6,436 results match your criteria American Journal Of Physiology-Cell Physiology[Journal]


Ferroptosis at the crossroads of tumor-host interactions, metastasis, and therapy response.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States.

Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death characterized by the accumulation of lipid peroxides in an iron-dependent manner. Ferroptotic cell death is modulated by many metabolic pathways, such as pathways governing the metabolism of sugars, lipids, amino acids, and iron, as well as mitochondrial activity and redox homeostasis. Tumor metastasis and therapy resistance are the main obstacles to curing cancers. Read More

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Proteoglycans and Glycosaminoglycans in Central Nervous System Injury.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, United States.

The brain and spinal cord constitute the central nervous system (CNS), which when injured, can be exceedingly devastating. The mechanistic roles of proteoglycans (PGs) and their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains in such injuries have been extensively studied. CNS injury immediately alters endothelial and extracellular matrix (ECM) PGs and GAGs. Read More

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An increase in force after stretch of diaphragm fibers and myofibrils is accompanied by an increase in sarcomere length non-uniformities and Ca sensitivity.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Italy.

When muscle fibers from limb muscles are stretched while activated, the force increases to a steady-state level that is higher than that produced during isometric contractions at a corresponding sarcomere length, a phenomenon known as residual force enhancement (RFE). The mechanisms responsible for the RFE are an increased stiffness of titin molecules which may lead to an increased Ca sensitivity of the contractile apparatus,and the development of sarcomere length non-uniformities. RFE is not observed in cardiac muscles, which makes this phenomenon specific to certain preparations. Read More

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Post-Translational Modifications in GPCR Internalization.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Cardiology and Institute of Vascular Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Receptors Research, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides, Ministry of Health, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of membrane receptors that serve as the most important drug targets. Classically, GPCR internalization has been considered to lead to receptor desensitization. However, many studies over the past decade have reported that internalized membrane receptors can trigger distinct signal activation. Read More

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Mechanisms and mathematical modelling of ROS production by the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Centre for Systems Medicine, Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognised both as damaging molecules and intracellular signalling entities. In addition to its role in ATP generation, the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) constitutes a relevant source of mitochondrial ROS, in particular during pathological conditions. Mitochondrial ROS homeostasis depends on species- and site-dependent ROS production, their bioreactivity, diffusion, and scavenging. Read More

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DOCK2 contributes to pulmonary fibrosis by promoting lung fibroblast to myofibroblast transition.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Tyler, Texas, United States.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common chronic interstitial lung disease and is characterized by the progressive scarring of the lung. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays an essential role in IPF and drives fibroblast to myofibroblast transition (FMT). Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2) is known to regulate diverse immune functions by activating Rac and has been recently implicated in pleural fibrosis. Read More

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The Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype in Ovarian Cancer Dissemination.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology and UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Ovarian cancer is a highly aggressive disease with poor survival rates in part due to diagnosis after dissemination throughout the peritoneal cavity. It is well-known that inflammatory signals affect ovarian cancer dissemination. Inflammation is a hallmark of cellular senescence, a stable cell cycle arrest induced by a variety of stimuli including many of the therapies used to treat ovarian cancer patients. Read More

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Chaperone Mediated Autophagy Protects Cardiomyocytes Against Hypoxic-Cell Death.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota, United States.

Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a chaperone-dependent process of selective cytosolic protein turnover that targets specific proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Enhancing protein degradation mechanisms have been shown beneficial in multiple models of cardiac disease, including myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the causal role of CMA in cardiomyocyte injury and death is largely unknown. Read More

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Targeting Syndecan-1: New Opportunities in Cancer Therapy.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States.

Syndecan-1 (SDC1, CD138) is one of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans and is essential for maintaining normal cell morphology, interacting with extracellular and intracellular protein repertoire as well as mediating signaling transduction upon environmental stimuli. The critical role of SDC1 in promoting tumorigenesis and metastasis has been increasingly recognized in various cancer types, implying a promising potential of utilizing SDC1 as a novel target for cancer therapy. This review summarizes the current knowledge on SDC1 structure and functions, including its role in tumor biology. Read More

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Kir7.1 disease mutant T153I within the inner pore affects K+ conduction.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology Graduate Program, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, United States.

Inward-rectifier potassium channel 7.1 (Kir7.1) is present in polarized epithelium, including the RPE. Read More

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The glycosaminoglycan interactome 2.0.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Univ. Lyon, Université Lyon 1, ICBMS, Villeurbanne, France.

