17,695 results match your criteria American Journal Of Tropical Medicine And Hygiene[Journal]


Adherence to Mass Drug Administration with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine and Clearance in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Center for Applied Malaria Research and Evaluation, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Mass drug administration (MDA) with artemisinin combination therapy is a potentially useful tool for malaria elimination programs, but its success depends partly on drug effectiveness and treatment coverage in the targeted population. As part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia evaluating the impact of MDA and household focal MDA (fMDA) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAp), sub-studies were conducted investigating population drug adherence rates and effectiveness of DHAp as administered in clearing infections following household mass administration. Adherence information was reported for 181,534 of 336,821 DHAp (53. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0667DOI Listing

Evidence of Microbiome-Drug Interactions between the Antimalarial Lumefantrine and Gut Microbiota in Mice.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

The antimalarial drug lumefantrine (LF) exhibits erratic pharmacokinetics (PK). Intersubject variability might be attributed, in part, to differences in the gut microbiome-mediated drug metabolism. We assessed LF disposition in healthy mice stratified by enterotype to explore associations between the gut microbiota and LF PK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0333DOI Listing

Moving from Malaria Burden Reduction toward Elimination: An Evaluation of Mass Drug Administration in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

National Malaria Control Centre, Zambia Ministry of Health, Lusaka, Zambia.

From December 2014 to February 2016, a cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out in 60 health facility catchment areas along Lake Kariba in Zambia's Southern Province. The trial sought to evaluate the impact of four rounds of a mass drug administration (MDA) intervention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) or focal MDA with DHAP at the household level compared with a control population that received the standard of care. This study was the first randomized controlled trial with DHAP for MDA in sub-Saharan Africa and was conducted through a collaboration between the National Malaria Elimination Programme in the Zambian Ministry of Health, the PATH Malaria Control and Elimination Partnership in Africa, and the Center for Applied Malaria Research and Evaluation at Tulane University. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0669DOI Listing

The Role of Mass Drug Administration of Antimalarials.

Authors:
Pedro L Alonso

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Global Malaria Program, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

The Role of Mass Drug Administration of Antimalarials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0729DOI Listing

Prevalence of Asymptomatic and/or Low-Density Malaria Infection among High-Risk Groups in Peninsular Malaysia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Asymptomatic and/or low-density malaria infection has been acknowledged as an obstacle to achieving a malaria-free country. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic and/or low-density malaria infection in previously reported malarious localities using nested PCR in four states, namely, Johor, Pahang, Kelantan, and Selangor, between June 2019 and January 2020. Blood samples ( = 585) were collected and were extracted using a QIAamp blood kit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0268DOI Listing

Feasibility, Reproducibility, and Clinical Validity of a Quantitative Chest X-Ray Assessment for COVID-19.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Radiology, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, Milan, Italy.

Chest X-ray (CXR) is an essential first-line tool in COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosis and management. Our study aimed at assessing 1) CXR manifestations, frequency, and distribution; 2) the feasibility and repeatability of a CXR severity score; and 3) the correlation between the CXR severity score and clinical and laboratory parameters. We reviewed baseline CXRs and clinical data of consecutive patients who presented to our emergency department and resulted positive at SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase-PCR oropharyngeal swab test from March 1, 2020 to April 6, 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0535DOI Listing

Detection of Pulmonary Embolism in Returning Travelers with Hypoxemic Pneumonia due to COVID-19 in Reunion Island.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Réanimation Polyvalente, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Felix Guyon Allée des Topazes, Saint Denis, France.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary embolism in returning travelers with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19. All returning travelers to Reunion Island with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and were included in the cohort. Thirty-five patients were returning travelers with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 and had recently returned from one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 outbreak (mainly from France and Comoros archipelago). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0597DOI Listing

Review of Burden, Clinical Definitions, and Management of COVID-19 Cases.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Our understanding of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), its clinical manifestations, and treatment options continues to evolve at an unparalleled pace. This review sought to summarize the key literature regarding transmission, case definitions, clinical management, and the burden of COVID-19. Our review of the literature showed that SARS-CoV-2 was mainly transmitted via inhalation of respiratory droplets containing the virus and had a mean incubation period of 4-6 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0564DOI Listing
July 2020
2.699 Impact Factor

Early Postnatal and Preschool-Age Infection by spp.: Report of Five Cases from Vietnam and Worldwide Review.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Departamento de Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Fascioliasis is reported in five Vietnamese children aged 4 years or younger. A 10-month-old girl child and a 12-month-old boy child are the youngest patients ever diagnosed. Eggs in stools suggested an infection occurred at 5-6 months and 7-8 months of age, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0139DOI Listing

Impact of Different Strategies for Delivering Supplemental Zinc on Selected Fecal Markers of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction among Young Laotian Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Nutrition, Institute for Global Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, California.

