6,047 results match your criteria American Journal Of Physiology-cell Physiology[Journal]


Overexpressed microRNA-539-5p inhibits inflammatory response of neurons to impede the progression of cerebral ischemic injury by histone deacetylase 1.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Neurotraumatic Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130000, P.R. China.

Several microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) regulate cerebral ischemic injury outcomes; however, little is known about the role of miR-539-5p during cerebral ischemic injury or the post-ischemic state. Cerebral ischemic injury was modeled in vitro by exposing human cortical neurons to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and in vivo by occluding the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in a rat model. The effects of miR-539-5p, histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), and early growth response 2 (EGR2) on cerebral ischemia were investigated using gain- and loss-of-function experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00576.2019DOI Listing

A Tale of Two DUSP27s - Proposed Resolution for the Naming of Distinct Dual-Specificity Phosphatases.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

University of North Florida, Department of Biology, 1 UNF Drive, Jacksonville, Florida, 32224; University of North Florida, Department of Biology, 1 UNF Drive, Jacksonville, FL 32224, United States.

There are currently two dual specificity phosphatases that are referred to in the literature as DUSP27, which has the potential to cause significant confusion as work on both genes is still very preliminary. It is the aim of this Viewpoint to clarify the difference between these two genes and bring attention to this nomenclature redundancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00201.2020DOI Listing

miR-135b-dependent down-regulation of S100B promotes neural stem cell differentiation in a hypoxia/ischemia-induced cerebral palsy rat model.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Radiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guiyang 550003, P. R., China.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is frequently caused by brain injury during pregnancy, delivery or the immediate postnatal period. The differentiation potential of neural stem cell (NSC) makes them effective in restoring injured tissues and organs with minimal risks of side effects. In this study, we identified a novel microRNA-135b (miR-135b) in CP, and investigated its functional role in mediating NSC differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00481.2019DOI Listing

Glucose-induced duration-dependent genome-wide DNA methylation changes in human endothelial cells.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

DNA methylation, a critical epigenetic mechanism, plays an important role in governing gene expressions during biological processes such as aging, which is well known to be accelerated in hyperglycemia (diabetes). In the present study, we investigated the effects of glucose on whole-genome DNA methylation in small (HRECs) and large (HUVECs) vessel endothelial cell (EC) lines exposed to basal or high glucose-containing media for variable lengths of time. Using the Infinium EPIC array, we obtained 773,133 CpG sites (probes) for analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00011.2020DOI Listing

A brief history of organoids.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Stem Cell and Cancer Biology Lab, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London NW1 1AT, UK.

In vitro cell cultures are crucial research tools for modelling human development and diseases. While the conventional monolayer cell cultures have been widely used in the past, the lack of tissue architecture and complexity of such model fails to inform the true biological processes in vivo. Recent advances in the organoid technology have revolutionized the in vitro culture tools for biomedical research by creating powerful three-dimensional (3D) models to recapitulate the cellular heterogeneity, structure and functions of the primary tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00120.2020DOI Listing

Global Phosphotyrosinylated Protein Profile of Cell-Matrix Adhesion Complexes of Trabecular Meshwork Cells.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine. Durham, North Carolina. USA.

Dysregulation of the mechanical properties and cell adhesive interactions of trabecular meshwork (TM) are known to impair aqueous humor drainage and elevate intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients. The identity of regulatory mechanisms underlying TM mechanotransduction however, remains elusive. Here we analyzed the phosphotyrosine proteome of human TM cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion complexes which play a key role in sensing and transducing extracellular chemical and mechanical cues into intracellular activities, using a two-level affinity pull-down (phosphotyrosine antibody and titanium dioxide beads) method and mass spectrometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00537.2019DOI Listing

Thermal injury initiates pervasive fibrogenesis in skeletal muscle.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Athletic Training and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA; Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Shriners Hospitals for Children, Galveston, TX, USA.

