3,363 results match your criteria American Journal Of Primatology[Journal]


Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Cheracebus (Callicebinae, Pitheciidae).

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 11:e23167. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Genomics and Systems Biology Center, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil.

Cheracebus is a new genus of New World primate of the family Pitheciidae, subfamily Callicebinae. Until recently, Cheracebus was classified as the torquatus species group of the genus Callicebus. The genus Cheracebus has six species: C. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23167DOI Listing

Contextual complexity of chemical signals in callitrichids.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 9:e23172. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin.

In nearly four decades our research and that of others on chemical signaling in callitrichid primates suggest a high degree of contextual complexity in both the use of signals and the response to these signals. We describe our research including observational field studies, behavioral bioassays ("playbacks"), functional imaging, and conditioning studies. Scent marking in both captivity and the wild is used for more than just territorial marking. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23172DOI Listing

Locomotion, posture, and the foramen magnum in primates: Reliability of indices and insights into hominin bipedalism.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 8:e23170. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Environmental Biology, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Natural Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

The position (FMP) and orientation (FMO) of the foramen magnum have been used as proxies for locomotion and posture in extant and extinct primates. Several indices have been designed to quantify FMP and FMO but their application has led to conflicting results. Here, we test six widely used indices and two approaches (univariate and multivariate) for their capability to discriminate between postural and locomotor types in extant primates and fossil hominins. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23170DOI Listing

Monitoring occurrence, extinction, and colonization probabilities for gibbon populations.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 7:e23171. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

WWF Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam.

All gibbon species (Family: Hylobatidae) are considered threatened with extinction and recognized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species. Because gibbons are one of the most threatened families of primates, monitoring their status is now critically important. Long-term monitoring programs applying occupancy approaches, in addition to assessing occurrence probability, improves understanding of other population parameters such as site extinction or colonization probabilities, which elucidate temporal and spatial changes and are therefore important for guiding conservation efforts. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23171DOI Listing

The role of novelty and fat and sugar concentration in food selection by captive tufted capuchins (Sapajus apella).

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 2:e23165. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Center on Social Dynamics and Policy, The Brookings Institution, Washington, District of Columbia.

Capuchins, like other primates, use feedback from sensory cues and digestion to make decisions about which foods to consume and which to avoid. However, little is known about how capuchins make consumption decisions when simultaneously presented with novel and familiar foods, or how food familiarity and macronutrient concentration together influence food choice, topics with potential implications for developmental and health research. In this study, we evaluated the role of familiarity, as well as fat and sugar concentration, in the food selections of captive tufted capuchins (Sapajus apella). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23165DOI Listing

Ecological correlates of space use patterns in wild western lowland gorillas.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 30:e23168. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

The distribution of resources is a crucial determinant of animals' space use (e.g., daily travel distance, monthly home range size, and revisitation patterns). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23168DOI Listing

Combining species distribution modeling and distance sampling to assess wildlife population size: A case study with the northern yellow-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus annamensis).

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 30:e23169. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Wildlife, Faculty of Forest Resource and Environment Management, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Xuan Mai, Chuong My, Ha Noi, Vietnam.

Population size and distribution data for wildlife species play an important role in conservation and management, especially for endangered species. However, scientists seriously lack data on the population status of many species. The northern yellow-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus annamensis) is found in southern Lao PDR, central Vietnam, and northeastern Cambodia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23169DOI Listing

Demographic population structure of black howler monkeys in fragmented and continuous forest in Chiapas, Mexico: Implications for conservation.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 30:e23163. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.

For wild primates, demography studies are increasingly recognized as necessary for assessing the viability of vulnerable populations experiencing rapid environmental change. In particular, anthropogenic changes such as habitat loss and fragmentation can cause ecological and behavioral changes in small, isolated populations, which may, over time, alter population density and demographic structure (age/sex classes and group composition) in fragment populations relative to continuous forest populations. We compared our study population of Endangered black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in 34 forest fragments around Palenque National Park (PNP), Mexico (62 groups, 407 individuals), to the adjacent population in PNP, protected primary forest (21 groups, 134 individuals), and to previous research on black howlers in fragments in our study area (18 groups, 115 individuals). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23163DOI Listing

Nonlethal management of baboons on the urban edge of a large metropole.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 30:e23164. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.

