3,469 results match your criteria American Journal Of Primatology[Journal]

Endangered mountain gorillas and COVID-19: One health lessons for prevention and preparedness during a global pandemic.

Am J Primatol 2021 Jun 10:e23291. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

International Gorilla Conservation Programme, Kigali, Rwanda.

The world's 1063 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) live in two subpopulations at the borders of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda. The majority of mountain gorillas are human-habituated to facilitate tourism and research, which brings mountain gorillas into close proximity of people daily. Wild great apes are proven to be susceptible to human pathogens, including viruses that have caused fatal respiratory disease in mountain gorillas (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Maderas Rainforest Conservancy: A One Health approach to conservation.

Am J Primatol 2021 Jun 7:e23293. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

The Maderas Rainforest Conservancy, Miami, Florida, USA.

Maderas Rainforest Conservancy (MRC) was incorporated as a conservation nonprofit organization in 2008, and manages two sites where biological field courses have been offered since the 1990s: La Suerte Biological Research Station in Costa Rica, and Ometepe Biological Research Station in Nicaragua. MRC employs a One Health approach to conservation education, and can serve as a model for other biological field sites. The Nicaraguan Molina family, who owns the sites, partnered with primatologist Paul Garber in 1994 to develop a primate field course aimed at introducing university students to field research. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pathological lesions of the digestive tract in free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

Am J Primatol 2021 Jun 7:e23290. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, California, USA.

The finding of parasites and bacterial pathogens in mountain gorilla feces and oral lesions in gorilla skeletal remains has not been linked to pathological evidence of morbidity or mortality. In the current study, we conducted a retrospective study of digestive tracts including oral cavity, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, intestines (gastrointestinal tract [GI]), liver, and pancreas of 60 free-ranging mountain gorillas from Uganda, Rwanda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo that died between 1985 and 2007. We reviewed clinical histories and gross pathology reports and examined histological sections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comprehensive search filters for retrieving publications on nonhuman primates for literature reviews (filterNHP).

Am J Primatol 2021 May 31:e23287. Epub 2021 May 31.

Welfare and Cognition Group, Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, German Primate Center-Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Goettingen, Germany.

Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are widely studied across many scientific disciplines using a variety of techniques in diverse environments. Due to the wide scope of NHP research, substantial overlap in research topics and questions can occur, whose resulting scientific evidence is synthesized by literature reviews. Identifying all relevant research on a particular topic involving NHPs can be difficult and time consuming. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Towards developing a rhesus monkey model of early Alzheimer's disease focusing on women's health.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 31:e23289. Epub 2021 May 31.

California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, California, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of elderly dementia, affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide, with two-thirds of the cases in the USA in women. Despite considerable investment, this prevalence is expected to increase further in the coming decades, based on the projected demographics of the population. Currently, most of the preclinical AD studies rely on transgenic mice carrying mutations associated with the early onset familiar form of AD, although the vast majority of cases are sporadic. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Changes in Grauer's gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) and other primate populations in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park and Oku Community Reserve, the heart of Grauer's gorilla global range.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 31:e23288. Epub 2021 May 31.

Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, USA.

Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri) have declined drastically across their range in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Survey data analysed in 2016 estimated a 77% decline in numbers between the mid- 1990s and 2016 and predicted that Kahuzi-Biega National Park (KBNP), and the contiguous Oku Community Reserve (OCR) held much of the global population. An estimate of 3800 Grauer's gorillas was made across its range at that time. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Social aging in male and female Barbary macaques.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 24:e23272. Epub 2021 May 24.

Cognitive Ethology Laboratory, German Primate Center, Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Göttingen, Germany.

Aging brings about notable changes in sociality, with an increasing focus on essential partners in both humans and nonhuman primates. Several studies have shown that older nonhuman primates have fewer social partners and shift their types of interactions. The majority of these studies, however, involved only female individuals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluating the contribution of a wildlife health capacity building program on orangutan conservation.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 21:e23273. Epub 2021 May 21.

OVAG/Dept. Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

One Health is increasingly being used as a tool in ecosystem protection. The Orangutan Veterinary Advisory Group (OVAG) is working to address One Health concerns in Pongo spp. (orangutan) welfare and conservation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The marmoset as an important primate model for longitudinal studies of neurocognitive aging.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 21:e23271. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.

Age-related cognitive decline has been extensively studied in humans, but the majority of research designs are cross-sectional and compare across younger and older adults. Longitudinal studies are necessary to capture variability in cognitive aging trajectories but are difficult to carry out in humans and long-lived nonhuman primates. Marmosets are an ideal primate model for neurocognitive aging as their naturally short lifespan facilitates longitudinal designs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lemur paparazzi: Arboreal camera trapping and occupancy modeling as conservation tools for monitoring threatened lemur species.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 19:e23270. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Anthropology & Archaeology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Primate species face growing risks of extinction throughout the world. To better protect their populations, effective monitoring techniques are needed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of arboreal camera traps and occupancy modeling as conservation tools for threatened lemur species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Introduction to pioneers in primatology.