The objective of this study was to assess the impact of different strategies for delivering supplemental zinc on fecal myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and calprotectin (CAL) among young Laotian children. In a double-blind controlled trial, children aged 6-23 months were randomized to receive either daily preventive zinc (PZ) tablets (7 mg/day), daily micronutrient powder (MNP; containing 10 mg zinc and 14 other micronutrients), therapeutic zinc (TZ) supplements for diarrhea treatment (20 mg/day for 10 days), or daily placebo powder and followed for ∼36 weeks. Stool samples were collected at baseline and endline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0106DOI Listing

Case Report: Dynamics of Acquired Fluoroquinolone Resistance under Standardized Short-Course Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

We report a case of acquired fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance under short-course multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment. The patient was managed at Kabutare hospital, one of the two specialized MDR-TB clinics in Rwanda. A low dose of moxifloxacin was used in the first three critical months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0201DOI Listing

Seroprevalence of Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Antibodies among Children in Haiti, 2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

In Haiti, measles, rubella, and maternal and neonatal tetanus have been eliminated, but a diphtheria outbreak is ongoing as of 2019. We conducted a national representative, household-based, two-stage cluster survey among children aged 5-7 years in 2017 to assess progress toward maintenance of control and elimination of selected vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). We stratified Haiti into west region (west department, including the capital city) and non-west region (all other departments). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0112DOI Listing

Evidence for Reduced Malaria Parasite Population after Application of Population-Level Antimalarial Drug Strategies in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

A mass drug administration trial was carried out in Southern Province, Zambia, between 2014 and 2016, in conjunction with a standard of care package that included improved surveillance, increased access to malaria case management, and sustained high levels of vector control coverage. This was preceded by mass test and treatment in the same area from 2011 to 2013. Concordant decreases in malaria prevalence in Southern Province and deaths attributed to malaria in Zambia over this time suggest that these strategies successfully reduced the malaria burden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0666DOI Listing

An Atypical Case of Autochthonous Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Associated with Naturally Infected Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Texas, United States.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Texas Department of State Health Services, Zoonosis Control Program, Temple, Texas.

In the United States, phlebotomine sand flies carrying () are endemic along the southern border. However, relatively little is known about the enzootic and zoonotic transmission of () within the United States, and autochthonous cases of the consequent disease are rarely reported. We investigated an atypical case of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by () in a patient from central Texas which did not respond to a typical antileishmanial chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0107DOI Listing

Out-of-Pocket Costs for Patients Diagnosed with Tuberculosis in Different Healthcare Settings in Bandung, Indonesia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

Costs related to tuberculosis (TB) can impose a significant burden on patients and their families and create barriers to diagnosis and treatment. Our study aimed to quantify out-of-pocket costs expended by TB patients in Bandung, Indonesia. This cross-sectional study recruited adults with TB from community health centers (CHCs), public and private hospitals, and private practitioners (PPs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0848DOI Listing

Prevalence of and Non- Infections by Photo-Induced Electron Transfer-PCR in a Longitudinal Cohort of Individuals Enrolled in a Mass Drug Administration Trial in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

PATH Malaria Control and Elimination Partnership in Africa (MACEPA), Lusaka, Zambia.

Malaria burden in Zambia has significantly declined over the last decade because of improved coverage of several key malaria interventions (e.g., vector control, case management, bed net distributions, and enhanced surveillance/responses). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0668DOI Listing

Treatment Coverage Estimation for Mass Drug Administration for Malaria with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Center for Applied Malaria Research and Evaluation, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Mass drug administration (MDA) is currently being considered as an intervention in low-transmission areas to complement existing malaria control and elimination efforts. The effectiveness of any MDA strategy is dependent on achieving high epidemiologic coverage and participant adherence rates. A community-randomized controlled trial was conducted from November 2014 to March 2016 to evaluate the impact of four rounds of MDA or focal MDA (fMDA)-where treatment was given to all eligible household members if anyone in the household had a positive malaria rapid diagnostic test-on malaria outcomes in Southern Province, Zambia (population approximately 300,000). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0665DOI Listing

