369,274 results match your criteria American Journal Of Physiology-regulatory Integrative And Comparative Physiology[Journal]


Older age and comorbidity are independent mortality predictors in a large cohort of 1305 COVID-19 patients in Michigan, United States.

J Intern Med 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Internal Medicine Department, Beaumont Health, Royal Oak, MI, USA.

Introduction: Higher comorbidity and older age have been reported as correlates of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients worldwide, however US data is scarce. We evaluated mortality predictors of COVID-19 in a large cohort of hospitalized patients in the US.

Design: Retrospective, multicenter cohort of inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 by RT-PCR from March 1-April 1,2020 was performed, and outcome data evaluated from March 1-April 17, 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.13119DOI Listing

Lifting the fog of confusion about breast cancer screening guidelines: Surprise - it's about the money!

Authors:
Daniel B Kopans

Clin Imaging 2020 Apr 17;67:5-6. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

20 Manitoba Road, Waban, MA 02468, United States of America. Electronic address:

Large amounts of misinformation denigrating the benefits of breast cancer screening have been published over the past 50 years and continue to be published. Each effort to reduce breast cancer screening has been refuted, scientifically, but the efforts continue. The motivation has been unclear until the recent guidelines issued by the American Society of Breast Surgeons who support annual screening starting at the age of 40 contrasted with the American College of Physicians who advocated delaying screening until the age of 50 and then biennially. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.03.009DOI Listing

Microbial community evolution during the aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment microcosms: Effect of biostimulation and seasonal variations.

Environ Pollut 2020 May 25;265(Pt B):114858. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Maroun Semaan Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Evolution of the microbial community structure in crude oil contaminated marine sediments was assessed under aerobic biodegradation during wet (18 °C) and dry (28 °C) seasons experiments, to account for seasonal variations in nutrients and temperature, under biostimulation and natural attenuation conditions. NMDS showed significant variation in the microbial communities between the wet and the dry season experiments, and between the biostimulation and the natural attenuation treatments in the dry season microcosms. No significant variation in the microbial community and oil biodegradation was observed during the wet season experiments due to high background nitrogen levels eliminating the effect of biostimulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114858DOI Listing

Chagas disease in the United Kingdom: A review of cases at the hospital for Tropical Diseases London 1995-2018. The current state of detection of Chagas disease in the UK.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 Jun 1:101760. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Hospital for Tropical Diseases; Mortimer Market Centre, Mortimer Market, London, WC1E 6JB, UK; London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine; Keppel St, London, WC1E 7HT, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Chagas disease (CD), is a parasitic disease endemic in Latin America. Presentation in non-endemic areas is either in the asymptomatic indeterminate phase or the chronic phase with cardiac and/or gastrointestinal complications.

Methods: The Hospital for Tropical Diseases (HTD) based in central London, provides tertiary care for the management of CD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101760DOI Listing

Review of Methods for Detecting Glycemic Disorders.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2020 Jun 1:108233. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Université Catholique de Louvain, University Clinic Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Prediabetes (intermediate hyperglycemia) consists of two abnormalities, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) detected by a standardized 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Individuals with isolated IGT or combined IFG and IGT have increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diagnosing prediabetes early and accurately is critical in order to refer high-risk individuals for intensive lifestyle modification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108233DOI Listing

Red scrotum syndrome: An update on clinicopathological features, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Dermatology Department, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Lebanon. Electronic address:

The genital skin may be affected by a variety of dermatoses, be it inflammatory, infectious, malignant, idiopathic or others. The Red Scrotum Syndrome is characterized by persistent erythema of the scrotum associated with a burning sensation, hyperalgesia, and itching. Its cause is unknown but proposed mechanisms include rebound vasodilation following prolonged topical corticosteroid use and localized erythromelalgia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.05.113DOI Listing

Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis provides similarly satisfactory surgical outcomes in ankles with severe deformity compared to mild deformity in elderly patients.

Arthroscopy 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Division of Orthopaedic Trauma Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology; Taipei Veterans General Hospital Department of Orthopaedics; School of Medicine; National Yang-Ming University. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcome in terms of radiographic measurements, functional outcomes, and complications following arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis (AAA) in patients 60 years of age or older, and to compare the results of patients with mildly deformed ankle with those of patients with severely deformed ankle.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent AAA with three cannulated screws between January 2008 and December 2017 and followed postoperatively for at least 24 months. All included patients were 60 years of age or older. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.05.036DOI Listing

Sex-specific associations of inflammation markers with cognitive decline.

Exp Gerontol 2020 Jun 1:110986. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, United States of America.

Background/objective: Inflammation is implicated in cognitive decline; however, there is a paucity of data for African American populations and for sex-specific associations.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy/Genetics of Microangiopathic Brain Injury studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.110986DOI Listing

Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Michael G DeGroote Cochrane Canada and GRADE Centres, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 and is spread person-to-person through close contact. We aimed to investigate the effects of physical distance, face masks, and eye protection on virus transmission in health-care and non-health-care (eg, community) settings.

Methods: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the optimum distance for avoiding person-to-person virus transmission and to assess the use of face masks and eye protection to prevent transmission of viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31142-9DOI Listing

Using virtual reality as a replacement for hospital tours during residency interviews.

Med Educ Online 2020 Jan;25(1):1777066

Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School , Newark, NJ, USA.

Background: Residency programs invest a significant amount of time and resources on the recruitment process, and maintaining efficiency and cost-effectiveness are very important. Virtual Reality (VR) has become an adaptive substitute for 'real life' experiences and its use during the interview season could help save time and resources.

Objective: With the intention to maximize the interview day and provide a cost-effective alternative to facility tours, a Med-Peds residency training program introduced a VR tour of their children's hospital during recruitment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10872981.2020.1777066DOI Listing
January 2020

Relationship between risky behaviors and non-prescription opioid use among Asian American youth.

J Ethn Subst Abuse 2020 Jun 4:1-10. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

University of Texas Health Science Center (UTHealth), Dallas, Texas.

Asian Americans (AA) are a highly understudied population and are often considered the "model minority" for health. However, there is a dearth of research on risky behaviors associated with opioid use in AA teens. Data among AA youth aged 12 to 16 was collected from the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15332640.2020.1772931DOI Listing

Urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio and body mass index in relation to high blood pressure in a national health survey in Chile.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

División de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Several lifestyle and sociodemographic factors are associated with blood pressure (BP). The authors conducted a retrospective study of 4870 subjects from the National Health Survey 2009 in Chile to identify exposure factors associated with increasing BP levels. Subjects with isolated urinary excretion of sodium (n = 2873), potassium, and creatinine were included to estimate daily salt intake and urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13904DOI Listing

GLAST-CreER mediated deletion of GDNF increases brain damage and exacerbates long-term stroke outcomes after focal ischemic stroke in mouse model.

Glia 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

Focal ischemic stroke (FIS) is a leading cause of human death. Glial scar formation largely caused by reactive astrogliosis in peri-infarct region (PIR) is the hallmark of FIS. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was originally isolated from a rat glioma cell-line supernatant and is a potent survival neurotrophic factor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23848DOI Listing

Incidence of Viral and Fungal Infectious Complications after utilization of alternative donor sources in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).

Pharmacotherapy 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Janssen Biotech, Horsham, PA, USA.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains the only curable option for adult patients with hematologic malignancies. According to guidelines published by the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, allogeneic HCT should be offered to all intermediate- and high-risk patients with acute leukemia. While matched-related donor (MRD) grafts continue to be the preferred stem cell source for allogeneic HCT, studies comparing MRD grafts to matched-unrelated donor (MUD) grafts showed comparable outcomes in patients with acute leukemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2433DOI Listing

Comment on "Genetic variants and source of introduction of SARS-CoV-2 in South America".

Authors:
Pedro E Romero

J Med Virol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Faculty of Science and Philosophy, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Av. Honorio Delgado 430, Lima, 15102, Peru.

I read with great interest a recent study by Poterico and Mestanza who described mutations in 30 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26122DOI Listing

Clinical outcome and toxicity from taxanes in breast cancer patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic germline mutations.

Breast J 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Germline variations in genes coding for proteins involved in the oxidative stress and DNA repair greatly influence drug response and toxicity. Because BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins play a role in DNA damage repair, we postulated that taxane-related toxicity is potentially higher and clinical outcome in different in patients with BRCA pathogenic variants (PV). Seven hundred nineteen women who underwent BRCA genetic testing and were treated with taxane-containing chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer between 1997 and 2018 were included in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbj.13922DOI Listing

Obesity, race, and long-term prostate cancer outcomes.

Cancer 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Urology Section, Department of Surgery, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, California.