The transformation of natural land for agricultural and urban use has displaced baboons from large parts of their historical distribution. Abundant resources within transformed areas, however, continue to attract baboons back into these human-dominated areas resulting in chronic levels of conflict throughout much of Africa. In the city of Cape Town, chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) have been raiding human-derived foods for over 200 years. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23164DOI Listing

Bertiella sp. (Meyner, 1895) infection of Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812) in urban and natural environments in Ñeembucú, southwest Paraguay.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 29:e23166. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Fundación Para La Tierra, Centro IDEAL, Pilar, Paraguay.

Bertiella sp., a cestode known to infect a variety of hosts, including nonhuman primates and humans, was identified in Paraguay as early as 1895, but no systematic analysis of wild primates' gastrointestinal parasites has ever been carried out in Paraguay. Increased urbanization in southwest Paraguay has pushed the Paraguayan howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) into anthropogenic habitats, particularly in the city of Pilar (Ñeembucú department), giving rise to greater potential for zoonotic transmission between wild primates and humans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23166DOI Listing

Is 2020 the year when primatologists should cancel fieldwork?

Authors:
Michael J C Reid

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 24:e23161. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

School of Interdisciplinary Studies, Durham College, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada.

Year 2020 has brought the greatest global pandemic to hit the world since the end of the First World War. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the resulting disease named coronavirus disease 2019 has brought the world to its knees both financially and medically. The American Society of Primatologists has postponed their annual meetings from the end of May 2020 until the end of September 2020, while the International Primatological Society have postponed their biennial congress from August 2020 to August 2021, which has also resulted in their 2022 meetings in Malaysia being pushed back until 2023. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23161DOI Listing

Erratum.

Authors:

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 25;82(7):e23140. Epub 2020 May 25.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23140DOI Listing

Principal component analysis of electroencephalographic activity during sleep and wakefulness in the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 18:e23162. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Laboratorio de Correlación Electroencefalográfica y Conducta, Instituto de Neurociencias, CUCBA, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

The study of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep in the spider monkey has provided new insights into primitive arboreal sleep physiology and behavior in anthropoids. Nevertheless, studies conducted to date have maintained the frequency ranges of the EEG bands commonly used with humans. The aim of the present work was to determine the EEG broad bands that characterize sleep and wakefulness in the spider monkey using principal component analysis (PCA). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23162DOI Listing

Low genetic diversity and limited genetic structure across the range of the critically endangered Mexican howler monkey (Alouatta palliata mexicana).

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 18:e23160. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Genetic diversity provides populations with the possibility to persist in ever-changing environments, where selective regimes change over time. Therefore, the long-term survival of a population may be affected by its level of genetic diversity. The Mexican howler monkey (Alouatta palliata mexicana) is a critically endangered primate restricted to southeast Mexico. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23160DOI Listing

Habitat use by a primate community in a lowland dipterocarp forest in Danum Valley, Borneo.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 9:e23157. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Knowledge of niche partitioning with respect to habitat is indispensable to understand the mechanism of coexistence of multiple species. Among primates, however, data are still deficient because repeated survey for a sufficiently long time, covering seasonal changes over a large area, is the only way to clarify habitat segregation within a seasonally fluctuating environment. Southeast Asia is particularly interesting because of the supra-annual, highly unpredictable seasonality in fruiting known as mast fruiting. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23157DOI Listing
June 2020
2.435 Impact Factor

Early learning in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): Behavior in the family group is related to preadolescent cognitive performance.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 9:e23159. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.

Early environment can have a major impact on development, with family life known to play an important role. Longitudinal studies can therefore help increase our understanding of variance in cognitive abilities in young animals, as well as over time. We followed 22 marmosets (11 male and 11 female) from infancy through to early adolescence. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23159DOI Listing

Should we be concerned about COVID-19 with nonhuman primates?

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 4:e23158. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Tropical Diseases, Medical School, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, Brazil.

