16,905 results match your criteria American Journal Of Tropical Medicine And Hygiene[Journal]


Host Selection of Field-Collected and in Bangladesh.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

and appear to play an important role in contemporary malaria transmission in Bangladesh. However, very little is known about the natural host selection of these vectors. Therefore, host selection of these two species was investigated in Bandarban, the most malarious region of Bangladesh. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0923
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0923DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Feasibility, Acceptability, and Accuracy of vaginal Self-Sampling for Screening Human Papillomavirus Types in Women from Rural Areas in Senegal.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Aix Marseille Université, IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

Vaginal self-sampling and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing can be useful tools for women with limited access to health care living in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the feasibility and acceptability of vaginal self-sampling and high-risk HPV prevalence in two villages of central Senegal, women were asked to self-sample vaginal swabs for HPV detection in May, 2016. Vaginal swabs were collected from 133 women and were tested for HPV genotyping. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0045
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0045DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Daily Variations in the Expression of Genes Related to Insecticide Resistance in the Chagas Disease Vector (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Cátedra de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Pyrethroid resistance has been detected in , which in part has been attributed to increased oxidative metabolism of the insecticide by cytochrome P450s. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) catalyzes electron transfer from NADPH to all known cytochrome P450s. In this study, the expression of the gene at transcriptional level was determined in different tissues and two life stages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0155DOI Listing

Elevated Human Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Seroprevalence in Khashm el Girba, Eastern Sudan.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institute for Virology, University Clinics and Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease that can evolve into deadly hemorrhagic fever and that is endemic in many parts of Europe, Middle East, Central Asia, and Africa. Because of several reports about CCHF outbreaks in the south of Sudan during the last years, we examined in this study if unrecognized CCHF-V infections also occurred in the eastern and central parts of the country. The study examined the seroprevalence of CCHF virus infection in 464 sera from three regions of Sudan without previous reports of CCHF infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0977DOI Listing

Development and Initial Validation of a Frontline Health Worker mHealth Assessment Platform (MEDSINC) for Children 2-60 Months of Age.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

THINKMD, Inc., Burlington, Vermont.

Approximately 3 million children younger than 5 years living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) die each year from treatable clinical conditions such as pneumonia, dehydration secondary to diarrhea, and malaria. A majority of these deaths could be prevented with early clinical assessments and appropriate therapeutic intervention. In this study, we describe the development and initial validation testing of a mobile health (mHealth) platform, MEDSINC, designed for frontline health workers (FLWs) to perform clinical risk assessments of children aged 2-60 months. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0869
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0869DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.699 Impact Factor

The Investment Case for Malaria Elimination in Thailand: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

RTI International, Washington, District of Columbia.

After a dramatic decline in the annual malaria incidence in Thailand since 2000, the Thai government developed a National Malaria Elimination Strategy (NMES) to end local malaria transmission by 2024. This study examines the expected costs and benefits of funding the NMES (elimination scenario) versus not funding malaria elimination programming (resurgence scenario) from 2017 to 2036. Two case projection approaches were used to measure the number of malaria cases over the study period, combined with a set of Thailand-specific economic assumptions, to evaluate the cost of a malaria case and to quantify the cost-benefit ratio. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0897DOI Listing