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex linear polysaccharides, which are covalently attached to core proteins (except for hyaluronan) to form proteoglycans. They play key roles in the organization of the extracellular matrix, and at the cell surface where they contribute to the regulation of cell signaling and of cell adhesion. To explore the mechanisms and pathways underlying their functions, we have generated an expanded dataset of 4290 interactions corresponding to 3464 unique GAG-binding proteins, four times more than the first version of the GAG interactome (Vallet and Ricard-Blum, 2021 J Histochem Cytochem 69:93-104). Read More

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Dopamine Receptor Signaling Regulates Fibrotic Activation of Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Mayo Clinic, Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Rochester, MN, United States.

Retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells play an important role in retinal fibrotic diseases such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The purpose of this study was to elucidate the involvement of dopamine receptor signaling in regulating the fibrotic activation of RPE cells. Dopamine receptor expression, the effect of dopamine on fibrotic activity, and dopamine production were measured in the human RPE cell line ARPE-19. Read More

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Key Amino Acids Alter Activity and Trafficking of a Well-conserved Olfactory Receptor.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

In this study, we elucidate factors that regulate the trafficking and activity of a well-conserved olfactory receptor (OR), Olfr558, and its human ortholog OR51E1. Results indicate that butyrate activates Olfr558/OR51E1 leading to the production of cAMP, and evokes Ca influx. We also find Golf increases cAMP production induced by Olfr558/OR51E1 activation but does not affect trafficking. Read More

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Sex differences in IL-10's anti-inflammatory function: Greater STAT3 activation and stronger inhibition of TNF-α production in male blood leukocytes ex vivo.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC, Canada.

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production in blood leukocytes - an effect mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation. To examine potential sex-based differences in IL-10's anti-inflammatory function, we treated whole blood from healthy males and females (n=16 each; age: 28±6 years; body mass index: 23.5±2. Read More

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The role of mitochondria in the pathophysiology and treatment of common metabolic diseases in humans.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German, Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Common metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. They frequently associate with insulin resistance and altered mitochondrial functionality. Insulin-responsive tissues can show changes in mitochondrial features such as oxidative capacity, mitochondrial content and turnover, which do not necessarily reflect abnormalities but rather adaption to a certain metabolic condition. Read More

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Bidirectional relationships between the gut microbiome and sexual traits.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Girona, Spain.

The human gut microbiota is known to be shaped by a variety of environmental factors (diet, drugs, geography and sanitation) and host intrinsic factors (age and sexual development). The differences in gut microbiota between sexes are minimal before adulthood and late adulthood, and marked during adulthood. For instance, consistent higher abundances of Akkermansia and Ruminococcus have been observed in adult women compared to men and most studies have found higher abundances of Prevotella and Fusobacterium (linked to a diet rich in animal proteins) in adult men compared to women. Read More

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Heat shock proteins in pulmonary fibrosis: pawns of cell homeostasis.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Idiopathic lung fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease that primarily affects the elderly. Up to date, the specific pathophysiology of IPF remains unknown. However, it is theorized to be caused by chronic repetitive injuries to the alveolar epithelium, eventually exhausting the stem cell capacity and activating pathological pathways. Read More

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Porcine Choroid Plexus-Riems cell line demonstrates altered polarization of transport proteins in comparison to the native epithelium.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Biology, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, IN, United States.

The choroid plexus epithelium (CPe) forms a barrier between the cerebral blood supply and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), establishing the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB). CSF is actively secreted by the CPe via tightly controlled processes involving multiple channels, transporters, and pumps. The importance of controlling CSF production and composition has been accentuated with a recent appreciation for the role of CSF in multiple disease states. Read More

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KATP channel trafficking.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Pathology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States.

Sarcolemmal/plasmalemmal ATP-sensitive K (K) channels have key roles in many cell types and tissues. Hundreds of studies have described how the K channel activity and ATP sensitivity can be regulated by changes in the cellular metabolic state, by receptor signaling pathways and by pharmacological interventions. These alterations in channel activity directly translate to alterations in cell or tissue function, that can range from modulating secretory responses, such as insulin release from pancreatic β-cells or neurotransmitters from neurons, to modulating contractile behavior of smooth muscle or cardiac cells to elicit alterations in blood flow or cardiac contractility. Read More

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Kv4.2 phosphorylation by PKA drives Kv4.2 - KChIP2 dissociation, leading to Kv4.2 out of lipid rafts and internalization.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Sympathetic regulation of the Kv4.2 transient outward potassium current is critical for the acute electrical and contractile response of the myocardium under physiological and pathological conditions. Previous studies have suggested that KChIP2, the key auxiliary subunit of Kv4 channels, is required for the sympathetic regulation of Kv4. Read More

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Epitranscriptomics in fibroblasts and fibrosis.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Center for RNA Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Copenhagen SV, Denmark.