Severe burn injury induces a myriad of deleterious effects to skeletal muscle, resulting in impaired function and delayed recovery. Following burn, catabolic signaling and myofiber atrophy are key fiber-intrinsic determinants of weakness; less well understood are alterations in the interstitial environment surrounding myofibers. Muscle quality, specifically alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM), modulates force transmission and strength. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00337.2019DOI Listing
May 2020
3.780 Impact Factor

Functional Modulation of Sarcolemmal K Channels by Atrial Natriuretic Peptide-Elicited Intracellular Signaling in Adult Rabbit Ventricular Cardiomyocytes.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Departments of Physiology and Membrane Biology; Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

ATP-sensitive potassium (K) channels couple cell metabolic status to membrane excitability and are crucial for stress adaptation and cytoprotection in the heart. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a cardiac peptide important for cardiovascular homeostasis, also exhibits cytoprotective features including protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injuries. However, how ANP modulates cardiac K channels is largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00409.2019DOI Listing

Recent advances in understanding cancer-associated fibroblasts in pancreatic cancer.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Department of Pharmacology, UT Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a devastating disease with a poor survival rate. It is resistant to therapy in part due to its unique tumor microenvironment, characterized by a desmoplastic reaction resulting in a dense stroma that constitutes a large fraction of the tumor volume. A major contributor to the desmoplastic reaction is cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00079.2020DOI Listing
May 2020
3.780 Impact Factor

Cardiac Tissue Remodeling in Healthy Aging: The Road to Pathology.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Innovation Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States.

This review aims to highlight the normal physiological remodeling that occurs in healthy aging hearts, including changes that occur in contractility, conduction, valve function, large and small coronary vessels and the extracellular matrix. These "normal" age-related changes serve as the foundation that supports decreased plasticity and limited ability for tissue remodeling during pathophysiological states, such as myocardial ischemia and heart failure. This review will identify populations at greater risk for poor tissue remodeling in advanced age along with current and future therapeutic strategies that may ameliorate dysfunctional tissue remodeling in aging hearts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00021.2020DOI Listing

RNA-binding protein HuR regulates translation of vitamin D receptor modulating rapid epithelial restitution after wounding.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Cell Biology Group, Department of Surgery, and Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine; Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, United States.

Homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium is tightly regulated by numerous extracellular and intracellular factors including vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is highly expressed in the intestinal epithelium and is implicated in many aspects of gut mucosal pathophysiology, but the exact mechanism that controls VDR expression remains largely unknown. The RNA-binding protein HuR regulates the stability and translation of target mRNAs and thus modulates various cellular processes and functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00009.2020DOI Listing

Advances in Aquaporin-2 trafficking mechanisms and their implications for treatment of water balance disorders.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus DK-8000, Denmark.

In mammals, conservation of body water is critical for survival and is dependent on the kidneys ability to minimize water loss in the urine during periods of water deprivation. The collecting duct water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) plays an essential role in this homeostatic response by facilitating water reabsorption along osmotic gradients. The ability to increase the levels of AQP2 in the apical plasma membrane following an increase in plasma osmolality is a rate-limiting step in water reabsorption, a process that is tightly regulated by the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00150.2020DOI Listing

TNFα and IL-17 Alkalinize Airway Surface Liquid through CFTR and Pendrin.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

The pH of airway surface liquid (ASL) is a key factor that determines respiratory host defense; ASL acidification impairs and alkalinization enhances key defense mechanisms. Under healthy conditions, airway epithelia secrete base (HCO) and acid (H) to control ASL pH (pH). Neutrophil-predominant inflammation is a hallmark of several airway diseases, and TNFα and IL-17 are key drivers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00112.2020DOI Listing

Extracellular adenosine enhances pulmonary artery vasa vasorum endothelium cell barrier function via the Gi/ELMO1/Rac1/PKA-dependent signaling mechanisms.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Departments of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

The vasa vasorum (VV), the microvascular network around large vessels, has been recognized as an important contributor to the pathological vascular remodeling in cardiovascular diseases. In animal models of pulmonary hypertension, we previously shown that chronic hypoxia profoundly increased pulmonary artery (PA) VV permeability, associated with infiltration of inflammatory and progenitor cells in the arterial wall, perivascular inflammation, and structural vascular remodeling. Extracellular adenosine was shown to exhibit a barrier-protective effect on VV endothelial cells (VVEC) via cAMP-independent mechanism, which involved adenosine A1 receptor-mediated activation of Gi-PI3K-Akt pathway and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00505.2019DOI Listing

Mechanisms of altered skeletal muscle action potentials in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Wright State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Dayton, OH, USA.

Huntington's disease (HD) patients suffer from progressive and debilitating motor dysfunction for which only palliative treatment is currently available. Previously, we discovered reduced skeletal muscle Cl channel (ClC-1) and inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir) currents in R6/2 HD transgenic mice. To further investigate the role of ClC-1 and Kir currents in HD skeletal muscle pathology, we measured the effect of reduced ClC-1 and Kir currents on action potential (AP) repetitive firing in R6/2 mice using two-electrode current-clamp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00153.2020DOI Listing

Divergent effects of genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Nox2 NADPH oxidase on insulin resistance related vascular damage.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Leeds Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.

Insulin resistance leads to excessive endothelial cell (EC) superoxide generation and accelerated atherosclerosis. The principal source of superoxide from the insulin-resistant endothelium is the Nox2 isoform of NADPH oxidase. Here we examine the therapeutic potential of Nox2 inhibition on: superoxide generation in saphenous vein EC (SVEC) from patients with advanced atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes; and on vascular function, vascular damage and lipid deposition in Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE) mice with EC specific insulin resistance (ESMIRO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00389.2019DOI Listing
May 2020
3.780 Impact Factor

Effect of Luminal Flow on Doming of mpkCCD Cells in a 3D Perfusable Kidney Cortical Collecting Duct Model.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, United States.

The cortical collecting duct (CCD) of the mammalian kidney plays a major role in the maintenance of total body electrolyte, acid/base and fluid homeostasis by tubular reabsorption and excretion. The mammalian CCD is heterogeneous, comprised of Na-absorbing principal cells (PCs) and acid-base transporting intercalated cells (ICs). Perturbations in luminal flow rate alter hydrodynamic forces to which these cells in the cylindrical tubules are exposed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00405.2019DOI Listing

CORRIGENDUM.

Authors:

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May;318(5):C1042-C1043

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.zh0-8723-corr.2020DOI Listing

Immobilization Leads to Alterations in Intracellular Phosphagen and Creatine Transporter Content in Human Skeletal Muscle.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK; MRC-ARUK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, University of Birmingham, UK.

The role of dysregulated intracellular creatine metabolism in disuse atrophy is unknown. In this study, skeletal muscle biopsy samples were obtained after 7-days of unilateral leg immobilization (IMMOB) and the non-immobilized control limb (CTRL) of 15 healthy males (23.1 ± 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00072.2020DOI Listing

Osteoclast-derived exosomal let-7a-5p targets Smad2 to promote the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China; Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China; State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

The invasion of osteoclasts into the cartilage via blood vessels advances the process of endochondral ossification, and dysregulation of dynamic intercellular interactions results in skeletal dysplasias. Although the regulation of osteoclasts by growth plate chondrocytes has been reported in detail, the effect of osteoclasts on chondrocytes remains to be determined. In this study, ATDC5 cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated into chondrocytes and treated with conditioned medium obtained from bone marrow macrophages differentiated to osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00039.2020DOI Listing

Premature satellite cell activation before injury accelerates myogenesis and disrupts neuromuscular junction maturation in regenerating muscle.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Satellite cell (SC) activation, mediated by nitric oxide (NO) is essential to myogenic repair, while myotube function requires innervation. Semaphorin (Sema)3A, a neuro-chemorepellent, is thought to regulate axon guidance to neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) during myotube differentiation. We tested whether "premature" SC activation (SC activation before injury) by a NO donor (isosorbide dinitrate) would disrupt early myogenesis and/or NMJs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00121.2020DOI Listing

Ex vivo use of cell-permeable succinate prodrug attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction in blood cells obtained from carbon monoxide poisoned individuals.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new pharmacological strategy using a first generation succinate prodrug, NV118, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from subjects with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and healthy controls. We obtained human blood cells from subjects with CO poisoning and healthy control subjects. Intact PBMCs from subjects in the CO and Control group were analyzed with high-resolution respirometry measured in pmol O × s × 10 PBMCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00539.2019DOI Listing

New aspects of hepatic endothelial cells in physiology and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 6;318(6):C1200-C1213. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Beadle Center, Lincoln, Nebraska.