Background: The authors previously found that obesity was linked with prostate cancer (PC)-specific mortality (PCSM) among men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). Herein, in a larger RP cohort, the authors investigated whether the association between obesity and long-term PC outcomes, including PCSM, differed by race.

Methods: Data from 5929 patients who underwent RP and were in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32906DOI Listing

NPC-0501 trial on the value of changing chemoradiotherapy sequence, replacing 5-fluorouracil with capecitabine, and altering fractionation for patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Cancer 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Clinical Oncology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Background: A current recommendation for the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is conventional fractionated radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent cisplatin followed by adjuvant cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (PF). This randomized NPC-0501 trial evaluated the therapeutic effect of changing to an induction-concurrent sequence or accelerated-fractionation sequence, and/or replacing 5-fluorouracil with capecitabine (X).

Methods: Patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer stage III to stage IVB NPC initially were randomly allocated to 1 of 6 treatment arms (6-arm full-randomization cohort). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32972DOI Listing

Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jun 4;6:CD008482. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Research and Development, Empower 2 Go, Edmonton, UK.

Background: Malabsorption and deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins K may occur in cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder affecting multiple organs. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation, hence the role of supplementation of vitamin K in this category needs to be reviewed. This is an updated version of the review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008482.pub6DOI Listing

An Innovative Trauma-Informed Curriculum for Sexual Assault Care.

J Nurs Educ 2020 Jun;59(6):336-340

Background: Sexual violence is a pervasive public health concern. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing recommends that nursing education comprehensively address this topic, yet nursing schools are inconsistent in doing so.

Method: An innovative, holistic curriculum that includes didactic and simulation exercises was developed to educate nurses on a trauma-informed approach to providing care for individuals who have experienced sexual violence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20200520-07DOI Listing

Epigenetic Potential in Native and Introduced Populations of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus).

Integr Comp Biol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

University of South Florida, Global and Planetary Health, 3720 Spectrum Blvd, Suite 304, Tampa, FL.

Epigenetic potential, defined as the capacity for epigenetically-mediated phenotypic plasticity, may play an important role during range expansions. During range expansions, populations may encounter relatively novel challenges while experiencing lower genetic diversity. Phenotypic plasticity via epigenetic potential might be selectively advantageous at the time of initial introduction or during spread into new areas, enabling introduced organisms to cope rapidly with novel challenges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icaa060DOI Listing

Predictors of the Best Outcomes Following Minimally Invasive Surgery for Grade 1 Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis.

Neurosurgery 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: The factors driving the best outcomes following minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis are not clearly elucidated.

Objective: To investigate the factors that drive the best 24-mo patient-reported outcomes (PRO) following MIS surgery for grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.

Methods: A total of 259 patients from the Quality Outcomes Database lumbar spondylolisthesis module underwent single-level surgery for degenerative grade 1 lumbar spondylolisthesis with MIS techniques (188 fusions, 72. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa206DOI Listing

Studying global processing in autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with gaze movements: The example of a copying task.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(6):e0224186. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Medical Faculty, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Recent discussions in the literature, along with the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) (American Psychiatric Association 2013), suggest aetiological commonalities between the highly comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Addressing this discussion requires studying these disorders together by comparing constructs typical to each of them. In the present study, we investigate global processing, known to be difficult for participants with ASD, and Intra-Subject Variability (ISV), known to be consistently increased in participants with ADHD, in groups, aged 10-13 years, with ADHD (n = 25), ASD without comorbid ADHD (ASD-) (n = 13) and ASD with ADHD (ASD+) (n = 18) in comparison with a typically developing group (n = 22). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0224186PLOS

Quantification of parasite burden of Trypanosoma cruzi and identification of Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) in blood samples of Latin American immigrants residing in Barcelona, Spain.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jun 4;14(6):e0008311. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital. PROSICS, Barcelona. Spain.

Background: Trypanosoma cruzi has a high genetic and biological diversity and has been subdivided into seven genetic lineages, named TcI-TcVI and TcBat. DTUs TcI-TcII-TcV and TcVI are agents of ChD in different regions of Latin America. Due to population movements, the disease is an emergent global public health problem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008311DOI Listing

Absent sural responses in tethered cord syndrome.