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has radically changed the human activities worldwide. Although we are still learning about the disease, it is necessary that primatologists, veterinarians, and all that are living with nonhuman primates (NHP) be concerned about the probable health impacts as these animals face this new pandemic. We want to increase discussion with the scientific community that is directly involved with these animals, because preliminary studies report that NHP may become infected and develop symptoms similar to those in human beings. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300441PMC

Adult and juvenile bearded capuchin monkeys handle stone hammers differently during nut-cracking.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 26;82(7):e23156. Epub 2020 May 26.

Oxford University, Oxford, UK.

Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) habitually use stone hammers to crack open palm nuts and seeds on anvils. This activity requires strength, balance, and precise movement of a large stone with respect to the item placed on an anvil. We explored how well young monkeys cope with these challenges by examining their behavior and the behavior of adults while they cracked palm nuts using a stone. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23156DOI Listing

Macaques in China: Evolutionary dispersion and subsequent development.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 25;82(7):e23142. Epub 2020 May 25.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Animal Conservation, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, China.

Depicting a taxonomic group's evolutionary trajectory as a function of changes in the geographical landscape and its historical distribution is critical for constructing informed conservation strategies. Based on fossil sites from the Pliocene to the Holocene, and historical records since 1175 AD, we established macaques' dispersal pathways into and through China. These routes include internal pathways starting from the southeast corner of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Mts. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23142DOI Listing
July 2020
2.435 Impact Factor

Coppery titi monkey (Plecturocebus cupreus) pairs display coordinated behaviors in response to a simulated intruder.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 16;82(7):e23141. Epub 2020 May 16.

California National Primate Research Center, Davis, California.

Mate guarding and coordinated behaviors between partners are important for the maintenance of monogamous pair bonds. To study the effects of a perceived unfamiliar social intruder on females' behavior, we used coppery titi monkeys (Plecturocebus cupreus). We examined the effects of male aggressive temperament on females' behavior and the effects of each behavior performed by the male on the same female behavior. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23141DOI Listing

Compound grips in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp and Sapajus libidinosus).

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 26;82(6):e23133. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

An experimental study with captive individuals and study of video recordings of wild monkeys explored whether and how tufted capuchin monkeys use onehand to hold one or more objects with multiple grips (compound grips). A task designed to elicit compound grip was presented to five captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp). The monkeys held one to four balls in onehand and dropped the balls individually into a vertical tube. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23133DOI Listing

Low relationship quality predicts scratch contagion during tense situations in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 24;82(7):e23138. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Cognitive Psychology Unit, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Primates show various forms of behavioral contagion that are stronger between kin and friends. As a result, behavioral contagion is thought to promote group coordination, social cohesion, and possibly state matching. Aside from contagious yawning, little is known about the contagious effect of other behaviors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23138DOI Listing

Synchronization of weaning time with peak fruit availability in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) living in Amazonian Brazil.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 24;82(7):e23139. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Graduate Program in Animal Health and Production in Amazonia, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Belém, Brazil.

Many mammals coincide their reproductive activities with factors such as ambient temperature, rainfall, and food availability. In primates that invest immediate food intake into reproduction, the periods of maximum fruit production often coincide with the peak of lactation (to maximize maternal survival) or the occurrence of weaning (to maximize infant survival). This study investigates the relationship between reproductive periods and the availability of ripe fruit in the habitat of a population of wild squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) in Amazonian Brazil. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23139DOI Listing

Effect of river size on Amazonian primate community structure: A biogeographic analysis using updated taxonomic assessments.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 23;82(7):e23136. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

The mechanisms that underlie the diversification of Neotropical primates remain contested. One mechanism that has found support is the riverine barrier hypothesis (RBH), which postulates that large rivers impede gene flow between populations on opposite riverbanks and promote allopatric speciation. Ayres and Clutton-Brock (1992) demonstrated that larger Amazonian rivers acted as barriers, delineating the distribution limits of primate species. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23136DOI Listing

Clitoral length in immature and mature captive tufted capuchin (Sapajus spp.) females: A cross-sectional study.

Am J Primatol 2020 Apr 22:e23135. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Poolesville, MD, USA.