Recent Travel History and Malaria Infection in a Region of Heterogenous Transmission in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Center for Applied Malaria Research and Evaluation, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

As Zambia continues to reduce its malaria incidence and target elimination in Southern Province, there is a need to identify factors that can reintroduce parasites and sustain malaria transmission. To examine the relative contributions of types of human mobility on malaria prevalence, this analysis quantifies the proportion of the population having recently traveled during both peak and nonpeak transmission seasons over the course of 2 years and assesses the relationship between short-term travel and malaria infection status. Among all residents targeted by mass drug administration in the Lake Kariba region of Southern Province, 602,620 rapid diagnostic tests and recent travel histories were collected during four campaign rounds occurring between December 2014 and February 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0660DOI Listing

Cost-Effectiveness of Focal Mass Drug Administration and Mass Drug Administration with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Malaria Prevention in Southern Province, Zambia: Results of a Community-Randomized Controlled Trial.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

PATH MACEPA, Lusaka, Zambia.

Community-wide administration of antimalarial drugs in therapeutic doses is a potential tool to prevent malaria infection and reduce the malaria parasite reservoir. To measure the effectiveness and cost of using the antimalarial drug combination dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAp) through different community-wide distribution strategies, Zambia's National Malaria Control Centre conducted a three-armed community-randomized controlled trial. The trial arms were as follows: 1) standard of care (SoC) malaria interventions, 2) SoC plus focal mass drug administration (fMDA), and 3) SoC plus MDA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0661DOI Listing

Implications of the MDA Trial in Southern Province, Zambia, for Malaria Control and Elimination.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

National Malaria Control Centre, Zambia Ministry of Health, Chainama Hospital Grounds, Lusaka, Zambia.

Implications of the MDA Trial in Southern Province, Zambia, for Malaria Control and Elimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0673DOI Listing

Impact of Four Rounds of Mass Drug Administration with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Implemented in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

PATH Malaria Control and Elimination Partnership in Africa (MACEPA), Lusaka, Zambia.

Over the past decade, Zambia has made substantial progress against malaria and has recently set the ambitious goal of eliminating by 2021. In the context of very high vector control and improved access to malaria diagnosis and treatment in Southern Province, we implemented a community-randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of four rounds of community-wide mass drug administration (MDA) and household-level MDA (focal MDA) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) implemented between December 2014 and February 2016. The mass treatment campaigns achieved relatively good household coverage (63-79%), were widely accepted by the community (ranging from 87% to 94%), and achieved very high adherence to the DHAP regimen (81-96%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0659DOI Listing

Erratum.

Authors:

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Erratum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0436errDOI Listing

A Longitudinal Cohort to Monitor Malaria Infection Incidence during Mass Drug Administration in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Center for Applied Malaria Research and Evaluation, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Rigorous evidence of effectiveness is needed to determine where and when to apply mass drug administration (MDA) or focal MDA (fMDA) as part of a malaria elimination strategy. The Zambia National Malaria Elimination Centre recently completed a community-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province to evaluate MDA and fMDA for transmission reduction. To assess the role of MDA and fMDA on infection incidence, we enrolled a longitudinal cohort for an 18-month period of data collection including monthly malaria parasite infection detection based on polymerase chain reaction and compared time to first infection and cumulative infection incidence outcomes across study arms using Cox proportional hazards and negative binomial models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0657DOI Listing

Pyrethroid and Carbamate Resistance in Giles along Lake Kariba in Southern Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

SADC Malaria Elimination Eight Secretariat, Windhoek, Namibia.

Whereas data on insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanisms exist for parts of Zambia, data remain limited in the southern part of the country. This study investigated the status of insecticide resistance, metabolic mechanisms, and parasite infection in along Lake Kariba in southern Zambia. Indoor-resting mosquitoes were collected from 20 randomly selected houses within clusters where a mass drug administration trial was conducted and raised to F1 progeny. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0664DOI Listing

Predictors of Loss to Follow-Up among Men with Tuberculosis in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu, India.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Identifying predictors of loss to follow-up (LTFU; treatment lapse ≥ 2 months) among people with tuberculosis (TB) may assist programmatic efforts in controlling the spread of TB. Newly diagnosed smear-positive TB patients were enrolled in the Regional Prospective Observational Research for TB study in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu, India. Treatment records were used to identify LTFU of those who were enrolled from May 2014 through December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0415DOI Listing

Assessment of the Acceptability of Testing and Treatment during a Mass Drug Administration Trial for Malaria in Zambia Using Mixed Methods.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

PATH Malaria Control and Elimination Partnership in Africa (MACEPA), Lusaka, Zambia.

