total of 27.7 million miles or 44. Read More

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November 2020

Case Report: COVID-19 and Chagas Disease in Two Coinfected Patients.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Dec 6;103(6):2353-2356. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Departamento de Dermatologia, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Laboratorio de Dermatologia e Imunodeficiencias (LIM-56), Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

American trypanosomiasis, also named Chagas disease (CD), is an anthropozoonosis caused by the protozoan parasite . The disease affects millions of people worldwide, leading yearly to approximately 50,000 deaths. COVID-19, generated by SARS-CoV-2, can lead to lymphopenia and death. Read More

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December 2020

COVID-19 Response in Latin America.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 11;103(5):1765-1772

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Effective management of a pandemic due to a respiratory virus requires public health capacity for a coordinated response for mandatory restrictions, large-scale testing to identify infected individuals, capacity to isolate infected cases and track and test contacts, and health services for those infected who require hospitalization. Because of contextual and socioeconomic factors, it has been hard for Latin America to confront this epidemic. In this article, we discuss the context and the initial responses of eight selected Latin American countries, including similarities and differences in public health, economic, and fiscal measures, and provide reflections on what worked and what did not work and what to expect moving forward. Read More

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November 2020

Vector Snails in Antigua and Montserrat, with Snail-Related Considerations Pertinent to a Declaration of Elimination of Human Schistosomiasis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 12 3;103(6):2268-2277. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Parasite Division, Museum of Southwestern Biology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Investigations leading to a WHO-validated declaration of elimination of schistosomiasis transmission are contemplated for several countries, including Caribbean island nations. With assistance from the Pan American Health Organization, we undertook freshwater snail surveys in two such nations, Antigua and Barbuda, and Montserrat in September and October 2017. Historically, the transmission of supported by the Neotropical vector snail occurred in both countries. Read More

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December 2020

Case Report: Autochthonous Case of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis in the West Bank, Palestine.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 10;103(4):1490-1492

Arab American University, Jenin, Palestine.

Human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) is a parasitic disease infecting children in the Mediterranean region. Here, we portray a case of a 2-year-old child with an epidemiological description of the situation surrounding the case. The patient was suffering from recurrent fever, weakness, and abdominal discomfort associated with loss of appetite. Read More

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October 2020

The Origin of COVID-19 and Why It Matters.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Sep;103(3):955-959

Viral Pathogenesis and Evolution Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

The COVID-19 pandemic is among the deadliest infectious diseases to have emerged in recent history. As with all past pandemics, the specific mechanism of its emergence in humans remains unknown. Nevertheless, a large body of virologic, epidemiologic, veterinary, and ecologic data establishes that the new virus, SARS-CoV-2, evolved directly or indirectly from a β-coronavirus in the sarbecovirus (SARS-like virus) group that naturally infect bats and pangolins in Asia and Southeast Asia. Read More

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September 2020

Control of Rabies as a Victim of Its Own Success: Perception of Risk within a Latin American Population.

Authors:
Felipe Rocha

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 09;103(3):929-930

Pan American Center for Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Veterinary Public Health, Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PANAFTOSA-PAHOWHO).

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September 2020

Economic Costs and Benefits of Community-Based Lymphedema-Management Programs for Lymphatic Filariasis in India.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 07;103(1):295-302

Department of Economics, Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is endemic in 72 countries; 15 million persons live with chronic filarial lymphedema. It can be a disabling condition, frequently painful, leading to reduced mobility, social exclusion, and depression. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to stop new infections and care for affected persons, but morbidity management has been initiated in only 38 countries. Read More

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Seroprevalence of Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Antibodies among Children in Haiti, 2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 10;103(4):1717-1725

Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

In Haiti, measles, rubella, and maternal and neonatal tetanus have been eliminated, but a diphtheria outbreak is ongoing as of 2019. We conducted a nationally representative, household-based, two-stage cluster survey among children aged 5-7 years in 2017 to assess progress toward maintenance of control and elimination of selected vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). We stratified Haiti into West region (West department, including the capital city) and non-West region (all other departments). Read More

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October 2020

Parasitic Infection Surveillance in Mississippi Delta Children.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 09;103(3):1150-1153

Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi.

Some recent studies suggest ongoing transmission of parasitic diseases in the American South; however, surveys in Mississippi children are lacking. We enrolled 166 children (median age 8 years, range 4-13 years) from the Mississippi Delta region and carried out multi-parallel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for , , and on their stool samples. Dried blood spots were obtained for multiplex serology antibody detection. Read More

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September 2020

Responding to the Challenge of the Dual COVID-19 and Ebola Epidemics in the Democratic Republic of Congo-Priorities for Achieving Control.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 08 19;103(2):597-602. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Virology, National Institute of Biomedical Research (INRB), Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

As of June 11, 2020, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has reported 4,258 COVID-19 cases with 90 deaths. With other African countries, the DRC faces the challenge of striking a balance between easing public health lockdown measures to curtail the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and minimizing both economic hardships for large sectors of the population and negative impacts on health services for other infectious and noninfectious diseases. The DRC recently controlled its tenth Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, but COVID-19 and a new EVD outbreak beginning on June 1, 2020 in the northwest Équateur Province have added an additional burden to health services. Read More

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The Equatoguinean Malaria Vaccine Initiative: From the Launching of a Clinical Research Platform to Malaria Elimination Planning in Central West Africa.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 09;103(3):947-954

Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Government of Equatorial Guinea, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea.

Fifteen years of investment in malaria control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG), dramatically reduced malaria-associated morbidity and mortality, but the impact has plateaued. To progress toward elimination, EG is investing in the development of a malaria vaccine. We assessed the unique public-private partnership that has had such a significant impact on malaria on Bioko Island and now added a major effort on malaria vaccine development. Read More

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September 2020

COVID-19: Shining the Light on Africa.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 06;102(6):1145-1148

Scientific Program Chair, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and UK Public Health Rapid Support Team, Public Health England/London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

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Case Report: Mucosal Leishmaniasis in New York City.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 06;102(6):1319-1322

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

The six previously reported civilian cases of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) diagnosed in the United States have all represented imported New World ML. We describe two new patients with ML diagnosed in New York City-a Syrian immigrant with a nasal mass (), the first report of Old World ML in the United States, and an American ecologist who worked in Bolivia and had been treated for cutaneous infection 23 years before developing lesions (. () ) initially of the uvula, soft palate, and posterior pharynx and subsequently the larynx. Read More

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Impact of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines on Prevalence of Hypertension in Ghana.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 06;102(6):1425-1431

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

We investigated the prevalence of hypertension in Ghana using the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) criteria and compared with prevalence estimates using the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) criteria. Among 13,220 Ghanaians aged 15-49 years, the prevalence of hypertension was 30.4% (95% CI: 29. Read More

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Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in a Low-Income Texas Community.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 06;102(6):1386-1395

Department of Pediatrics: Tropical Medicine, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Strongyloidiasis affects an estimated hundreds of millions of people worldwide, with infection possibly persisting for life without appropriate therapy because of the helminth's unique autoinfection cycle. Like other soil-transmitted helminths, because of the environmental conditions required for the life cycle of , this parasite is endemic to tropical, subtropical, and temperate countries and areas with inadequate sanitation infrastructure. Given continued poverty and that nearly one in five American homes are lacking proper sanitation systems, many U. Read More

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