Quantitative data on female external genital morphology are sporadic in the primate literature, and the intraspecific and interfemale variation is especially under investigated (e.g., external clitoris length). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23135DOI Listing

The effects of data collection and observation methods on uncertainty of social networks in wild primates.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jul 20;82(7):e23137. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

In social species, network centralities of group members shape social transmission and other social phenomena. Different factors have been found to influence the measurement of social networks, such as data collection and observation methods. In this study, we collected data on adults and juveniles and examined the effect of data collection method (ad libitum sampling vs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23137DOI Listing

Individuality in the vocalizations of infant and adult coppery titi monkeys (Plecturocebus cupreus).

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 16;82(6):e23134. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Animal Behavior Graduate Group, University of California-Davis, Davis, California.

As social animals, many primates use acoustic communication to maintain relationships. Vocal individuality has been documented in a diverse range of primate species and call types, many of which have presumably different functions. Auditory recognition of one's neighbors may confer a selective advantage if identifying conspecifics decreases the need to participate in costly territorial behaviors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23134DOI Listing

Extractive foraging on hard-shelled walnuts and variation of feeding techniques in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

Authors:
Masaya Tamura

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 15;82(6):e23130. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Human Evolution Studies, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Extractive foraging is considered a key selective pressure for the evolution of primate cognitive abilities-the extractive foraging hypothesis. Although tool-use and substrate-use are representatives of the foraging strategy, some primates engage in extractive foraging without external objects. Manual processing skills of prickly foods have been described in some species, whereas there are few studies on other type of food defenses. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23130DOI Listing

Sexually dimorphic phrase organization in the song of the indris (Indri indri).

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 11;82(6):e23132. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Animal acoustic communication often takes the form of complex sequences, composed of multiple distinct acoustic units, which can vary in their degree of stereotypy. Studies of sequence variation may contribute to our understanding of the structural flexibility of primates' songs, which can provide essential ecological and behavioral information about variability at the individual, population, and specific level and provide insights into the mechanisms and drivers responsible for the evolutionary change of communicative traits. Several methods have been used for investigating different levels of structural information and sequence similarity in acoustic displays. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23132DOI Listing

Evaluation of vitamin D metabolites in Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset).

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 9;82(6):e23131. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Veterinary Services Unit, Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin.

Vitamin D (cholecalciferol) is endogenously produced in the skin of primates when exposed to the appropriate wavelengths of ultraviolet light (UV-B). Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) maintained indoors require dietary provision of vitamin D due to lack of sunlight exposure. The minimum dietary vitamin D requirement and the maximum amount of vitamin D that can be metabolized by marmosets is unknown. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23131DOI Listing

Spatiotemporal association patterns in a supergroup of Rwenzori black-and-white colobus (Colobus angolensis ruwenzorii) are consistent with a multilevel society.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 6;82(6):e23127. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Primates display broad diversity in their social organization. The social groups of a few primate species are organized in a multilevel fashion, with large groups composed of multiple, core one-male units (OMUs). A characteristic of multilevel societies is that the higher levels can include hundreds of individuals. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23127DOI Listing

The aging common marmoset's immune system: From junior to senior.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 4;82(6):e23128. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Unit of Infection Models, German Primate Center, Goettingen, Germany.

The social, health, and economic challenges of a steadily increasing aging population demand the use of appropriate translational animal models to address questions like healthy aging, vaccination strategies, or potential interventions during the aging process. Due to their genetic proximity to humans, especially nonhuman primates (NHPs) with a relatively short generation period compared to humans, qualify as excellent animal models for these purposes. The use of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in gerontology research steadily increased over the last decades, yet important information about their aging parameters are still missing. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23128DOI Listing

Monitoring of group mates in relation to their behavior in mandrills.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 2;82(6):e23129. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma, Italy.

Primates are known to have considerable knowledge about the social relationships that link their group mates and are likely to derive this information from observing the social interactions that occur in their social group. They may, therefore, be hypothesized to pay particular attention to the social interactions involving group mates. In this study, we evaluated how the attention captive mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) devote to their group mates was modulated by the behavior of the latter. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23129DOI Listing

Playback point counts and N-mixture models suggest higher than expected abundance of the critically endangered blond titi monkey in northeastern Brazil.