Sarah F Brosnan

Am J Primatol 2021 06 19;83(6):e23268. Epub 2021 May 19.

Departments of Psychology, Philosophy and Neuroscience, Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

As a relatively young discipline, primatology is lucky to still have many of its pioneering researchers active in the field. At the 2019 American Society of Primatology meeting, I convened the inaugural Pioneers in Primatology symposium to bring together a selection of these researchers to reflect on their careers, with a focus on the stories that defined their work and their thoughts on the important future directions for the field. After the symposium, Karen Strier and I decided that these pioneers' contributions merited preservation, and this special issue is our effort to do so. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nutritional geometry of female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

Am J Primatol 2021 May 18:e23269. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Anthropology, Hunter College of the City University of New York, New York City, New York, USA.

Primate foraging is influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of foods, which may facilitate or constrain optimal nutrient intakes. Chimpanzees are frugivorous primates that mainly subsist on ripe fruit that is typically low in available protein (AP) and high in easily digestible carbohydrates. Because chimpanzees prefer ripe fruit and often eat it in large quantities compared with other foods, we hypothesized that protein intake would be tightly regulated while non-protein energy (NPE) would vary with fruit intake. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reproductive males are effective at managing conflict in captive Sulawesi crested macaques (Macaca nigra).

Am J Primatol 2021 May 10:e23266. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Group size, density, and composition significantly influence the expression of agonism and, as demography is frequently manipulated in captivity, natural mechanisms of conflict management may be disrupted. Here, we examine how changes to the social and physical environment of a captive group of Sulawesi crested macaques, Macaca nigra, influenced mechanisms of conflict management. The initial group was comprised of females, juveniles, and castrated males; under a series of management interventions, the group was moved to a new enclosure, 75% of the castrated adult males were removed, 67% of the females were contracepted, a novel, intact male was introduced, and the group was allowed access to an outdoor enclosure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Studies of aging nonhuman primates illuminate the etiology of early-stage Alzheimer's-like neuropathology: An evolutionary perspective.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 7:e23254. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Neuropharmacology and Neurologic Diseases, Department of Pathology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) preferentially afflicts the limbic and recently enlarged association cortices, causing a progression of mnemonic and cognitive deficits. Although genetic mouse models have helped reveal mechanisms underlying the rare, autosomal-dominant forms of AD, the etiology of the more common, sporadic form of AD remains unknown, and is challenging to study in mice due to their limited association cortex and lifespan. It is also difficult to study in human brains, as early-stage tau phosphorylation can degrade postmortem. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Locomotion of an adult female and juvenile male aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in Torotorofotsy, Madagascar.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 6:e23267. Epub 2021 May 6.

Center for Conservation and Research, Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) locate and acquire invertebrates from within woody substrates at all levels of the rainforest; yet how their locomotion helps them accommodate this diet has not been explored in detail. We studied the locomotor behavior of an adult female (N = 1,085) and juvenile male (N = 708) aye-aye in the undisturbed forest of Torotorofotsy, Madagascar from May to December 2017. We used bout sampling to record locomotion during foraging and travel of the two radio-collared individuals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A natural history of Chlorocebus dryas from camera traps in Lomami National Park and its buffer zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo, with notes on the species status of Cercopithecus salongo.

Am J Primatol 2021 06 6;83(6):e23261. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

The natural history and taxonomic status of two central African primates, Cercopithecus dryas and Cercopithecus salongo have long been in question. Recent studies confirmed that C. dryas is a basal member of the savanna monkey clade, and that it prefers dense undergrowth in lowland rainforest. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Not all yawns tell the same story: The case of Tonkean macaques.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 6:e23263. Epub 2021 May 6.

Natural History Museum, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Here we show for the first time that the plasticity in morphology and duration of yawning in Macaca tonkeana can be associated with different functional contexts. Macaca tonkeana is classified as a tolerant macaque species characterized by social interactions minimally constrained by dominance rank or kinship. Tonkean macaques, as other egalitarian species, rely on a complex facial communicative system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF



Am J Primatol 2021 May 4;83(5):e23244. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Factors influencing the survival of wild cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) infants.

Am J Primatol 2021 Apr 26:e23262. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Fundación Proyecto Tití, Barranquilla, Colombia.

Studies of cooperative breeding species have suggested that helpers are needed for infant survival and that helpers gain skills to successfully raise their own offspring. Studies of callitrichids in managed care and early field studies suggested that group size correlated with infant survival and that helpers needed to learn parental skills to be successful breeders. We present infant survival data from a 20-year field study of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in Colombia involving 126 litters born to 41 females. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Age- and cognition-related differences in the gray matter volume of the chimpanzee brain (Pan troglodytes): A voxel-based morphometry and conjunction analysis.

Am J Primatol 2021 Apr 26:e23264. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Comparative Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bastrop, Texas, USA.