Infection as a Predictor of Low Aerobic Capacity in Ugandan Children.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Using the 20-meter shuttle run test (20mSRT) as a morbidity metric, we assessed whether infection was associated with decreased aerobic capacity in Ugandan children across a range of altitudes, either at low (∼600 m) or high (∼1,000 m) altitudes. A total of 305 children were recruited from six schools within the Buliisa District, Lake Albert, Uganda. A subset ( = 96) of these had been previously assessed and treated for schistosomiasis ± malaria 2 weeks prior. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0922
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0922DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Resurgence of Pertussis Infections in Shandong, China: Space-Time Cluster and Trend Analysis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Public Health and Social Work, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Although vaccination is effective in preventing infection, pertussis remains endemic worldwide, including China. To lead better targeted prevention strategies, we examined dynamics of spatial and temporal patterns of pertussis transmission in Shandong, China, from 2009 to 2017. We used space-time cluster analysis, logistic regression analysis, and regression tree model to detect the changes in spatial patterns of pertussis infections in Shandong Province, China, between periods (2009-2011, 2012-2014, and 2015-2017). Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0013DOI Listing
April 2019
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A Direct from Blood/Plasma Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction for Dengue Virus Detection in Point-of-Care Settings.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Infection with dengue virus (DENV) is widespread across tropical regions and can result in severe disease. Early diagnosis is important both for patient management and to differentiate infections that present with similar symptoms, such as malaria, chikungunya, and Zika. Rapid diagnostic tests that are used presently for point-of-care detection of DENV antigens lack the sensitivity of molecular diagnostics that detect viral RNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0138DOI Listing

Antibiotic Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from Surface Waters in Urban Brazil Highlights the Risks of Poor Sanitation.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Cleveland VAMC Center for Antimicrobial Resistance and Epidemiology (Case VA CARES), Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Surface waters are an unappreciated reservoir of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Poor sanitation brings different species of environmental bacteria into contact, facilitating horizontal gene transfer. To investigate the role of surface waters as potential reservoirs of AMR, we studied the point prevalence of fecal contamination, AMR genes, and Enterobacteriaceae in an urban lake and rural river system in Northeast Brazil in comparison with a lake and sewer system in Northeast Ohio in the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0726DOI Listing

Neonatal Sepsis Epidemiology in a Rural Province in Southeastern Cambodia, 2015-2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Neonatal sepsis is the second most prevalent cause of neonatal deaths in low- and middle-income countries, and many countries lack epidemiologic data on the local causes of neonatal sepsis. During April 2015-November 2016, we prospectively collected 128 blood cultures from neonates admitted with clinical sepsis to the provincial hospital in Takeo, Cambodia, to describe the local epidemiology. Two percent ( = 3) of positive blood cultures identified were Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and were presumed pathogens, whereas 10% ( = 13) of positive blood cultures identified were likely contaminants, consistent with findings in other published studies. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0739
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0739DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Enhanced Mycobacterial Antigen-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Lymph Node Tuberculosis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) is characterized by the enhanced baseline and antigen-specific production of type 1/17 cytokines and reduced baseline and antigen-specific production of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 at the site of infection when compared with peripheral blood. However, the cytokine profile in the lymph nodes (LNs) of culture-positive LNTB (LNTB+) and negative LNTB (LNTB-) has not been examined. To address this, we have examined the baseline and mycobacterial antigen-stimulated cytokine levels of type 1 (interferon gamma [IFNγ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], IL-2), type 2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), type 17 (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22), pro-inflammatory (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18, and GM-CSF), and regulatory cytokines (IL-10, TGFβ) in the LN culture supernatants of LNTB+ and LNTB- individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0834DOI Listing

Rural South African Community Perceptions of Antibiotic Access and Use: Qualitative Evidence from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Knowledge and practices of rural South African populations with regard to antibiotic access and use (ABACUS) remain understudied. By using the case of four villages in the north east of the country, our aim was to investigate popular notions and social practices related to antibiotic use to inform patient-level social interventions for appropriate antibiotic use. To achieve this, we investigated where community members (village residents) were accessing and sourcing medication, and what they understood antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (ABR) to be. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0171DOI Listing

Safety and Differential Antibody and T-Cell Responses to Sporozoite Vaccine by Age in Tanzanian Adults, Adolescents, Children, and Infants.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Sanaria, Inc., Rockville, Maryland.