The liver is the central metabolic hub for carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. It is composed of four major types of cells, including hepatocytes, endothelial cells (ECs), Kupffer cells, and stellate cells. Hepatic ECs are highly heterogeneous in both mice and humans, representing the second largest population of cells in liver. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00062.2020DOI Listing

Thrombospondin-1 in Maladaptive Aging Responses: A Concept Whose Time Has Come.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States.

Numerous age-dependent alterations at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ systems levels underlie the pathophysiology of aging. Herein, the focus is upon the secreted protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) as a promoter of aging and age-related diseases. TSP1 has several physiological functions in youth including promoting neural synapse formation, mediating responses to ischemic and genotoxic stress, minimizing hemorrhage, limiting angiogenesis, and supporting wound healing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00089.2020DOI Listing

LncRNA GAS5 attenuates fibroblast activation through inhibiting Smad3 signaling.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Surgery, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212; Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602; Department of Medical Pharmacology & Physiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, United States.

Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β)-induced fibroblast activation is a key pathological event during tissue fibrosis. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of versatile gene regulators participating in various cellular and molecular processes. However, the function of lncRNA in fibroblast activation is still poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00059.2020DOI Listing

Loss of calpains-1 and -2 prevents repair of plasma membrane scrape injuries, but not small pores, and induces a severe muscular dystrophy.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 29;318(6):C1226-C1237. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Kids Neuroscience Centre, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

The ubiquitous calpains, calpain-1 and -2, play important roles in Ca-dependent membrane repair. Mechanically active tissues like skeletal muscle are particularly reliant on mechanisms to repair and remodel membrane injury, such as those caused by eccentric damage. We demonstrate that calpain-1 and -2 are master effectors of Ca-dependent repair of mechanical plasma membrane scrape injuries, although they are dispensable for repair/removal of small wounds caused by pore-forming agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00408.2019DOI Listing

Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α regulates expression of the serotonin transporter in intestinal epithelial cells.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Apr 29. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

The serotonin transporter (SERT) functions to regulate the availability of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain and intestine. An intestine specific mRNA variant arising from a unique transcription start site and alternative promoter in the SERT gene has been identified (iSERT: spanning exon 1C). A decrease in SERT is implicated in several gut disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00477.2019DOI Listing
April 2020
3.780 Impact Factor

Extracellular vesicles as signaling mediators in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 29;318(6):C1189-C1199. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Science, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Diabetes mellitus type 2, a chronic metabolic disease, has globally increased in incidence and prevalence throughout the lifespan due to the rise in obesity and sedentary lifestyle. The end-organ cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects of diabetes mellitus result in significant morbidity and mortality that increases with age. Thus, it is crucial to fully understand how molecular mechanisms are influenced by diabetes mellitus and may influence the development of end-organ complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00536.2019DOI Listing

-How goblet cells respond to dry eye: adaptive and pathologic roles of voltage-gated calcium channels and P2X purinoceptors.

Authors:
Donald G Puro

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Apr 29. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Departments of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences and Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, United States.

Dry eye is a common sight-impairing painful disorder characterized by disruption of the pre-ocular tear film whose integrity is required for ~70% of the eye's refractive power. A universal feature of clinical dry eye is hyperosmolarity of the tears resulting from their accelerated evaporation due to dysfunction of tear- and oil-producing ocular glands. A key adaptive response to dryness/hyperosmolarity is release of tear-stabilizing mucin by conjunctival goblet cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00086.2020DOI Listing

TRIM59 Inhibits PPM1A through Ubiquitination and Activates TGF-β/Smad Signaling to Promote the Invasion of Ectopic Endometrial Stromal cells in Endometriosis.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Apr 29. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics,Yancheng Third People's Hospital, Yancheng, China, 224000.