Several primate species have been shown to exhibit age-related changes in cognition, brain, and behavior. However, severe neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), were once thought to be uniquely human. Recently, some chimpanzees naturally were documented to develop both neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, the main characteristics of AD pathology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Stress behaviors in captive robust capuchins: Effects of humidity, visitors, management and sex.

Am J Primatol 2021 Apr 26:e23265. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade Neotropical, Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciências da Vida e da Natureza, Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana - UNILA, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil.

Wild robust capuchins (Sapajus spp.) are omnivorous neotropical primates that live in relatively large groups in extensive home and daily ranges with activity budgets dominated by traveling, foraging, and object manipulation, meaning that enclosed spaces can result in significant deprivation. Space restriction, manipulation by caretakers, and the chronic presence of visitors, can disrupt the animals' welfare, altering their normal activities and inducing stress behaviors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Aging-related Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathology and functional decline in captive vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

Am J Primatol 2021 Apr 5:e23260. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Pathology/Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Age-related neurodegeneration characteristic of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) begins in middle age, well before symptoms. Translational models to identify modifiable risk factors are needed to understand etiology and identify therapeutic targets. Here, we outline the evidence supporting the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) as a model of aging-related AD-like neuropathology and associated phenotypes including cognitive function, physical function, glucose handling, intestinal physiology, and CSF, blood, and neuroimaging biomarkers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exploratory analysis reveals arthropod consumption in 10 lemur species using DNA metabarcoding.

Am J Primatol 2021 06 5;83(6):e23256. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Interdepartmental Doctoral Program in Anthropological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.

Arthropods (insects, spiders, etc.) can fulfill major nutritional requirements for primates, particularly in terms of proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Yet, for many primate species we know very little about the frequency and importance of arthropod consumption. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Headfirst descent behaviors in a comparative sample of strepsirrhine primates.

Am J Primatol 2021 06 1;83(6):e23259. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Graduate Program in Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

The ability to safely ascend and descend is critical to the success of arboreal animals. Nonprimate mammals typically descend supports headfirst aided by their claws, but primates must rely on grasping, and use a variety of behaviors to move down within an arboreal environment, including headfirst and tailfirst descending. This study assesses hypothesized body mass limits on vertical headfirst descent and identifies approximate support orientations and diameters at which headfirst descent is ceased in a sample of nine strepsirrhines species ranging in mass from 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Variation in predicted COVID-19 risk among lemurs and lorises.

Am J Primatol 2021 06 1;83(6):e23255. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

The Vertebrate Genomes Lab, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA.

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which in humans leads to the disease COVID-19, has caused global disruption and more than 2 million fatalities since it first emerged in late 2019. As we write, infection rates are at their highest point globally and are rising extremely rapidly in some areas due to more infectious variants. The primary target of SARS-CoV-2 is the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Filling in the gaps: Acoustic gradation increases in the vocal ontogeny of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

Am J Primatol 2021 05 1;83(5):e23249. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.

Human vocal ontogeny is considered to be a process whereby a large repertoire of discrete sounds seemingly emerges from a smaller number of acoustically graded vocalizations. While adult chimpanzee vocal behavior is highly graded, its developmental trajectory is poorly understood. In the present study, we therefore examined the size and structure of the chimpanzee vocal repertoire at different stages of ontogeny. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF



Am J Primatol 2021 Apr;83(4):e23253

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Topographic distribution of the EEG ad hoc broad bands during sleep and wakefulness in the spider monkey (Ateles Geoffroyi).

Am J Primatol 2021 06 26;83(6):e23257. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Laboratorio de Neurofisiología de la Conducta Reproductiva, Instituto de Neurociencias, CUCBA, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

There is evidence that research on sleep among New World monkeys may provide important knowledge related to the evolution of sleep more broadly in the primate order. Digital electroencephalographic (EEG) analyses provide essential knowledge on sleep in the spider monkey. Recently, specific EEG bands related to sleep in these animals have been obtained using principal component analysis, but the exact spatio-temporal distribution of these EEG bands in this species has not yet been analyzed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

De-colonizing conservation in a global world.

Annette Lanjouw

Am J Primatol 2021 04 25;83(4):e23258. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Great Apes and Gibbon Program, Arcus Foundation, New York, New York, USA.

Humans form an integral part of most ecosystems on earth. To prevent habitat and species loss and destruction, social justice must, therefore, be at the core of conservation efforts. Traditional conservation education approaches focus on building knowledge, skills, and awareness amongst local communities with the hope of leading to behavior change resulting in the protection of species and ecosystems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The role of hunting on Sapajus xanthosternos' landscape of fear in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

Am J Primatol 2021 05 23;83(5):e23243. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute of Psychology, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Habitats with spatial variation in food availability, predation risk, and hunting pressure allow us to study how animals resolve the trade-off between food searching and predator avoidance. We investigated the influence of food availability, predation risk, and the perceived predation risk on habitat use by a primate living under high hunting pressure, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos, at Una Biological Reserve (ReBio Una). We hypothesized that the hunting pressure occurring in the capuchins' home range would favor predator avoidance to the detriment of searching for food. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF