3,086 results match your criteria American Journal Of Pharmaceutical Education[Journal]


Cultivating a Vibrant and Thriving Elective Curriculum in Pharmacy Schools.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7802

Wayne State University, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Detroit, Michigan.

Elective courses are required in Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) curricula in the United States, but they may receive less attention than required courses in the core curriculum. Elective courses can serve as a platform for innovation in, experimentation with, and implementation of high-impact educational practices. However, these benefits may not always be realized or maximized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223929PMC

Addressing Sexual and Gender Harassment in Pharmacy Education to Improve Provider Wellness and Patient Care.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7739

Palm Beach Atlantic University, West Palm Beach, Florida.

Research indicates widespread sexual harassment has not significantly decreased in health care over the last several decades. Attention focused on sexual harassment in the last few years has prompted a renewed conversation in health care about these complex issues and the unique challenges they present. Given the significant implications for individuals, organizations, and patient care, addressing harassment should be a priority. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223926PMC

A Community Service Organization Focused on the Arts to Develop Empathy in Pharmacy Students.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7723

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

To implement and assess pharmacy students' opinions of a new student organization that uses visual, linguistic, and performing arts to bring emotional support, joy, and healing to patients. Pro Mé, an on-campus, community-service organization was formed at the Appalachian College of Pharmacy for students with talent or background in the arts. Members organized performances and art events at local assisted living facilities, long-term care facilities, hospitals, mobile medical clinics, schools, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223931PMC

A Dentist, Pilot, and Pastry Chef Walk into a Bar…Why Teaching PPCP is Not Enough.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7704

University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

For both education and practice, the dissemination of the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioner's Patient Care Process for Pharmacists has heightened attention to the need for a defined care process for pharmacists. Yet, when one compares this framework with those described in other disciplines, what makes it specific to pharmacy? Graduates must establish their unique role in patient care management among the health care team. Therefore, it is essential that pharmacy educators prepare students to contribute uniquely and communicate articulately about those contributions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223927PMC

Creating a Film to Teach Health Professions Students the Importance of Interprofessional Collaboration.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7638

University at Buffalo, Office of the Vice President for Health Sciences, Buffalo, New York.

To produce, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of a film to develop the foundational knowledge and skills of health professions students and teach them the importance of interprofessional collaboration. An existing interprofessional case study about a Hispanic man suffering from multiple chronic health conditions and the impact his health had on his family served as the basis for the film. To ensure a high-quality production, faculty members partnered with a local theatre company to produce the film. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223936PMC

From Atoms, Molecules, and Numbers to Literature, Art, and Performance.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7636

I argue that the humanities have an important role in pharmacy education. I came to this view after believing the humanities to be useless and superfluous when I was in pharmacy school and during the earlier phases of my career. I eventually learned that the humanities can teach us a lot that the biomedical sciences can not, and that the humanities can expand on a lot of what the biomedical sciences do teach us. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223933PMC

An Artistic Active-Learning Approach to Teaching a Substance Use Disorder Elective Course.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7634

University of South Florida College of Pharmacy, Tampa, Florida.

To incorporate an artistic, multimedia approach to teaching within a substance use disorder (SUD) elective course to intellectually, visually, physically, and emotionally engage Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students in learning and applying clinical and legal SUD topics. Faculty members created a two credit-hour SUD elective course that required students to engage in visual, linguistic, and performing art forms, including acting, screenwriting, choreography, dancing, artwork, writing movie reviews, writing book reports, writing journal reflections, create-your-own-adventure storytelling, speech writing, examination writing, policy writing, and creative thinking in an escape room gaming environment to learn about SUD and related topics. Student learning and perception of the activities was evaluated using faculty-created analytic rubrics, pre- and post-intervention tests, student feedback, and student responses on standard course evaluations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223939PMC

Cultivating a Culture of Reflection Among Pharmacy Students Through Storytelling.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7633

University of Colorado, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, Colorado.