To define the underlying molecular mechanism of TRIM59-induced invasion of ectopic endometrial stromal cells in endometriosis. Primary endometriosis ectopic endometrial stromal cells and normal endometrial cells were isolated and purified. Western blot was used to detect the expression of TRIM59, PPM1A, smad2/3 and p-smad2/3; Lentiviral vector-mediated TRIM59 interference and overexpression were established; CCK8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation and the transwell migration assay was used to detect cell invasion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00127.2019DOI Listing

Ca dependency of limb muscle fiber contractile mechanics in young and older adults.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 29;318(6):C1238-C1251. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Biological Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Age-induced declines in skeletal muscle contractile function have been attributed to multiple cellular factors, including lower peak force (P), decreased Ca sensitivity, and reduced shortening velocity (V). However, changes in these cellular properties with aging remain unresolved, especially in older women, and the effect of submaximal Ca on contractile function is unknown. Thus, we compared contractile properties of muscle fibers from 19 young (24 ± 3 yr; 8 women) and 21 older adults (77 ± 7 yr; 7 women) under maximal and submaximal Ca and assessed the abundance of three proteins thought to influence Ca sensitivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00575.2019DOI Listing
June 2020
3.780 Impact Factor

Cardiomyoblast caveolin expression: Effects of simulated diabetes, α-linolenic acid and cell signaling pathways.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Apr 29. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

School of Medical Science, Griffith University Gold Coast, Southport Q 4217, Australia.

Caveolins regulate myocardial substrate handling, survival signaling and stress-resistance, however control of expression is incompletely defined. We test how metabolic features of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and modulation of cell signaling, influence caveolins in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Cells were exposed to glucose (25 vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00499.2019DOI Listing

Traction and attraction: Haptotaxis substrates collagen and fibronectin interact with chemotaxis by HGF to regulate myoblast migration in a microfluidic device.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Apr 29. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Departments of Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada.

Cell migration is central to development, wound healing, tissue regeneration, and immunity. Despite extensive knowledge of muscle regeneration, myoblast migration during regeneration is not well understood. C2C12 mouse myoblast migration and morphology were investigated using a triple-docking polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic device in which cells moved under gravity-driven laminar flow on uniform (=) collagen (CN=), fibronectin (FN=), or opposing gradients (CN-FN or FN-CN). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00417.2019DOI Listing

A peroxidase mimetic protects skeletal muscle cells from peroxide challenge and stimulates insulin signaling.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 29;318(6):C1214-C1225. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri.

Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide have been implicated in causing metabolic dysfunction such as insulin resistance. Heme groups, either by themselves or when incorporated into proteins, have been shown to scavenge peroxide and demonstrate protective effects in various cell types. Thus, we hypothesized that a metalloporphyrin similar in structure to heme, Fe(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (FeTBAP), would be a peroxidase mimetic that could defend cells against oxidative stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00167.2019DOI Listing

starts a Theme of Reviews on "Tissue Remodeling: From Regeneration to Fibrosis".

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 22;318(6):C1045. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00152.2020DOI Listing

A common genetic variant in zinc transporter ZnT2 (Thr288Ser) is present in women with low milk volume and alters lysosome function and cell energetics.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 22;318(6):C1166-C1177. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Biomedical and Nutritional Sciences, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts.

Suboptimal lactation is a common, yet underappreciated cause for early cessation of breastfeeding. Molecular regulation of mammary gland function is critical to the process lactation; however, physiological factors underlying insufficient milk production are poorly understood. The zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT2 is critical for regulation of mammary gland development and maturation during puberty, lactation, and postlactation gland remodeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00383.2019DOI Listing

"The cellular and molecular basis of in vivo synaptic plasticity in rodents".

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland Private Bag 92019 Auckland, New Zealand.

