5,699 results match your criteria American Journal Of Physiology-endocrinology And Metabolism[Journal]


Inositol polyphosphate multikinase in adipocytes is dispensable for regulating energy metabolism and whole-body metabolic homeostasis.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 34141 Daejeon, Korea; KAIST Institute for the BioCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 34141 Daejeon, Korea.

Adipose tissue plays a central role in regulating whole-body energy and glucose homeostasis at both organ and systemic levels. Inositol polyphosphates, such as 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7), reportedly control adipocyte functions and energy expenditure. However, the physiological roles of the inositol polyphosphate (IP) pathway in the adipose tissue are not yet fully defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00030.2020DOI Listing

Emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in the intercellular communication for exercise-induced adaptations.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

RMIT University, School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale Biophotonics, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Complex organisms rely heavily on intercellular communication. The rapidly expanding field of extracellular vesicle biology has made it clear that the necessary intercellular communication occurs partly through their paracrine and endocrine actions. Extracellular vesicles are nanoscale lipid membranes (30-2000 nm in diameter) that shuttle functional biological material between cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00215.2020DOI Listing

Frequent and mild scrotal heat stress in mice epigenetically alters glucose metabolism in the male offspring.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Qiaokou District, Wuhan, 430030, P.R. China; Wuhan Tongji Reproductive Medicine Hospital, 128 Sanyang Road, Jiangan District, Wuhan, 430014, P.R. China.

Several studies have reported that health problems occur in assisted reproductive technology (ART)-conceived offspring. Recently, investigations have demonstrated that paternal environmental conditions influence offspring health. However, it is unclear whether the factors that cause male infertility per se affect offspring health and contribute to health problems in ART-born children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00038.2020DOI Listing

Deficiency of bone morphogenetic protein-3b induces metabolic syndrome and increases adipogenesis.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Cardiovascular Institute, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) receptor signaling is critical for the regulation of the endocrine system and cardiovascular structure and function. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Bmp3b, a glycoprotein synthetized and secreted by adipose tissue, is necessary to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, adipogenesis and cardiovascular remodeling. Over the course of 4 months, Bmp3b knock-out (Bmp3b) mice gained more weight than WT mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00362.2019DOI Listing

Impact of human visceral and glutealfemoral adipose tissue transplant on glycemic control in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

Regional distribution of adipose tissue is an important factor in conferring cardiometabolic risk and obesity-related morbidity. We tested thehypothesis that human visceral adipose tissue (VAT) impairs glucose homeostasis, whereas subcutaneous glutealfemoral adipose tissue (GFAT)protects against the development of impaired glucose homeostasis in mice.VAT and GFAT were collected from patients undergoing bariatric surgery and grafted onto the epididymal adipose tissue of weight and age-matched severe combined immunodeficient mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00373.2019DOI Listing

Spinophilin-deficient Mice are Protected from Diet-induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA.

Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been shown to reduce obesity and obesity-related complications suggesting that factors that promote WAT browning may have applications in the development of therapeutic strategies for treating obesity. Here, we show that ablation of spinophilin (SPL), a ubiquitously expressed, multidomain scaffolding protein, increases metabolism and improves energy balance. Male and female SPL knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) littermate controls were fed a Chow diet or a high fat diet (HFD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00114.2020DOI Listing

COVID-19 and SIADH relations: impact of the positive pressure ventilation.

Authors:
Mykola Khalangot

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 07;319(1):E196

Komisarenko Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyiv, Ukraine and Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kyiv, Ukraine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00288.2020DOI Listing

Sugar causes obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice independently of sweet taste.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

University of Colorado, Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States.

Intake of sugars and especially the fructose component, is strongly associated with the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome, but the relative role of taste versus metabolism in driving preference, intake and metabolic outcome is not fully understood. To this end, we aimed to evaluate the preference for sweet substances and the tendency to develop metabolic syndrome in response to these sugars in mice lacking functional taste signaling (P2X2/P2X3 double knockout mice) and mice unable to metabolize fructose (fructokinase knockout mice). Our data indicate that despite their inability to taste sweetness, P2X2/3 DKO mice still prefer caloric sugars (including fructose and glucose) to water in longterm testing although with diminished preference compared to control mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00529.2019DOI Listing

NUPR1 preserves insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells during inflammatory stress by multiple low dose streptozotocin and high fat diet.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Medicine II, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany.

Obesity is associated with dyslipidemia and subclinical inflammation that promotes metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The nuclear protein, transcriptional regulator 1 (NUPR1) responds to cellular stresses and features tissue protective properties. To characterise the role of NUPR1 in endocrine pancreatic islets during inflammatory stress, we generated transgenic mice with β-cell-specific Nupr1 overexpression (βNUPR1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00088.2020DOI Listing

Maternal and Neonatal Response to COVID-19.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Center for Research on Reproduction and Women's Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Center of Excellence in Environmental Toxicology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The risk of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to maternal and newborn health has yet to be determined. Several reports suggest pregnancy does not typically increase the severity of disease, however, several cases of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth have been reported. Reports of placental infection and vertical transmission are rare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00287.2020DOI Listing

Long-term high-fat feeding exacerbates short-term increases in adipose mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, without impairing mitochondrial respiration.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Human Health & Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

White adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction in obesity is implicated in the onset of whole-body insulin resistance. Alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics, namely impaired mitochondrial respiration and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production, have been suggested to contribute to this metabolic dysregulation. However, techniques investigating mitochondrial function are classically normalized to tissue weight, which may be confounding when considering obesity-related adipocyte hypertrophy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00028.2020DOI Listing

Oligomeric collagen as an encapsulation material for islet/β cell replacement: Effect of islet source, dose, implant site, and administration format.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Replacement of islets/β cells that provide long-lasting glucose-sensing and insulin-releasing functions has the potential to restore extended glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Unfortunately, persistent challenges preclude such therapies from widespread clinical use including cumbersome administration via portal vein infusion, significant loss of functional islet mass upon administration, limited functional longevity, and requirement for systemic immunosuppression. Previously, fibril-forming type I collagen (oligomer) was shown to support subcutaneous injection and in-situ encapsulation of syngeneic islets within diabetic mice, with rapid (<24 hours) reversal of hyperglycemia and maintenance of euglycemia for beyond 90 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00066.2020DOI Listing

Acute insulin deprivation results in altered mitochondrial substrate sensitivity conducive to greater fatty acid transport.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Human Health & Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1.

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are both tightly associated with impaired glucose control. While both pathologies stem from different mechanisms, a reduction in insulin action coincides with drastic metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle and metabolic inflexibility. However, the underlying explanation for this response remains poorly understood, particularly since it is difficult to distinguish the role of attenuated insulin action from the detrimental effects of reactive lipid accumulation which impair mitochondrial function and promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) emission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00495.2019DOI Listing

Lowering oxidative stress in ghrelin cells stimulates ghrelin secretion.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Center for Hypothalamic Research and Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

Ghrelin is a predominantly stomach-derived peptide hormone with many actions including regulation of food intake, body weight, and blood glucose. Plasma ghrelin levels are robustly regulated by feeding status, with its levels increasing upon caloric restriction and decreasing after food intake. At least some of this regulation might be due to direct responsiveness of ghrelin cells to changes in circulating nutrients, including glucose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00119.2020DOI Listing

NOD2 in hepatocytes engages a liver-gut axis to protect against steatosis, fibrosis, and gut dysbiosis during fatty liver disease in mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Obesity promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The intestinal microbiota contributes to NAFLD progression through a gut to liver pathway that promotes inflammation and fibrosis. Gut microbiota-derived factors can travel to the liver and activate immune responses in liver-resident cells to promote inflammation and NAFLD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00181.2020DOI Listing

Fecal microbiota transplantation from high caloric-fed donors alters glucose metabolism in recipient mice, independently of adiposity or exercise status.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 9;319(1):E203-E216. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Studies suggest the gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Exercise alters microbiota composition and diversity and is protective of these maladies. We tested whether the protective metabolic effects of exercise are mediated through fecal components through assessment of body composition and metabolism in recipients of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from exercise-trained (ET) mice fed normal or high-energy diets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00037.2020DOI Listing

Circulating extracellular vesicles from patients with valvular heart disease induce neutrophil chemotaxis via FOXO3a and the inhibiting role of dexmedetomidine.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 9;319(1):E217-E231. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

We previously demonstrated that circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) from patients with valvular heart disease (VHD; vEVs) contain inflammatory components and inhibit endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Neutrophil chemotaxis plays a key role in renal dysfunction, and dexmedetomidine (DEX) can reduce renal dysfunction in cardiac surgery. However, the roles of vEVs in neutrophil chemotaxis and effects of DEX on vEVs are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00062.2020DOI Listing
July 2020
3.785 Impact Factor

Cholesterol: A new game player accelerating vasculopathy caused by SARS-CoV-2?

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 07 5;319(1):E197-E202. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global threat to public health. Functional impairments in multiple organs have been reported in COVID-19, including lungs, heart, kidney, liver, brain, and vascular system. Patients with metabolic-associated preconditions, such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, are susceptible to experiencing severe symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00255.2020DOI Listing

Adipose tissue macrophage burden, systemic inflammation and insulin resistance.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota USA.

Adipose tissue inflammation, as defined by macrophage accumulation, is proposed to cause insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Because the strength of this relationship for humans is unclear, we tested whether adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) burden is correlated with these health indicators. Using immunohistochemistry we measured abdominal subcutaneous CD68+ (total ATM) , CD14+ (pro-inflammatory/M1), and CD206+ (anti-inflammatory/M2) ATM in 97 volunteers BMI 20 - 38 kg/m2, in addition to body composition, adipocyte size, HOMA-IR, ADIPO-IR, plasma lipids, TNF and IL-6 concentrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00109.2020DOI Listing

Related molecular mechanisms of COVID-19, hypertension, and diabetes.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 06;318(6):E881

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00164.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276978PMC

Reply to Jakovac; Severity of COVID-19 infection in patients with phenylketonuria: is vitamin D status protective?

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 06;318(6):E890-E891

Department of Dietetics, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00195.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276976PMC
June 2020
3.785 Impact Factor

SARS-CoV-2 perturbs the renin-angiotensin system and energy metabolism.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 07 29;319(1):E43-E47. Epub 2020 May 29.

Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is threating our health systems and daily lives and is responsible for causing substantial morbidity and mortality. In particular, aged individuals and individuals with comorbidities, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, have significantly higher risks of hospitalization and death than normal individuals. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hypertension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00219.2020DOI Listing

Bromocriptine mesylate improves glucose tolerance and disposal in a high-fat-fed canine model.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 27;319(1):E133-E145. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Metabolic Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.

Bromocriptine mesylate treatment was examined in dogs fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 wk. After 4 wk on HFD, daily bromocriptine (Bromo; = 6) or vehicle (CTR; = 5) injections were administered. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed before beginning HFD (OGTT1), 4 wk after HFD began (Bromo only), and after 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00479.2019DOI Listing

Differential changes to splanchnic and peripheral protein metabolism during the diet-induced development of metabolic syndrome in rats.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 27;319(1):E175-E186. Epub 2020 May 27.

Université Paris-Saclay, AgroParisTech, INRAE, UMR PNCA, 75005, Paris, France.

Little is known about the effects of the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) on protein and amino acid (AA) metabolism. During this study, we took advantage of the variability in interindividual susceptibility to high fat diet-induced MS to study the relationships between MS, protein synthesis, and AA catabolism in multiple tissues in rats. After 4 mo of high-fat feeding, an MS score (Z) was calculated as the average of the z-scores for individual MS components [weight, adiposities, homeostasis model for the assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00061.2020DOI Listing

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) knockout potentiates palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are implicated in muscle inflammation/cell stress and insulin resistance, but the catalog of factors involved is incomplete. SFA derivatives that accumulate with mismatched FA availability and FA oxidation (FAO) are likely involved, and evidence has emerged that select acylcarnitines should be considered. To understand if excessive long-chain acylcarnitine accumulation and limited FAO associate with lipotoxicity, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 knockout C2C12 cells were generated (CPT2 KO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00515.2019DOI Listing

Obesity and COVID-19: immune and metabolic derangement as a possible link to adverse clinical outcomes.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 07 27;319(1):E105-E109. Epub 2020 May 27.

Second Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Recent reports have shown a strong association between obesity and the severity of COVID-19 infection, even in the absence of other comorbidities. After infecting the host cells, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may cause a hyperinflammatory reaction through the excessive release of cytokines, a condition known as "cytokine storm," while inducing lymphopenia and a disrupted immune response. Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and immune dysregulation, but the exact mechanisms through which it exacerbates COVID-19 infection are not fully clarified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00198.2020DOI Listing

Local myostatin inhibition improves skeletal muscle glucose uptake in insulin-resistant high-fat diet-fed mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 27;319(1):E163-E174. Epub 2020 May 27.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.

Myostatin inhibition is thought to improve whole body insulin sensitivity and mitigate the development of insulin resistance in models of obesity. However, although myostatin is known to be a major regulator of skeletal muscle mass, the direct effects of myostatin inhibition in muscle on glucose uptake and the mechanisms that may underlie this are still unclear. We investigated the effect of local myostatin inhibition by adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of the myostatin propeptide on insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose disposal in chow-fed or high fat diet-fed mice and evaluated the molecular pathways that might mediate this. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00185.2019DOI Listing

Reply to Jakovac: About COVID-19 and vitamin D.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 06;318(6):E838

Department of Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00185.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240212PMC

CTRP12 ablation differentially affects energy expenditure, body weight, and insulin sensitivity in male and female mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 18;319(1):E146-E162. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Secreted hormones facilitate tissue cross talk to maintain energy balance. We previously described C1q/TNF-related protein 12 (CTRP12) as a novel metabolic hormone. Gain-of-function and partial-deficiency mouse models have highlighted important roles for this fat-derived adipokine in modulating systemic metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00533.2019DOI Listing

Glucagon-Dependent Suppression of mTORC1 is Associated with Upregulation of Hepatic FGF21 mRNA Translation.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Penn State College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey PA 17033, United States.

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a peptide hormone that acts to enhance insulin sensitivity and reverse many of the metabolic defects associated with consumption of a high-fat diet. Recent studies show that the liver is the primary source of FGF21 in the blood, and that hepatic FGF21 expression is upregulated by glucagon. Interestingly, glucagon acts to upregulate FGF21 production by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and H4IIE and HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells independent of changes in FGF21 mRNA abundance, suggesting that FGF21 protein expression is regulated post-transcriptionally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00555.2019DOI Listing

Statins activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and impair insulin signaling via p38 and mTOR.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 18;319(1):E110-E116. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences and Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton Ontario, Canada.

Statins lower cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease. Statins can increase blood glucose and risk of new-onset diabetes. It is unclear why statins can have opposing effects on lipids versus glucose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00125.2020DOI Listing

Is there an impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on male fertility? The ACE2 connection.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 06 18;318(6):E878-E880. Epub 2020 May 18.

Azrieili Faculty of Medicine in Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed, Israel.

The viral pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), generated by a novel mutated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has become a serious worldwide public health emergency, evolving exponentially. While the main organ targeted in this disease is the lungs, other vital organs, such as the heart and kidney, may be implicated. The main host receptor of the SARS-CoV-2 is angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a major component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00183.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276979PMC

Glycemic control of type 2 diabetic patients with coronavirus disease during hospitalization: a proposal for early insulin therapy.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun;318(6):E835-E837

Institute of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00163.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237499PMC

Lower oxygen consumption and Complex I activity in mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle of fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 12;319(1):E67-E80. Epub 2020 May 12.

Physiological Sciences Graduate Interdisciplinary Program, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Fetal sheep with placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have lower hindlimb oxygen consumption rates (OCRs), indicating depressed mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in their skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that OCRs are lower in skeletal muscle mitochondria from IUGR fetuses, due to reduced electron transport chain (ETC) activity and lower abundances of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. IUGR sheep fetuses ( = 12) were created with mid-gestation maternal hyperthermia and compared with control fetuses ( = 12). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00057.2020DOI Listing

COVID-19-associated SIADH: a clue in the times of pandemic!

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 06 12;318(6):E882-E885. Epub 2020 May 12.

Medicine Department, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00178.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276977PMC

Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A7 restrains estrogen negative feedback of luteinizing hormone via ephrin A5 in the hypothalamus of female rats.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 12;319(1):E81-E90. Epub 2020 May 12.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai, Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

We have previously shown that systemic injection of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A7 (EPHA7)-Fc raises serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels before ovulation in female rats, indicating the induction of EPHA7 in ovulation. In this study, we aimed to identify the mechanism and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis level underlying the promotion of LH secretion by EPHA7. Using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, in conjunction with low-dose 17β-estradiol (E) treatment, we investigated the association between EPHA7-ephrin (EFN)A5 signaling and E negative feedback. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00046.2020DOI Listing

β-Hydroxybutyrate is reduced in humans with obesity-related NAFLD and displays a dose-dependent effect on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in vitro.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 12;319(1):E187-E195. Epub 2020 May 12.

Integrated Physiology and Molecular Medicine, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation and impaired insulin sensitivity. Reduced hepatic ketogenesis may promote these pathologies, but data are inconclusive in humans and the link between NAFLD and reduced insulin sensitivity remains obscure. We investigated individuals with obesity-related NAFLD and hypothesized that β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB; the predominant ketone species) would be reduced and related to hepatic fat accumulation and insulin sensitivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00058.2020DOI Listing

Reducing 14-3-3ζ expression influences adipocyte maturity and impairs function.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 5;319(1):E117-E132. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

One of the primary metabolic functions of a mature adipocyte is to supply energy via lipolysis, or the catabolism of stored lipids. Adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are critical lipolytic enzymes, and their phosphorylation generates phospho-binding sites for 14-3-3 proteins, a ubiquitously expressed family of molecular scaffolds. Although we previously identified essential roles of the 14-3-3ζ isoform in murine adipogenesis, the presence of 14-3-3 protein binding sites on ATGL and HSL suggests that 14-3-3ζ could also influence mature adipocyte processes like lipolysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00093.2020DOI Listing

Regulation of the Ca channel αδ-1 subunit expression by epidermal growth factor via the ERK/ELK-1 signaling pathway.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 5;319(1):E232-E244. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Cell Biology, Centre for Research and Advanced Studies (Cinvestav), Mexico City, Mexico.

Voltage-gated Ca (Ca) channels are expressed in endocrine cells where they contribute to hormone secretion. Diverse chemical messengers, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), are known to affect the expression of Ca channels. Previous studies have shown that EGF increases Ca currents in GH3 pituitary cells by increasing the number of high voltage-activated (HVA) Ca channels at the cell membrane, which results in enhanced prolactin (PRL) secretion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00007.2020DOI Listing

Relative lipid oxidation associates directly with mitochondrial fusion phenotype and mitochondria-sarcoplasmic reticulum interactions in human skeletal muscle.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 5;318(6):E848-E855. Epub 2020 May 5.

Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Finis Terrae, Santiago, Chile.

Disturbances in skeletal muscle lipid oxidation might induce ectopic fat deposition and lipotoxicity. Nevertheless, the cellular mechanisms that regulate skeletal muscle lipid oxidation have not been fully determined. We aimed to determine whether there was an association between relative whole body lipid oxidation and mitochondrial size or mitochondria-sarcoplasmic reticulum interactions in the skeletal muscle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00025.2020DOI Listing

Identification of scavenger receptor BI as a potential screening candidate for congenital primary adrenal insufficiency in humans.

Authors:
Menno Hoekstra

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 5;319(1):E102-E104. Epub 2020 May 5.

Division of BioTherapeutics, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden University, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Glucocorticoids belong to the superfamily of steroid hormones that are synthesized from the common precursor cholesterol. Adrenal gland-derived glucocorticoids, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00069.2020DOI Listing

Impacts of rat hindlimb Fndc5/irisin overexpression on muscle and adipose tissue metabolism.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 5;318(6):E943-E955. Epub 2020 May 5.

Medical Research Council Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and Nottingham National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, United Kingdom.

Myokines, such as irisin, have been purported to exert physiological effects on skeletal muscle in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanistic role of in vivo fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (Fndc5)/irisin upregulation in muscle. Overexpression (OE) of Fndc5 in rat hindlimb muscle was achieved by in vivo electrotransfer, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00034.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311674PMC

Dynamic Glucose Disposal is Driven by Reduced Endogenous Glucose Production in Response to Voluntary Wheel Running: A Stable Isotope Approach.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge LA, United States.

To resolve both the systems level and molecular mechanisms responsible for exercise induced improvements in glucose tolerance, we sought to test the effect of voluntary wheel running exercise on postprandial glucose dynamics. We utilized a stable isotope labeled oral glucose tolerance test (SI-OGTT) incorporating complimentary deuterium glucose tracers at 1:1 ratio (2-H-glucose and 6-6 H-glucose; 2g/kg lean body mass) to distinguish between endogenous glucose production (EGP) and whole-body glucose disposal. SI-OGTT was performed in C57BL/6J mice after 8 weeks on a high fat diet (45% fat). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00450.2019DOI Listing

Melatonin ameliorates excessive PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy by enhancing SIRT1 expression in granulosa cells of PCOS.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 28;319(1):E91-E101. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Mitochondrial injury in granulosa cells is associated with the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the protective effects of melatonin against mitochondrial injury in the granulosa cells of PCOS remain unclear. In this study, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and mtDNA content, increased number of autophagosomes were found in the granulosa cells of PCOS patients and the dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated KGN cells, with decreased protein level of the autophagy substrate p62 and increased levels of the cellular autophagy markers Beclin 1 and LC3B-II, while the protein levels of PTEN-induced kinase-1 (PINK1) and Parkin were increased and the level of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was decreased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00006.2020DOI Listing

Decrease in SHP-1 enhances myometrium remodeling via FAK activation leading to labor.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 28;318(6):E930-E942. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Physiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Preterm birth is one of the most common complications during human pregnancy and is associated with a dramatic switch within the uterus from quiescence to contractility. However, the mechanisms underlying uterine remodeling are largely unknown. Protein kinases and phosphatases play critical roles in regulating the phosphorylation of proteins involved in the smooth muscle cell functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00068.2020DOI Listing

infection differentially alters smooth muscle function in mouse uterine horn and cervix.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 21;318(6):E981-E994. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

infection is a primary cause of reproductive tract diseases including infertility. Previous studies showed that this infection alters physiological activities in mouse oviducts. Whether this occurs in the uterus and cervix has never been investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00513.2019DOI Listing

Role of enhanced glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in inflammation in PTSD: insights from computational model for circadian-neuroendocrine-immune interactions.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 21;319(1):E48-E66. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Harvard John Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Although glucocorticoid resistance contributes to increased inflammation, individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity along with increased inflammation. It is not clear how inflammation coexists with a hyperresponsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To understand this better, we developed and analyzed an integrated mathematical model for the HPA axis and the immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00398.2019DOI Listing

Long-term hypercortisolism induces lipogenesis promoting palmitic acid accumulation and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue compared with HFD-induced obesity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 21;318(6):E995-E1003. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Group of Endocrine Disorders, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Glucocorticoids (GCs) play critical roles in adipose tissue metabolism. Here, we compare in a mouse model the effects of chronic glucocorticoid excess and diet-induced obesity on white adipose tissue mass and distribution, by focusing on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) fatty acid composition changes, the role of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and the inflammatory state. We used a noninvasive mouse model of hypercortisolism to compare GC-induced effects on adipose tissue with diet-induced obesity [high-fat diet (HFD) 45%] and control mice after 10 wk of treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00516.2019DOI Listing

RANKL induces beige adipocyte differentiation in preadipocytes.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 21;318(6):E866-E877. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Cell and Tissue Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Pathogenic Bioagents, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) (RANK), its ligand (RANKL), and the decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) are a triad of proteins that regulate bone metabolism, and serum OPG is considered a biomarker for cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes; however, the implications of OPG in adipose tissue metabolism remains elusive. In this study, we investigate RANK-RANKL-OPG signaling in white adipose tissue browning. Histological analysis of osteoprotegerin knockout (OPG-/-) mice showed subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) browning, resistance for high-fat diet-induced weight gain, and preserved glucose metabolism compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00397.2019DOI Listing
June 2020
3.785 Impact Factor

Dietary carbohydrates modulate metabolic and β-cell adaptation to high-fat diet-induced obesity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 21;318(6):E856-E865. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota.

Obesity is associated with several chronic comorbidities, one of which is type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The pathogenesis of obesity and T2DM is influenced by alterations in diet macronutrient composition, which regulate energy expenditure, metabolic function, glucose homeostasis, and pancreatic islet cell biology. Recent studies suggest that increased intake of dietary carbohydrates plays a previously underappreciated role in the promotion of obesity and consequent metabolic dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00539.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311673PMC