J Spinal Cord Med 2020 Jun 4:1-2. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Neurology department, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

Tethered cord syndrome is a progressive condition usually diagnosed early in life, and leads to a diversity of manifestations including neurologic, urologic, and orthopedic dysfunction. We report two cases of tethered cord syndrome associated with a unilaterally absent sural sensory response on nerve conduction studies while other causes of this finding being excluded. We believe that this finding is caused by a selective injury of sensory fibers at the level or distal to the dorsal root ganglia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2020.1766899DOI Listing

Comparison of the gut microbiome composition among individuals with acute or long-standing spinal cord injury vs. able-bodied controls.

J Spinal Cord Med 2020 Jun 4:1-9. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Aabama.

: Compare the gut microbiome composition among individuals with acute spinal cord injury (A-SCI), long-standing SCI (L-SCI), vs. able-bodied (AB) controls.: Cross-sectional study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2020.1769949DOI Listing

A Longitudinal Analysis of Americans' Media Sources, Risk Perceptions, and Judged Need for Action during the Zika Outbreak.

Health Commun 2020 Jun 4:1-10. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Decision Research , USA.

The objective of this study is to better understand the effects of media attention on Americans' perceptions of risk by analyzing the different media sources and outlets, or "repertoires," reported as used during the small 2016-2017 Zika outbreak in the U.S. We analyzed survey data from a four-wave longitudinal panel study over nine months - July 19, 2016 through April 24, 2017 (n = 743) - using an online panel of American adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2020.1773707DOI Listing

Evaluating the Measurement Invariance of MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scale 4 (Antisocial Behavior) between American and Korean Clinical Samples: Exploring Cultural and Translation Issues Affecting Item Responding.

J Pers Assess 2020 Jun 4:1-11. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Research Division, Maumsarang Inc., Seoul, Korea.

Establishing the cross-cultural measurement invariance of psychometric scales is considered an essential step before scale means are compared across cultures. Although the MMPI instruments have been extensively researched, few studies have examined the measurement equivalence of MMPI scales in cross-cultural research. This study examined the measurement invariance of MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scale 4 (RC4; Antisocial Behavior) using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis with American and Korean clinical samples by (a) comparing a rationally-derived four-factor model (School Problems, Substance Abuse, Family Problems, and Violation of Social Norms) with a one-factor model, and (b) examining the measurement invariance of the RC4 four-factor model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2020.1769111DOI Listing

The Mental States Task (MST): Correlates and New Perspectives on Mentalizing in a Lebanese Student Sample.

J Pers Assess 2020 Jun 4:1-11. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Social Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon.

Mentalizing is defined as one's capacity to think in terms of mental states underlying one's own and others' behaviors. It has been posited to develop within the context of a secure attachment relationship and has been linked to a myriad of psychological adjustment variables. Given the scarcity of research on mentalizing in Lebanon, this study aimed to investigate mentalizing in a sample of 293 Lebanese undergraduate students using a novel tool, the Mental State Task (MST). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2020.1769114DOI Listing

Psychotherapy in the Post-COVID-19 Era.

Authors:
Eric M Plakun

J Psychiatr Pract 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

PLAKUN: Medical Director and Chief Executive Officer, Austen Riggs Center, Stockbridge, MA, and Founder, American Psychiatric Association Psychotherapy Caucus, Washington, DC.

This column anticipates challenges likely to be faced by psychotherapists and their patients after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic subsides. It looks beyond the current impact of loneliness, isolation, thwarted belongingness, and loss toward the longer term impact of moral injury and blocked opportunities for mourning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRA.0000000000000476DOI Listing

Human intestinal microbiota derived metabolism signature from a North American native botanical Oplopanax horridus with UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis.

Biomed Chromatogr 2020 Jun 4:e4911. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, and Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Oplopanax horridus, distributed in North America, is an herbal medicine traditionally used by Pacific indigenous peoples for various medical conditions. After oral ingestion, constituents in O. horridus extract (OhE) could be converted to their metabolites by enteric microbiome before absorption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.4911DOI Listing

Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Need for a Structurally Competent Health Care System.

JAMA 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Center for Health Equity, American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.9289DOI Listing

Evaluation of a Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Prediction Model Using Long-term Intraocular Pressure Variability Data: A Secondary Analysis of 2 Randomized Clinical Trials.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Oncology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri," Milan, Italy.

Importance: The contribution of long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) variability to the development of primary open-angle glaucoma is still controversial.

Objective: To assess whether long-term IOP variability data improve a prediction model for the development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in individuals with untreated ocular hypertension.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This post hoc secondary analysis of 2 randomized clinical trials included data from 709 of 819 participants in the observation group of the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) followed up from February 28, 1994, to June 1, 2002, and 397 of 500 participants in the placebo group of the European Glaucoma Prevention Study (EGPS) followed up from January 1, 1997, to September 30, 2003. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.1902DOI Listing

Estimating the population health impact of recently introduced modified risk tobacco products: a comparison of different approaches.

Nicotine Tob Res 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Philip Morris R&D, Philip Morris Products SA, Quai Jeanrenaud, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

We review approaches used to estimate the population health impact of introducing a Modified Risk Tobacco Product (MRTP). Thirteen models are described, some focussing on e-cigarettes, others more general. Most models are cohort-based, comparing results with or without MRTP introduction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa102DOI Listing

Prevention of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in the pediatric population in Mexico: position of a group of experts.

Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex 2020 ;77(3):100-111

Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, Ciudad de México. México.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the agent that causes more hospitalizations and deaths due to lower acute respiratory infection. Its distribution is widespread, and almost every child has been infected by the age of two years. Different risk populations have been identified: preterm newborns (NB), children with congenital heart disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, asthmatics, neuromuscular diseases, among others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24875/BMHIM.19000166DOI Listing
January 2020

HIV Lymphoma and Burkitts Lymphoma.

Authors:
Ariela Noy

Cancer J 2020 May/Jun;26(3):260-268

From the Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY.

Despite widely available antiretroviral therapy, lymphoma remains the leading cause of death for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in economically developed countries. Even a few months of drug interruptions can lead to drops in the CD4 cell count, HIV viremia, and an increased risk of lymphoma. Currently, good HIV control facilitates intensive therapies appropriate to the lymphoma, including autologous and even allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PPO.0000000000000448DOI Listing

Lymphoma Classification.

Cancer J 2020 May/Jun;26(3):176-185

Hematopathology Section, Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Twenty-five years after the Revised European American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms classification was published, its principle of an integrative approach to disease definition based on several parameters still prevails and has been adopted and expanded in the following World Health Organization classifications of tumors of the hematopoietic organs. The latest World Health Organization classification revised in 2017 comprises more than 80 entities of mature lymphoid neoplasms (B-cell, T-cell, and Hodgkin lymphomas), which are defined according to their morphology, immunophenotype, genetic lesions and molecular profiles, clinical features, and cellular derivation. The classification also recognizes both incipient and indolent lymphoid neoplasms with a low potential of progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PPO.0000000000000451DOI Listing

Passing a Healthy Homes Initiative: Using Modeling to Inform Evidence-Based Policy Decision Making in Kansas City, Missouri.

J Public Health Manag Pract 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California (Ms Rhoads); Health Solutions, mySidewalk, Kansas City, Missouri (Dr Martin); and Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California (Dr Zimmerman).

Context And Setting: Kansas City, Missouri, experiences substantial racial/ethnic health disparities, particularly associated with that city's high level of residential segregation. Among the risk factors for poor health are substandard housing, particularly common in African American neighborhoods, which lead to asthma and therefore to school absences. A 2018 ballot initiative in Kansas City, Missouri, would allow health inspectors to investigate complaints of poor or hazardous conditions in rental housing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000001197DOI Listing

Carcinoid Tumors of the Orbit and Ocular Adnexa.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Division of Orbital and Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery and*Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York.

Purpose: Well-differentiated neuroendocrine or carcinoid tumors are found most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract. When metastatic to the orbit, they tend to have a propensity for the extraocular muscles. The purpose of this study was to better understand the diversity in presentation of orbital carcinoid disease and to determine predictors for survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IOP.0000000000001715DOI Listing

"Slowing the Spread and Minimizing the Impact of COVID-19: Lessons from the Past and Recommendations for the Plastic Surgeon".

Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, 600 Highland Avenue, CSC G5/347, Madison, WI 53792.

Background: COVID-19, a novel coronavirus originating in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly throughout the globe over 3 months. On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. COVID-19 represents a nearly unprecedented threat to both the public health and the durability of our healthcare systems and will profoundly affect the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000007221DOI Listing

Role and Outcome of Laparoscopic/Minimally Invasive Surgery for Variety of Colorectal Emergencies.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, UK.