Plasticity within the neuronal networks of the brain underlies the ability to learn and retain new information. The initial discovery of synaptic plasticity occurred by measuring synaptic strength in vivo, applying external stimulation and observing an increase in synaptic strength termed long term potentiation (LTP). Many of the molecular pathways involved in LTP and other forms of synaptic plasticity were subsequently uncovered in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00416.2019DOI Listing

Leucine improves α-amylase secretion through the general secretory signalling pathway in pancreatic acinar cells of the dairy calves.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which leucine impacts the secretion of pancreatic enzymes, especially amylase, by studying the proteomics profiles of pancreatic acinar (PA) cells from dairy cows. PA cells, the experimental model, were treated with four concentrations of leucine (0, 0.23, 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00396.2019DOI Listing

Depletion of resident muscle stem cells negatively impacts running volume, physical function, and muscle fiber hypertrophy in response to lifelong physical activity.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 22;318(6):C1178-C1188. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

To date, studies that have aimed to investigate the role of satellite cells during adult skeletal muscle adaptation and hypertrophy have utilized a nontranslational stimulus and/or have been performed over a relatively short time frame. Although it has been shown that satellite cell depletion throughout adulthood does not drive skeletal muscle loss in sedentary mice, it remains unknown how satellite cells participate in skeletal muscle adaptation to long-term physical activity. The current study was designed to determine whether reduced satellite cell content throughout adulthood would influence the transcriptome-wide response to physical activity and diminish the adaptive response of skeletal muscle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00090.2020DOI Listing

Epithelial transport in digestive diseases: mice, monolayers, and mechanisms.

Authors:
Kim E Barrett

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 15;318(6):C1136-C1143. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California.

The transport of electrolytes and fluid by the intestinal epithelium is critical in health to maintain appropriate levels of fluidity of the intestinal contents. The transport mechanisms that underlie this physiological process are also subject to derangement in various digestive disease states, such as diarrheal illnesses. This article summarizes the 2019 Hans Ussing Lecture of the Epithelial Transport Group of the American Physiological Society and discusses some pathways by which intestinal transport is dysregulated, particularly in the setting of infection with the diarrheal pathogen, , and in patients treated with small-molecule inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr-TKI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00015.2020DOI Listing

Isoform-specific Na,K-ATPase and membrane cholesterol remodeling in motor endplates in distinct mouse models of myodystrophy.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 15;318(5):C1030-C1041. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of General Physiology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Na,K-ATPase is a membrane transporter that is critically important for skeletal muscle function. Mdx and Bla/J mice are the experimental models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and dysferlinopathy that are known to differ in the molecular mechanism of the pathology. This study examines the function of α1- and α2-Na,K-ATPase isozymes in respiratory diaphragm and postural soleus muscles from mdx and Bla/J mice compared with control С57Bl/6 mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00453.2019DOI Listing

TRPV1 activation mitigates hypoxic injury in mouse cardiomyocytes by inducing autophagy through the AMPK signaling pathway.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 15;318(5):C1018-C1029. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns, and Combined Injury, Institute of Burn Research, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Autophagy is a highly conserved self-protection mechanism that plays a crucial role in cardiovascular diseases. Cardiomyocyte hypoxic injury promotes oxidative stress and pathological alterations in the heart, although the interplay between these effects remains elusive. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a nonselective cation channel that is activated in response to a variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00161.2019DOI Listing

TRPV1 activation stimulates NKCC1 and increases hydrostatic pressure in the mouse lens.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 15;318(5):C969-C980. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

The porcine lens response to a hyperosmotic stimulus involves an increase in the activity of an ion cotransporter sodium-potassium/two-chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1). Recent studies with agonists and antagonists pointed to a mechanism that appears to depend on activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channels. Here, we compare responses in lenses and cultured lens epithelium obtained from TRPV1 and wild type (WT) mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00391.2019DOI Listing

Wound healing and fibrosis: a contrasting role for periostin in skin and the oral mucosa.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 8;318(6):C1065-C1077. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Both skin and oral mucosa are characterized by the presence of keratinized epithelium in direct apposition to an underlying collagen-dense connective tissue. Despite significant overlap in structure and physiological function, skin and the oral mucosa exhibit significantly different healing profiles in response to injury. The oral mucosa has a propensity for rapid restoration of barrier function with minimal underlying fibrosis, but in contrast, skin is associated with slower healing and scar formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00035.2020DOI Listing

The septate junction protein Tetraspanin 2A is critical to the structure and function of Malpighian tubules in .