In 2016, there were more cases and deaths caused by malaria globally than in 2015. An effective vaccine would be an ideal additional tool for reducing malaria's impact. Sanaria PfSPZ Vaccine, composed of radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved (Pf) sporozoites (SPZ) has been well tolerated and safe in malaria-naïve and experienced adults in the United States and Mali and protective against controlled human malaria infection with Pf in the United States and field transmission of Pf in Mali, but had not been assessed in younger age groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0835DOI Listing

Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Treatment-Seeking Behaviors among Caregivers with Febrile Children in Malawi.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Early diagnosis and treatment of childhood fever, an important sign of potentially serious infections such as malaria, is essential for controlling disease progression, and ultimately, preventing deaths. This study examined individual- and community-level factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviors and promptness in these behaviors among caregivers of febrile under-five children in Malawi. The 2015-2016 Malawi Demographic Health Survey was used to analyze a nationally representative sample of 4,133 under-five children who had fever within 2 weeks before the survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0900DOI Listing

A Prospective Study on the Impact and Out-of-Pocket Costs of Dengue Illness in International Travelers.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Although the costs of dengue illness to patients and households have been extensively studied in endemic populations, international travelers have not been the focus of costing studies. As globalization and human travel activities intensify, travelers are increasingly at risk for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, such as dengue. This exploratory study aims to investigate the impact and out-of-pocket costs of dengue illness among travelers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0780DOI Listing

A Critical Enquiry into Variability of Insecticidal Net Use in Cambodia: Implications for Assessing Appropriateness of Malaria Elimination Interventions.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Distributing long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to individuals living in malaria-endemic regions is a cornerstone of global malaria control. National malaria control programs aim to achieve "universal coverage" of at-risk populations to reach LLINs' full potential to reduce malaria, progress of which is then measured by indicators constructed from standardized questionnaires. Through an exploration of variability in LLIN use in Cambodia, we argue that indicators of universal coverage of LLINs are not sufficiently commensurate with the realities they are intended to measure, limiting the suitability of the data to serve program and policy purposes in a malaria elimination era. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0730DOI Listing

Impacts of Hurricanes Irma and Maria on Populations, Aquatic Habitats, and Mosquito Infections with Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses in Puerto Rico.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Entomology and Ecology Team, Dengue Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Puerto Rico was severely impacted by Hurricanes Irma and Maria in September 2017. The island has been endemic for dengue viruses (DENV) and recently suffered epidemics of chikungunya (CHIKV 2014) and Zika (ZIKV 2016) viruses. Although severe storms tend to increase the number of vector and nuisance mosquitoes, we do not know how they influence populations and arboviral transmission. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0015DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The Universal Standard for Safe and Secure Work with Arthropod Vectors: The American Committee of Medical Entomology's Arthropod Containment Guidelines.

Authors:
Stephen Higgs

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Biosecurity Research Institute (BRI), Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.

The Universal Standard for Safe and Secure Work with Arthropod Vectors: The American Committee of Medical Entomology's Arthropod Containment Guidelines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0199DOI Listing

Morbidity Associated with Chronic Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Verona, Italy.

, a worldwide-distributed soil-transmitted helminth, causes chronic infection which may be life threatening. Limitations of diagnostic tests and nonspecificity of symptoms have hampered the estimation of the global morbidity due to strongyloidiasis. This work aimed at assessing -associated morbidity through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0895DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Utilization of Small RNA Genes to Distinguish Biotypes via Multiplex PCR.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, Penang, Malaysia.

The diarrheal disease "cholera" is caused by , and is primarily confined to endemic regions, mostly in Africa and Asia. It is punctuated by outbreaks and creates severe challenges to public health. The disease-causing strains are most-often members of serogroups O1 and O139. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0525
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0525DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.699 Impact Factor

Interactions between Parasitic Infections and the Human Gut Microbiome in Odisha, India.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana.

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and malaria are parasitic diseases with enormous global health burdens. Research has demonstrated a relationship between each of these parasites and the gut microbiome, suggesting that the gut microbiota may be implicated in governing host susceptibility to diverse pathogens, and perhaps even coinfection by different pathogens, through similar microbiome-influenced pathways. Here, we have derived a first microbiome community profile associated with STH infections in Odisha, India, and tested the hypothesis that the gut microbiome can modulate host susceptibility to multiple parasite infections through the same pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0968DOI Listing

Does Progressive Introduction of Benznidazole Reduce the Chance of Adverse Events in the Treatment of Chagas Disease?