Am J Primatol 2020 May 30;82(5):e23126. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Primatas Brasileiros, Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, João Pessoa, Brazil.

Effective management of threatened species requires accurate population size estimation and monitoring. However, reliable population size estimates are lacking for many endangered species. The critically endangered blond titi monkey (Callicebus barbarabrownae) is an endemic primate of the Caatinga biome in Northeastern Brazil. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23126DOI Listing

Realized distribution patterns of crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus) within a human-dominated forest fragment in northern Madagascar.

Am J Primatol 2020 Apr 23;82(4):e23125. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Anthropology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Due to the impact of anthropogenic activities on forest extent and integrity across Madagascar, it is increasingly necessary to assess how endangered lemur populations inhabiting human-dominated forest fragments can effectively sustain themselves ecologically. Our research addresses this concern by exploring how the distribution patterns of a small population of crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus), occupying a degraded forest fragment at Oronjia Forest New Protected Area in northern Madagascar, are impacted by the availability of key ecological and anthropogenic factors. We hypothesize that the distribution of E. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23125DOI Listing

Chimpanzee ranging responses to fruit availability in a high-elevation environment.

Am J Primatol 2020 May 18;82(5):e23119. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

Most primates experience seasonal fluctuations in the availability of food resources and face the challenge of balancing energy expenditure with energy gain during periods of resource scarcity. This is likely to be particularly challenging in rugged, montane environments, where available energy is relatively low and travel costs are high. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show extensive behavioral diversity across study sites. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23119DOI Listing

A new look at neurobehavioral development in rhesus monkey neonates (Macaca mulatta).

Am J Primatol 2020 May 18;82(5):e23122. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Psychology Department, University of California, Davis, California.

The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) evaluates a newborn infant's autonomic, motor, state, temperament, and social-attentional systems, which can help to identify infants at risk of developmental problems. Given the prevalence of rhesus monkeys being used as an animal model for human development, here we aimed to validate a standardized test battery modeled after the NBAS for use with nonhuman primates called the Infant Behavioral Assessment Scale (IBAS), employing exploratory structural equation modeling using a large sample of rhesus macaque neonates (n = 1,056). Furthermore, we examined the repeated assessments of the common factors within the same infants to describe any changes in performance over time, taking into account two independent variables (infant sex and rearing condition) that can potentially affect developmental outcomes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7192782PMC

Grouping behavior of Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) and Tapanuli orangutans (Pongo tapanuliensis) living in forest with low fruit abundance.

Am J Primatol 2020 May 18;82(5):e23123. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme, The PanEco Foundation, Berg am Irchel, Switzerland.

In contrast to the African great apes, orangutans (Pongo spp.) are semisolitary: Individuals are often on their own, but form aggregations more often than expected by chance. These temporary aggregations provide social benefits such as mating opportunities. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317506PMC

Entamoeba histolytica infections in wild and semi-wild orangutans in Sumatra and Kalimantan.

Am J Primatol 2020 May 16;82(5):e23124. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Key to the success of orangutan conservation management practices is the prevention of the introduction of infectious diseases to the remaining populations. Previous reports of Entamoeba spp. positive orangutans are of concern as Entamoeba spp. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23124DOI Listing
May 2020
2.435 Impact Factor

Surviving in fragmented landscapes: Identifying variables that influence primate population viability and persistence in forest fragments and a summary of the included papers.

Am J Primatol 2020 Apr 12;82(4):e23120. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Social Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23120DOI Listing

Individual behavioral differences and health of golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas).

Am J Primatol 2020 May 3;82(5):e23118. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Applied Ethology Laboratory, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil.

Individual behavioral differences may influence how animals cope with altered environments. Depending on their behavioral traits, individuals may thus vary in how their health is affected by environmental conditions. We investigated the relationship between individual behavior of free-living golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) responding to a novel object (to assess exploration-avoidance), and their habitat use and health status (endoparasitism; clinical measures: biometric data, heart rate, respiratory frequency, and temperature; fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23118DOI Listing

Northern pigtailed macaques rely on old growth plantations to offset low fruit availability in a degraded forest fragment.