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 8;318(6):C1107-C1122. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Zoology/Developmental Biology, University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.

Tetraspanin-2A (Tsp2A) is an integral membrane protein of smooth septate junctions in . To elucidate its structural and functional roles in Malpighian tubules, we used the -GAL4/UAS system to selectively knock down in principal cells of the tubule. Tsp2A localizes to smooth septate junctions (sSJ) in Malpighian tubules in a complex shared with partner proteins Snakeskin (Ssk), Mesh, and Discs large (Dlg). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00061.2020DOI Listing

Role of oxygen in fetoplacental endothelial responses: hypoxia, physiological normoxia, or hyperoxia?

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 8;318(5):C943-C953. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Perinatal Research Laboratories, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

During pregnancy, placental vascular growth, which is essential for supporting the rapidly growing fetus, is associated with marked elevations in blood flow. These vascular changes take place under chronic physiological low O (less than 2-8% O in human; chronic physiological normoxia, CPN) throughout pregnancy. O level below CPN pertinent to the placenta results in placental hypoxia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00528.2019DOI Listing

Regulatory function of praja ring finger ubiquitin ligase 2 mediated by the axis in mouse hippocampal neuronal cells.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 8;318(6):C1123-C1135. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Center for Stem Cell and Translational Medicine, School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Praja2 (), a member of the growing family of mammalian RING E3 ubiquitin ligases, is reportedly involved in not only several types of cancer but also neurological diseases and disorders, but the genetic mechanism underlying the regulation of in the nervous system remains unclear. To study the cellular and molecular functions of in mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (MHNCs), we used gain- and loss-of-function manipulations of in HT-22 cells and tested their regulatory effects on three Alzheimer's disease (AD) genes and cell proliferation. The results revealed that the expression of AD markers, including amyloid beta precursor protein (), microtubule-associated protein tau (), and gamma-secretase activating protein (), could be inhibited by overexpression and activated by knockdown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00070.2019DOI Listing
June 2020
3.780 Impact Factor

Aquaporin-3 in the epidermis: more than skin deep.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 8;318(6):C1144-C1153. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

The skin is essential for terrestrial life. It is responsible for regulating water permeability and functions as a mechanical barrier that protects against environmental insults such as microbial infection, ultraviolet light, injury, and heat and cold, which could damage the cells of the body and compromise survival of the organism. This barrier is provided by the outer layer, the epidermis, which is composed predominantly of keratinocytes; keratinocytes undergo a program of differentiation to form the stratum corneum comprising the cornified squame "bricks" and lipid "mortar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00075.2020DOI Listing

Essential hypertension is associated with blunted smooth muscle cell vasodilator responsiveness and is reversed by 10-20-30 training in men.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 8;318(6):C1252-C1263. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Section of Integrative Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Essential hypertension is associated with impairments in vascular function and sympathetic nerve hyperactivity; however, the extent to which the lower limbs are affected remains unclear. We examined the leg vascular responsiveness to infusion of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and phenylephrine (PEP) in 10 hypertensive men [HYP: age 59.5 ± 9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00047.2020DOI Listing

Irradiation-induced senescence of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells aggravates osteogenic differentiation dysfunction via paracrine signaling.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 1;318(5):C1005-C1017. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Radiation Health, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The role of cellular senescence induced by radiation in bone loss has attracted much attention. As one of the common complications of anticancer radiotherapy, irradiation-induced bone deterioration is common and clinically significant, but the pathological mechanism has not been elucidated. This study was performed to explore the cellular senescence and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) induction of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) by irradiation and its role in osteogenic differentiation dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00520.2019DOI Listing