From 2014 to 2016, a community-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia, compared mass drug administration (MDA) and focal MDA (fMDA) with the standard of care. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed quantitatively using closed-ended and Likert scale-based questions posed during three household surveys conducted from April to May in 2014, 2015, and 2016 in 40 health catchments that implemented MDA and fMDA and 20 catchments that served as trial controls. In 2014 and 2015, 47 households per catchment were selected, targeting 1,880 households in MDA and fMDA trial arms; in 2016, 55 households per catchment were selected for a target of 2,200 households in MDA and fMDA trial arms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0663DOI Listing

Clinical and Laboratory Profile of Fatal Dengue Cases at a Tertiary Care Private Hospital in Mumbai, India.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Critical Care, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital and Medical Research Institute, Mumbai, India.

Dengue-related mortality has significantly reduced with early and appropriate fluid resuscitation. However, we continue to see dengue-related fatalities in patients despite early intervention and advanced critical care support. This was a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care private hospital in Mumbai, India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0425DOI Listing

Endocrine and Metabolic Manifestations of Snakebite Envenoming.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Endocrinology, Manipal Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Snake envenoming is a neglected, public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. Local tissue necrosis, neurotoxic, and hemo-vasculotoxic effects are well-recognized features, whereas the endocrine and metabolic derangements are not as well known. In addition to contributing to morbidity, some of these manifestations can be potentially life-threatening if not recognized early. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0161DOI Listing

Environmental Contamination by Dog Feces in Touristic Areas of Italy: Parasitological Aspects and Zoonotic Hazards.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Laboratorio di Parassitologia - Ospedale Didattico Veterinario, Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

Public spaces are common sites of fecal contamination which is concerning considering the prevalence rates of gastrointestinal pathogens carried by pets. Multiple pet-bound parasite species capable of infecting humans have previously been reported in fecal samples collected from urban areas around the globe, including Italy In addition, the presence of gastrointestinal parasites has recently been shown in pets from the island of Sardinia, a well-known touristic destination. For these reasons, this study aims to evaluate the level of fecal contamination of two of the most important cities on Sardinia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0169DOI Listing

Autochthonous Chagas Disease in the United States: How Are People Getting Infected?

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona.

In the United States, Chagas disease is diagnosed in less than 1% of the estimated > 300,000 people who have the disease. However, the actual prevalence remains unknown, and these estimates may be wide of the mark (too high or too low). The greater part of those living with the disease acquired the infection in an endemic region of Latin America, but autochthonous transmission in the United States is increasingly being described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0733DOI Listing

Feasibility of GeneXpert Edge for Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Difficult-to-Reach Populations: Preliminary Results of a Proof-of-Concept Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

GeneXpert Edge (GX-Edge) is a new point-of-care platform not yet tested in the field. In this proof-of-concept study conducted for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in communities living alongside two large rivers of the Brazilian Amazon, we demonstrate that GX-Edge implemented in boats to offer onsite testing is a feasible strategy to investigate potentially devastating diseases such as tuberculosis in difficult-to-reach populations, such as riverside communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0326DOI Listing

Malaria Risk Map Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis along Yunnan Border During the Pre-elimination Period.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In moving toward malaria elimination, finer scale malaria risk maps are required to identify hotspots for implementing surveillance-response activities, allocating resources, and preparing health facilities based on the needs and necessities at each specific area. This study aimed to demonstrate the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) in conjunction with geographic information systems (GISs) to create a spatial model and risk maps by integrating satellite remote-sensing and malaria surveillance data from 18 counties of Yunnan Province along the China-Myanmar border. The MCDA composite and annual models and risk maps were created from the consensus among the experts who have been working and know situations in the study areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0854DOI Listing

Population Screening for Urine Antigens to Detect Asymptomatic Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis: A Pilot Study in Northern Peru.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Subarachnoid neurocysticercosis (SANCC) is a severe and progressive brain infection with . We performed a pilot study of noninvasive screening for SANCC in two endemic villages in northern Peru using a urine antigen screen followed by brain magnetic resonance imaging for participants with elevated levels of antigen. Among the 978 participants screened, we identified eight individuals with SANCC, many of whom were asymptomatic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0196DOI Listing

Ideal Criteria for Accurate Mouse Models of Vector-Borne Diseases with Emphasis on Scrub Typhus and Dengue.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Nine criteria regarding the infectious agent, mode of transmission, portal of entry, route of spread, target organs, target cells, pathologic lesions, incubation period, and modifiable spectrum of disease and outcomes appropriate to the intended experimental purpose are described. To provide context for each criterion, mouse models of two vector-borne zoonotic infectious diseases, scrub typhus and dengue, are summarized. Application of the criteria indicates that intravenous inoculation of into inbred mice is the best current model for life-threatening scrub typhus, and intradermal inoculation accurately models sublethal human scrub typhus, whereas the immunocompromised mouse models of dengue provide disease outcomes most closely associated with human dengue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0955DOI Listing

Prevalence of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Variants in Malaria-Endemic Areas of South Central Timor, Eastern Indonesia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Chulabhorn International College of Medicine (CICM), Thammasat University (Rangsit Campus), Patum Thani, Thailand.

Primaquine is an effective anti-hypnozoite drug for and However, it can trigger erythrocyte hemolysis in people with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In a previous report from South Central Timor (SCT), Indonesia, we described the prevalence of Vanua Lava, Chatham, and Viangchan variants; in this study, other G6PD variants (Kaiping, Coimbra, Gaohe, Canton, and Mahidol) were subsequently analyzed. For clarity, all of these results are described together. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0780DOI Listing

Using the Ultrasensitive Alere Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Ag HRP-2 Rapid Diagnostic Test in the Field and Clinic in Northeastern Uganda.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Med Biotech Laboratories, Kampala, Uganda.

The ultrasensitive Alere Malaria Ag histidine-rich protein 2 rapid diagnostic test (Alere uRDT) is a new diagnostic tool which is more expensive than other malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) routinely used in Ugandan clinics. The manufacturer recommends testing samples within 2 days and scoring results after 20 minutes, which may be impractical in high-volume resource-poor clinics. We compared testing by the Alere Ag rapid diagnostic test (uRDT), CareStart RDT, microscopy, and an ultrasensitive I8S rRNA quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using survey and clinical samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0653DOI Listing

LeishCare: A Software Designed for the Management of Individuals with Leishmaniases.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, Brazil.

The aims of this study were to describe a smartphone app aimed at healthcare professionals who work in areas endemic for visceral and tegumentary leishmaniases, and to report the user's perception of the app in these areas. The software, called LeishCare, has the following features: data registration, image filter to record the evolution of skin lesions using photos, calculation of a score set to identify the risk of death from visceral leishmaniasis, and guides to the diseases. LeishCare was made available to healthcare professionals in endemic municipalities in Brazil, and the perception of potential users was evaluated at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0178DOI Listing

Facility-Level Approaches for COVID-19 When Caseload Surpasses Surge Capacity.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Center for Global Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

As COVID-19 cases continue to increase globally, fragile health systems already facing challenges with health system infrastructure, SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic capacity, and patient isolation capabilities may be left with few options to effectively care for acutely ill patients. Haiti-with only two laboratories that can perform reverse transcriptase PCR for SARS-CoV-2, a paucity of hospital beds, and an exponential increase in cases-provides an example that underpins the need for immediate infrastructure solutions for the crisis. We present two COVID-19 treatment center designs that leverage lessons learned from previous outbreaks of communicable infectious diseases and provide potential solutions when caseload exceeds existing capacity, with and without access to SARS-CoV-2 testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0681DOI Listing

Biosafety at Home: How to Translate Biomedical Laboratory Safety Precautions for Everyday Use in the Context of COVID-19.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Medical Entomology and Tropical Medicine Laboratory LEMMT, School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador.

Population adoption of social distancing measures during the COVID-19 pandemic is at times deficient, increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Healthcare workers and those living in areas of intense transmission may benefit from implementing biosafety measures in their daily lives. A mixed-methods approach, combining components of single negotiation text and the Delphi method, was used to create a COVID-19 biosafety-at-home protocol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0677DOI Listing

Case Report: The First Direct Evidence of Migration through Human Lung.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Helminthology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Gnathostomiasis is a helminthic infection caused by the third-stage larvae of nematodes of the genus . The life cycle in humans starts with an enteric phase, with the worm perforating the gastric or intestinal mucosa to reach the peritoneal cavity and migrating through the human body. Subsequent penetration through the diaphragm may produce pleuropulmonary symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0236DOI Listing

Agricultural Injury-Associated Infection in a Bangladeshi Farmer.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Laboratory Sciences and Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr, b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

is an emerging environmental pathogen that causes life-threatening infection in humans and animals. In October 2017, a Bangladeshi farmer was hospitalized with high-grade fever due to an agricultural injury-related wound infection. Bacteriological and 16S rRNA gene investigation detected in the wound discharge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0312DOI Listing

Seroprevalence of Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya Viruses in Wild Monkeys in Thailand.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Zoonotic pathogens such as arboviruses have comprised a significant proportion of emerging infectious diseases in humans. The role of wildlife species as reservoirs for arboviruses is poorly understood, especially in endemic areas such as Southeast Asia. This study aims to determine the exposure history of different macaque species from national parks in Thailand to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphavirus by testing the serum samples collected from 25 northern pigtailed macaques, 33 stump-tailed macaques, and 4 long-tailed macaques for the presence of antibodies against dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses by plaque reduction neutralization assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0057DOI Listing

Insights into the Use of C-Reactive Protein as a Diagnostic Index of Disease Severity in COVID-19 Infections.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

Approximately 20% of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) develop potentially life-threatening pathologies involving hyperinflammation, cytokine storm, septic shock complications, coagulation dysfunction, and multiple organ failure. Blood levels of the prototypic acute phase reactant, C-reactive protein (CRP), which is hepatically synthesized and released in response to interleukin-6 stimulation, is markedly elevated in patients with COVID-19. Markedly high CRP levels correlate with poor prognosis for survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0473DOI Listing

Threat of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Pakistan: The Need for Measures to Neutralize Misleading Narratives.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Immediately after declaring COVID-19 as a pandemic, numerous wild conspiracy theories sprouted through social media. Pakistan is quite vulnerable to such conspiracy narratives and has experienced failures of polio vaccination programs because of such claims. Recently, two well-known political figures raised conspiracy theories against COVID-19 vaccines in Pakistan, stating that COVID-19 is a grand illusion and a conspiracy against Muslim countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0654DOI Listing

COVID-19 Response in Sub-Saharan Low-Resource Setting: Healthcare Soldiers Need Bullets.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Division of Infection and Immunity, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

COVID-19 Response in Sub-Saharan Low-Resource Setting: Healthcare Soldiers Need Bullets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0543DOI Listing

Genetic Differentiation of -Like Eggs in Northern Thailand Using Stool Specimens Under National Strategic Plan to Control Liver Fluke Infection and Cholangiocarcinoma.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Parasitology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand.

Liver fluke infection caused by is recognized as a potential risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The National Strategic Plan to Control Liver Fluke Infection and Cholangiocarcinoma has implemented microscopic-based stool examination screening. However, eggs of and minute intestinal flukes (MIFs) are nearly morphologically similar and could result in inaccurate diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0231DOI Listing

Elimination of -Transmitted Onchocerciasis in Wambabya-Rwamarongo Focus of Western Uganda.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia.

Wambabya-Rwamarongo onchocerciasis focus is one of the eight foci Uganda verified using the WHO verification guidelines. The approach for elimination was twice yearly treatment with ivermectin for every round, treating at least 90% of all the eligible population. This was in combination with vector elimination using Abate since elimination nationwide policy was launched. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0195DOI Listing

Variability in Health Care Quality Measurement among Studies Using Service Provision Assessment Data from Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Quality of care is essential for improving health outcomes, but heterogeneity in theoretical frameworks and metrics can limit studies' generalizability and comparability. This research aimed to compare definitions of care quality across research articles that incorporate data from Service Provision Assessment (SPA) surveys. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines, we used a keyword search in PubMed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0644DOI Listing

Unearthing the Unknown Causes of Meningitis.

Authors:
Senjuti Saha

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0502DOI Listing

New Jersey-Wide Survey of (Proteobacteria: Rickettsiaceae) in and (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae).

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Entomology, Center for Vector Biology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

For the last decade, the New Jersey (NJ) Department of Health has reported between 42 and 144 new cases each year of "spotted fever group rickettsiosis" (SFGR), a statistic that reflects uncertainty regarding which rickettsial agents (Proteobacteria: Rickettsiaceae: ) are infecting NJ residents. To identify the circulating in NJ ticks, we used a combination of conventional and qPCR approaches to screen 560 Say and 245 L. obtained from a 1-day state-wide surveillance in May 2018 and an additional 394 collected across NJ in 2013-2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0145DOI Listing