Am J Primatol 2020 May 28;82(5):e23117. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Unit of Research SPHERES, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Space-use and foraging strategies are important facets to consider in regard to the ecology and conservation of primates. For this study, we documented movement, ranging, and foraging patterns of northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina) for 14 months in a degraded habitat with old growth Acacia and Eucalyptus plantations at the Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve in northeastern Thailand. We used hidden Markov models and characteristic hull polygons to analyze these patterns in regard to fruit availability. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23117DOI Listing

Cafeteria-style feeding trials provide new insights into the diet and nutritional strategies of the black snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus strykeri): Implications for conservation.

Am J Primatol 2020 03 25;82(3):e23108. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra ACT, Australia.

Anthropogenic changes and fragmentation of natural habitats often exert a negative effect on resource availability and distribution, and the nutritional ecology and feeding behavior of nonhuman primates. The goals of this study are to examine food choice and to identify the nutritional profile of foods consumed by the Critically Endangered black snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus strykeri). To accomplish our study goals, we presented cafeteria-style feeding trials of fresh food items collected in the home range of wild black snub-nosed monkeys to the only two captive R. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23108DOI Listing

What makes a long tail short? Testing Allen's rule in the toque macaques of Sri Lanka.

Am J Primatol 2020 03 24;82(3):e23113. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Anthropology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.

Allen's rule (1877) predicts ecogeographical anatomical variation in appendage proportions as a function of body temperature regulation. This phenomenon has been tested in a variety of animal species. In macaques, relative tail length (RTL) is one of the most frequently measured appendages to test Allen's rule. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23113DOI Listing

A longitudinal assessment of behavioral development in wild capuchins: Personality is not established in the first 3 years.

Am J Primatol 2020 Feb 24:e23116. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of São Paulo (IP-USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Animal personality is defined as consistent individual differences across time and situations, but little is known about how or when those differences are established during development. Likewise, several studies described the personality structure of adult capuchin monkeys, without assessing the ontogeny of these personality traits. We analyzed the behavioral repertoire of 12 wild infants (9 males, 3 females) yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus xanthosternos), in Una Biological Reserve (Bahia, Brazil). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23116DOI Listing
February 2020

Reliability of macaques as seed dispersers.

Am J Primatol 2020 May 24;82(5):e23115. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

School of Natural Sciences and Engineering, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Seed dispersal is an ecological process crucial for forest regeneration and recruitment. To date, most studies on frugivore seed dispersal have used the seed dispersal effectiveness framework and have documented seed-handling mechanisms, dispersal distances and the effect of seed handling on germination. In contrast, there has been no exploration of "disperser reliability" which is essential to determine if a frugivore is an effective disperser only in particular regions/years/seasons or across a range of spatio-temporal scales. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23115DOI Listing

My life among the apes.

Authors:
John C Mitani

Am J Primatol 2020 Feb 24:e23107. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

I have spent over 40 years studying the behavior of our closest living relatives, the apes. In this paper, I review my research on the spacing, mating, and vocal behavior of gibbons and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and the vocal and social behavior of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). I devote special attention to results derived from a 25-year-long study of a remarkable and extraordinarily large group of chimpanzees that has recently fissioned at Ngogo in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23107DOI Listing
February 2020

Occurrence of lemurs in landscapes and their species-specific scale responses to habitat loss.

Am J Primatol 2020 Apr 21;82(4):e23110. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Studies on the impact of habitat loss on species occurrence consistently find that the amount of habitat (measured as patch area) is a major determinant of species occurrence at a patch-level. However, patch-level research may fail to detect important patterns and processes only observable at a landscape-level. A landscape-level approach that incorporates species-specific scale responses is needed to better understand what drives species occurrence. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23110DOI Listing

Anogenital distance as a measure of male competitive ability in Rwenzori Angolan colobus.

Am J Primatol 2020 03 21;82(3):e23111. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Anogenital distance (AGD) is positively correlated to fetal androgen exposure and developmental masculinization in mammals. Independent of overall body size, AGD shows a strong positive correlation with male fertility and in rodents, AGD is a good indicator of male competitive ability and is associated with female choice. We hypothesized that AGD will also predict male competitive ability in non-human primates. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23111DOI Listing