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to assess whether introducing benznidazole at escalating doses reduces the probability of adverse events or treatment discontinuation compared with a full-dose scheme. We collected data from patients who had chronic infection and underwent treatment from July 2008 to January 2017 in a referral center in Madrid. Dose was adjusted to body weight (5 mg/kg/day), with treatment introduction with full dose or escalating dose according to local consensus and protocols. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0638DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Temperature Dependence of Erythrocytic Stage Development.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

infection causes febrile illness and severe disease with multiple organ failure and death when treatment is delayed. Antipyretic treatment is standard, and inducing hypothermia has been proposed to protect the brain in cerebral malaria. Here, we investigated the temperature dependence of asexual-stage parasite development and parasite multiplication in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0894DOI Listing
April 2019
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Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Infections in HIV-Infected Patients in Sierra Leone.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

HIV coinfection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human T-cell lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) is common because of shared transmission routes. There is no published data on the prevalence of these infections in people living with HIV in Sierra Leone. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 211 HIV-positive patients aged ≥ 18 years in Freetown, Sierra Leone, in November 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-1001DOI Listing
April 2019
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To Know the Disease: Creating a Participatory Community Education Workshop about Focused on Physical, Economic, and Epidemiologic Evidence.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Center for Global Health Tumbes, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Cysticercosis, caused by , is a neglected disease that causes preventable epilepsy. We conducted an experiential learning workshop in northern Peru to educate community members on transmission and motivate participation in community-led prevention and control. The workshop included presentation of local economic and epidemiologic data, followed by hands-on participation in pig dissection, group discussion of the life cycle, and viewing of eggs and nascent tapeworms with light microscopes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0939DOI Listing
April 2019
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Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for and Infection in Four Ecologically Distinct Regions of Peru.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

XXX.

and spp. are under-recognized causes of acute febrile disease worldwide. species are often placed into the spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0029DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.699 Impact Factor

Testing the Competence of Bed Bugs for the Transmission of , the Agent of Relapsing Fever.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Aix Marseille Univ, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, Marseille, France.

In recent years, bed bugs have reappeared in greater numbers, more frequently, and are biting humans in many new geographic areas. Infestations by these hematophagous insects are rapidly increasing worldwide. , a spirochete bacterium, is the etiologic agent of louse-borne relapsing fever. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0804DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Expanded Availability of Intravenous Artesunate for the Treatment of Severe Malaria in the United States.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Malaria Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Expanded Availability of Intravenous Artesunate for the Treatment of Severe Malaria in the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0230DOI Listing

Four-Weekly Benzathine Penicillin G Provides Inadequate Protection against Acute Rheumatic Fever in Some Children (in Australia's Northern Territory).

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Australia.

This study aimed to identify recurrent acute rheumatic fever (ARF) episodes which occurred despite adherence to prophylactic benzathine penicillin G (BPG). Data from Australia's Northern Territory were analyzed; ARF recurrences between 2012 and 2017 diagnosed while the person was prescribed BPG were identified. Days at risk (DAR)-median and interquartile range-preceding ARF onset were calculated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0907DOI Listing
March 2019
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Malaria Parasite Density in Individuals with Different Rapid Diagnostic Test Results and Concentrations of HRP2 Antigen.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Low-density malaria infections are a source of human morbidity in endemic settings and potentially contribute to ongoing malaria transmission. Conventional rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were designed to detect clinically relevant parasite and antigen levels, but it is largely unknown what proportion of parasite (and antigen positive) infections are missed by conventional RDTs. Furthermore, RDTs can also provide false positives from lingering histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) antigenemia from a past infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0006DOI Listing

Systematic Review of Group A Streptococcal Types Associated with Acute Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is a postinfectious immune-mediated kidney disease associated with group A (GAS). The prevalence of APSGN varies within and between countries and is influenced by socioeconomic, host, and bacterial factors. The disease is more prevalent in developing countries and resource-poor settings of developed countries, such as the Indigenous populations residing in tropical Australia. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0827
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0827DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Overweight, Obesity, and Older Age Favor Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Household Contacts in Low Tuberculosis-Incidence Settings within Panama.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Tuberculosis Biomarker Research Unit, Centro de Biología Molecular y Celular de Enfermedades, Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas y Servicios de Alta Tecnología (INDICASAT-AIP), Ciudad del Saber, Panama.

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains the main source of new active tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide. Household close contacts (HCCs) are at high risk of acquiring LTBI and subsequent development of TB. In this study, we aim to identify risk factors associated with LTBI in HCCs of TB patients living in a low TB-incidence setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0927DOI Listing

Comparison of Reported and Survey-Based Coverage in Onchocerciasis Programs over a Period of 8 Years in Cameroon and Uganda.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia.

Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin must reach a high treatment coverage (90% of the eligible population) if onchocerciasis is to be eliminated. Questions have been raised as to whether reported treatment figures reaching such high coverage are reliable. Sample surveys are proposed as the method of choice for "validating" reported coverage figures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0680DOI Listing

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome as a Cause of Acute Diarrhea.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a febrile disorder caused in Korea by the Hantaan and Seoul viruses. Its characteristic clinical manifestations include fever, hemorrhage, and renal failure, but a primary presentation with acute infectious diarrhea is rare. Owing to decreased urine output and renal function, a 54-year-old patient was transferred to our hospital from a local clinic, where he/she had been receiving treatment for diarrhea occurring more than 10 times a day. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0974DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Development of a Tool for Health Screening and Assessment in Orphanages in Lesotho.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

In low- and middle-income countries that have high burdens of disease, simple interventions such as health screenings can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Among vulnerable children, orphans in particular, deaths are often caused by conditions preventable through early identification and provision of basic health and nutritional needs. After consulting local preventative care guidelines and medical providers, a health screening tool for use in orphanages was created. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0853DOI Listing

Case Report: A Case of Type 1 Leprosy Reaction and Dapsone Hypersensitivity Syndrome Complicating the Clinical Course of Multibacillary Leprosy.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Public Health Ontario Laboratory, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Canada.

Type 1 reactions, characterized by increasing lesion erythema, pain, and nerve damage, commonly complicate leprosy. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a potentially fatal reaction occurring 6-8 weeks into dapsone therapy. We present a case of intercurrent Type 1 reaction and DHS in a multibacillary leprosy patient recently started on multidrug treatment. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0953
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0953DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Bacterial Infections Associated with Viperidae Snakebites in Children: A 14-Year Experience at the Hospital Nacional de Niños de Costa Rica.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Center for Infectious Disease Modeling and Analysis (CIDMA), Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Secondary bacterial infections following Viperidae snakebite envenomation in children are common. Among 75 patients admitted because of snakebites at the only pediatric hospital in Costa Rica, 16 (21.3%) had a culture-confirmed secondary bacterial infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-1015DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

A Cross-Sectional Study of the Availability of Azithromycin in Local Pharmacies and Associated Antibiotic Resistance in Communities in Kilosa District, Tanzania.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Mass drug administration (MDA) for trachoma control using azithromycin has generated concern for the development of resistant organisms. However, the contribution from azithromycin available in local pharmacies has not been studied. In Kilosa district, Tanzania, MDA stopped over 4 years ago, and this study sought to determine the availability of azithromycin in local pharmacies and correlate it with azithromycin resistance in children born after MDA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0747DOI Listing

High Prevalence of spp. in Rodents in an Urban Setting in Madagascar.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Plague Unit, WHO Collaborating Center, Institut Pasteur, Antananarivo, Madagascar.

Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonotic bacterial disease caused by pathogenic spp. Only limited studies have been conducted on the presence of spp. in rats in Antananarivo, the capital city of Madagascar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0642DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

High Rate of Serotype V Carriage in Pregnant Women in Botswana.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Maternal rectovaginal colonization is the major risk factor for early-onset neonatal sepsis due to Group B (GBS), a major cause of early life morbidity and mortality. Transmission generally occurs perinatally from colonized mothers to infants. Vaccines targeting a subset of GBS serotypes are under development, but GBS epidemiology remains poorly understood in many African nations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0847DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

A Comparison of Pretravel Health Care, Travel-Related Exposures, and Illnesses among Pediatric and Adult U.S. Military Beneficiaries.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland.

We evaluated differences in pretravel care, exposures, and illnesses among pediatric and adult travelers, using a prospective, observational cohort. Eighty-one pediatric travelers were matched 1:1 with adult military dependents by travel region, destination's malaria risk, and travel duration. Pediatric travelers were more likely to have coverage for hepatitis A and B (90% versus 67% of adults; 85% versus 44%), visit friends and relatives (36% versus 16%), report mosquito bites (69% versus 44%), and have close contact with wild or domesticated animals (40% versus 20%) than adults ( < 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0353DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Prevalence and Genotypic Distribution of Rotavirus in Thailand: A Multicenter Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Enteric Diseases, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

Rotavirus has been one of the major etiological agents causing severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. In Thailand, rotavirus contributes to one-third of reported pediatric diarrheal cases. We studied stool samples from 1,709 children with acute gastroenteritis and 1,761 children with no reported gastroenteritis whose age ranged from 3 months to 5 years from four different regions in Thailand between March 2008 and August 2010. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0763DOI Listing

Case Report: Scrub Typhus and Q Fever Coinfection.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea.

A 56-year-old female goat herder had scrub typhus that persisted after receiving doxycycline for 5 days. Her symptoms continued, prompting us to perform further examinations that revealed coinfection of Q fever and scrub typhus via molecular and serological testing. We also isolated using BALB/c mice and L929 cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0092DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

ASTMH Membership Directory.

Authors:

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar;100(3_Suppl):21-237

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.member2019DOI Listing

ASTMH 67th Annual Meeting.

Authors:

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar;100(3_Suppl):238-312

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.annualmeeting2019DOI Listing

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of spp. in the Lao People's Democratic Republic Using Disk Diffusion.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus, which are fastidious, slow-growing organisms. Antimicrobial susceptibility data are limited; traditionally, the organisms have not been culturable on solid media. The recent development of Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar, which facilitates rapid growth of spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0955DOI Listing

Vector Competence for West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus () of Three Tick Species of the Genus (Acari: Ixodidae).

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Instituto de Virología "Dr. J. M. Vanella", CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Enfermera Gordillo Gómez s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba, Argentina.

Many species of ticks are commonly found infesting wild birds in South America, where birds are important hosts for several arboviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). In this study, WNV and SLEV transmission experiments were performed to evaluate the vector competence of three South American tick species: , , and . Larval and nymphal ticks of each species were allowed to feed on chicks needle inoculated with WNV or SLEV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0134DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Pathogen Lists Do Not Tell Us What We Need to Do.

Authors:
David S Fedson

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Brett-Major and others remind us that pathogen lists for emerging infectious diseases aid in the development of tools that target specific pathogens (e.g., vaccines) and help attract financial support. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0084
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0084DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Approval of Tafenoquine for Malaria Chemoprophylaxis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Fast Track Drugs and Biologics, North Potomac, Maryland.

Malaria chemoprophylaxis has become increasingly prominent now that it is used for vulnerable populations in endemic regions in addition to nonimmune travelers to those regions. The objective would be a drug with > 95% efficacy and that is easily tolerated, including in children and pregnant women. For individuals who prefer weekly rather than daily drug administration, a further objective is a product that is administered weekly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0001DOI Listing