Background: Recently, the laparoscopic or minimally invasive approach has become common practice for planned colorectal malignancies. Its use in the emergency setting is limited by various factors, including resource availability and surgical expertise. However, more recent evidence suggests a laparoscopic approach to colorectal emergencies, which is comparable with laparoscopic routine work, and often promising. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLE.0000000000000812DOI Listing

Low Thyroid Function in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is an Independent Predictor of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality.

Am J Gastroenterol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Introduction: Higher levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the euthyroid state can negatively affect the metabolic health, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We studied the effect of TSH levels in the setting of normal levels of thyroid hormone on all-cause and cause-specific mortality stratified by NAFLD status.

Methods: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III from 1988 to 1994 and NHANES III-linked mortality data through 2015 were used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000654DOI Listing

Delivery of Colorectal Surgical Care in 2018: Results From the 2018 ASCRS Compensation Survey.

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 Jul;63(7):887-889

University of California San Diego Health, University of California Los Angeles Health System, San Diego, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001714DOI Listing

How Are Orthopaedic Surgery Residencies Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic? An Assessment of Resident Experiences in Cities of Major Virus Outbreak.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

From the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center (Dr. An, Dr. Lin, and Dr. Paiement), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Los Angeles, CA, the Hospital for Special Surgery (Dr. Henry), New York, NY, the Tulane University School of Medicine (Dr. Igboechi), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New Orleans, LA, the University of Washington (Dr. Wang), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seattle, WA, and the University of California-Los Angeles (Dr. Yerrapragada), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: In response to COVID-19, American medical centers have enacted elective case restrictions, markedly affecting the training of orthopaedic residents. Residencies must develop new strategies to provide patient care while ensuring the health and continued education of trainees. We aimed to describe the evolving impact of COVID-19 on orthopaedic surgery residents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-20-00397DOI Listing

Why African Americans Are a Potential Target for COVID-19 Infection in the United States (USA).

J Med Internet Res 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran., Jahrom, IR.

Unstructured: Since WHO has officially announced that COVID-19 outbreak reaching a pandemic level, things have significantly changed inside USA, as this infection spread has reached and passed its exponential phase. A stringent analysis of the COVID-19 epidemiologic data requires much more time and would generally be expected to happen with significant delay after the exponential phase of the disease is over and when the focus of the health-care system is diverted away from crisis-management. Although much is said about high-risk groups and the vulnerability of elderly and patients with underlying comorbidities, the impact of race and its implications on susceptibility of ethnic minorities in indigent societies towards COVID-19 has not been discussed in detail worldwide and specifically in the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/19934DOI Listing

Evaluating the Need to Address Digital Literacy Among Hospitalized Patients: Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

J Med Internet Res 2020 Jun 4;22(6):e17519. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Background: Technology is a potentially powerful tool to assist patients with transitions of care during and after hospitalization. Patients with low health literacy who are predisposed to poor health outcomes are particularly poised to benefit from such interventions. However, this population may lack the ability to effectively engage with technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17519DOI Listing

Effects of Patient-Centered Communication on Influenza Vaccination and Self-Reported General Health Status among Asian Americans: A Comparison Model for Young/Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

J Aging Health 2020 Jun 4:898264320930888. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

2514 University of Cincinnati , OH, USA.

Asian American subgroups' influenza vaccination is still below the US standards. This study examined the effects of patient-centered communication (PCC) on influenza vaccination and the general health (GH) of Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean Americans. A group difference between younger and older adults was investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0898264320930888DOI Listing

Mock jurors' perceptions and case decisions following a juvenile interrogation: Investigating the roles of interested adults and confession type.

Law Hum Behav 2020 Jun 18;44(3):209-222. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Psychology, Heidelberg University.

Objective: Interested adults, such as parents and attorneys, may pose as safeguards against juveniles' vulnerabilities during custodial interrogations; yet, the trial-level ramifications of their presence are unknown. The current research examined mock jurors' perceptions and case decisions after they read about disputed juvenile confession evidence elicited in the presence of an interested adult.

Hypotheses: We hypothesized that when reading about a voluntary confession (vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000371DOI Listing

Great expectations? Comparing litigants' attitudes before and after using legal procedures.

Authors:
Donna Shestowsky

Law Hum Behav 2020 Jun;44(3):179-193

School of Law.

Objective: To examine whether litigants' initial attraction to legal procedures (e.g., mediation, hearings, jury trials) predicted their postexperience evaluations of the procedures and whether attendance moderated this relationship. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000370DOI Listing