To hold a storytelling event and assess its effect on Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students' perspectives on and attitudes toward reflection. Story Slam, a four-hour storytelling competition, was incorporated into the spring semester of the first professional year of a PharmD program. The event featured short first-person stories told by faculty members as well as students. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223930PMC

A Music Assignment to Develop Pharmacy Students' Empathy Toward People with Opioid Use Disorder.

Authors:
Richard J Silvia

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7631

MCPHS University, School of Pharmacy, Boston, Massachusetts.

To determine the effectiveness of using music to assist pharmacy students in developing empathy toward patients with opioid use disorder. Students were given an extra credit assignment as part of an elective course in neuropsychiatry. Students were to listen to the autobiographical album, , about the life of rock music star Nikki Sixx and his struggles with heroin addiction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223934PMC

Using Photovoice to Encourage Reflection in Health Professions Students Completing a Short-term Experience in Global Health.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7630

University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Lexington, Kentucky.

To engage health professions students in a photo and caption sharing methodology to stimulate reflection and inculcate principles related to global health at a formative time in training. Undergraduate and graduate students from multiple colleges enrolled in a course that would prepare them for an in-country global health experience. As part of the course, participants took photos to illustrate one of three topics: global health ethics, interprofessional practice, or social determinants of health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223937PMC

Impact of a Film on Student Pharmacists' Views on Quality of Life and Aging.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7628

Mercer University College of Pharmacy, Atlanta, Georgia.

To assess the effectiveness of film in providing health and quality-of-life experiences of aging to student pharmacists. Third professional year student pharmacists enrolled in an elective course in geriatric pharmacy were shown a made-for-television movie, , which portrays elderly people experiencing health and quality-of-life issues. The student pharmacists were surveyed before and after viewing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223943PMC

An Objective Structured Clinical Examination to Assess Competency Acquired During an Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7625

University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy, Fort Worth, Texas.

To evaluate the use of an objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) to assess clinical competency acquired during an off-campus introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE). Third-year pharmacy students completed an IPPE in transitions of care and completed 24 experiential contact hours at one of 17 practice sites. Students were assessed using two OSCEs, the first occurring prior to beginning an off-site IPPE (pre-experience OSCE) and the second occurring after completion of the off-site IPPE (post-experience OSCE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223932PMC

Using Theater as an Educational Tool for Understanding Medication Experiences from the Patient Perspective.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7606

University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota.

To develop a play depicting patients' medication experiences and evaluate its usefulness as an educational tool for improving health care professionals' understanding of medication experiences from the patient perspective. An award-winning playwright was recruited to write the script, which was based on 2,178 written comments submitted by respondents to a national consumer survey on patients' medication experience and pharmacist roles. The resulting play, was presented during November 2016 in two Minnesota cities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223941PMC

An Exploratory Study Using Visual Thinking Strategies to Improve Undergraduate Students' Observational Skills.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7600

Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, School of Pharmacy, Edwardsville, Illinois.

To describe a teaching approach that incorporated visual thinking strategies (VTS) into an existing health humanities course and measure the effects on the observation skills of undergraduate health professions students. Visual thinking strategies were used to introduce students to a variety of health-related topics. Each week a facilitated 15-minute discussion was held about a work of art related to the day's topic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223938PMC

Comparing Photovoice to Traditional Reflection to Identify Student Learning on a Medical Mission Trip.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7599

North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota.

To compare the effectiveness of photovoice with traditional reflection as a methodology to identify student learning during an international advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Over seven years, seven cohorts of two to three pharmacy students completed an APPE in which they participated in a medical mission trip to Guatemala. Cohorts were assigned to use either photovoice or traditional reflection techniques to identify and document their learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223942PMC

Inter-Rater Reliability of Web-Based Calibrated Peer Review within a Pharmacy Curriculum.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7583

Purdue University College of Pharmacy, West Lafayette, Indiana.