Fibroblasts play an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms of several socially significant diseases, including pulmonary and cardiovascular fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, systemic sclerosis, progressive kidney disease. The alterations of the epitranscriptome, including more than 170 distinct post-transcriptional RNA modifications or editing events, justified their investigation as an important modulator of fibrosis. Recent development of high-throughput methods allows the identification of RNA modification sites and their mechanistic aspect in the fibrosis development. Read More

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Thermogenic T cells: A Cell Therapy for Obesity?

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Obesity is a widespread public health problem with profound medical consequences and its burden is increasing worldwide. Obesity causes significant morbidity and mortality and is associated with conditions including cardio-vascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Conventional treatment options are insufficient, or in the case of bariatric surgery, quite invasive. Read More

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Emerging proteoglycans and proteoglycan-targeted therapies in rheumatoid arthritis.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common auto-immune disease-causing inflammation of the joints and damage of the cartilage and bone. The pathogenesis of RA is characterized in many patients by the presence of antibodies against citrullinated proteins. In the joints, proteoglycans are key structural elements of extracellular matrix in the articular cartilage and synovium and are secreted as lubricants in the synovial fluid. Read More

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The role of biglycan in the healthy and thoracic aneurysmal aorta.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Center of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp and Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium.

The class I small leucine-rich proteoglycan biglycan is a crucial structural extracellular matrix component that interacts with a wide range of extracellular matrix molecules. In addition, biglycan is involved in sequestering growth factors such as TGF-β and BMPs and thereby regulating pathway activity. Biglycan consists of a 42-kDa core protein linked to two glycosaminoglycan side chains and both are involved in protein interactions. Read More

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Disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in disease and non-disease states in humans: mechanisms, prevention, and recovery strategies.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Exercise Metabolism Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Decreased skeletal muscle contractile activity (disuse) or unloading leads to muscle mass loss, also known as muscle atrophy. The balance between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB) is the primary determinant of skeletal muscle mass. A reduced mechanical load on skeletal muscle is one of the main external factors leading to muscle atrophy. Read More

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Granzyme B in Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction and Related Skin Diseases.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 Apr 20. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (ICORD), Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute (VCHRI), University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, BC, Canada.

The predominant function of the skin is to serve as a barrier - to protect against external insults and to prevent water loss. Junctional and structural proteins in the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the epidermis, are critical to the integrity of the epidermal barrier as it balances ongoing outward migration, differentiation, and desquamation of keratinocytes in the epidermis. As such, epidermal barrier function is highly susceptible to upsurges of proteolytic activity in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Read More

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Dynamics and physiological meaning of complexes between ion channels and integrin receptors: the case of Kv11.1.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 Apr 20. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine. University of Florence, Firenze, Italy.

The cellular functions are regulated by a complex interplay of diffuse and local signals. Experimental work in cell physiology has led to recognize that understanding a cell's dynamics requires a deep comprehension of local fluctuations of cytosolic regulators. Macromolecular complexes are major determinants of local signaling. Read More

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The role of hyaluronan synthesis and degradation in the critical respiratory illness COVID-19.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 Jun 20;322(6):C1037-C1046. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Molecular Medicine Program, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Hyaluronan (HA) is a polysaccharide found in all tissues as an integral component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that plays a central regulatory role in inflammation. In fact, HA matrices are increasingly considered as a barometer of inflammation. A number of proteins specifically recognize the HA structure and these interactions modify cell behavior and control the stability of the ECM. Read More

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UBR5 is a novel regulator of WNK1 stability.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 Apr 20. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Pharmacology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

The with no lysine (K) 1 (WNK1) protein kinase maintains cellular ion homeostasis in many tissues through actions on ion cotransporters and channels. Increased accumulation of WNK1 protein leads to pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 can be degraded via its adaptor-dependent recruitment to the Cullin3-RBX1 E3 ligase complex by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Read More

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Estradiol deficiency reduces the satellite cell pool by impairing cell cycle progression.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2022 Apr 20. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Divisions of Rehabilitation Science and Physical Therapy, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

The size of the satellite cell pool is reduced in estradiol (E2)-deficient female mice and humans. Here, we use a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches to identify mechanisms whereby E2 deficiency impairs satellite cell maintenance. By measuring satellite cell numbers in mice at several early time points post-ovariectomy (Ovx), we determine that satellite cell numbers decline by 33% between 10 and 14 days post-Ovx in tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles. Read More

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