To assess the inter-rater reliability of student evaluations submitted through a web-based calibrated peer review system versus faculty evaluations in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Two calibrated peer review assignments were integrated into two sequential pharmacotherapy-based courses in the first professional year of the PharmD curriculum. To assess the inter-rater reliability of student peer and self-evaluations compared to faculty evaluations, 50 student submissions from each assignment were randomly selected for faculty evaluation, using the same evaluation criteria used by students. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223940PMC

Assessing Self-Perceived Interprofessional Collaborative Competency on Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences Through Interprofessional Simulations.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7530

University of Kansas, School of Pharmacy, Lawrence, Kansas.

To implement and assess the impact of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students participating in a required interprofessional (IP) simulation during an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Fourth-year PharmD students completing APPEs were required to participate in one of three IP simulations during the 2016-2017 academic year to improve their interprofessional teamwork and collaboration skills. Pharmacy student self-perception of IP competence was measured by the Interprofessional Collaborative Competency Attainment Survey (ICCAS), administered in a retrospective pre-/post-test design. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223928PMC

Pharmacy Students' Ability to Identify the Steps of the Pharmacists' Patient Care Process During IPPE.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7453

University of Kentucky, College of Pharmacy, Lexington, Kentucky.

To determine the ability of first-year Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students to describe patient care activities performed by pharmacists and accurately associate those activities with the five core steps of the Pharmacists' Patient Care Process (PPCP). First-year student pharmacists completed introductory practice experiences at ambulatory and institutional pharmacies. Students' ability to describe activities that occurred in these settings and align them with the five core steps (collect, assess, plan, implement, and follow-up) of the PPCP were assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223944PMC

A Pilot Interprofessional Course on Substance Use Disorders to Improve Students' Empathy and Counseling Skills.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Apr;84(4):7415

Duke University, School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

To implement and assess the effectiveness of an interprofessional course designed to provide pharmacy and nursing students with opportunities to improve their understanding of substance use disorders (SUDs), assess their attitudes toward patients with SUDs, receive instruction and feedback on behavior change counseling, and engage in interprofessional education. The course consisted of four interactive class sessions that focused on empathy and recognition of personal bias, behavioral change counseling, and SUD recognition, screening, and treatment. Classes were taught by an interprofessional faculty member. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223935PMC

Immersive Research Experiences for High School Students Aimed at Promoting Diversity and Visibility in Pharmacy Education.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):ajpe7589

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Two challenges frequently faced by schools of pharmacy are the training of a workforce that reflects the racial and ethnic diversity of the populations they serve, as well as raising public awareness of the mission and impact of pharmacy schools. One underutilized strategy in addressing these challenges is directly engaging high school students, whose race and ethnicity more closely reflect the increasing diversity of the US population, in immersive research experiences at schools of pharmacy. Motivated by the multidisciplinary nature of pharmaceutical sciences that involve integration of various science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines, the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy created the Young Innovators Program (YIP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159016PMC

An Exploration of Pharmacy Education Researchers' Perceptions and Experiences Conducting Qualitative Research.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):ajpe7129

UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

To investigate pharmacy education researchers' experiences in conducting qualitative research and their perceptions of qualitative research in pharmacy education A phenomenological approach was used to conduct one-time, in-depth interviews with 19 participants from 12 schools and colleges of pharmacy. Interview transcripts were coded and themes were identified using a modified form of the Sort and Sift, Think and Shift method of data analysis. Faculty members were the largest subgroup in the sample, followed by graduate students, postdoctoral fellows/scholars, and residents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159005PMC

An Exploratory Analysis of PharmD Program Value Using the Tuition: Licensure Index.

Authors:
Heath Ford

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):847614

South College School of Pharmacy, Knoxville, Tennessee.

To assess the value of a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program using the Tuition: Licensure Index (TLI), a metric combining tuition and licensure pass rates. The TLI is a ratio of program tuition and licensure pass rates, where separate indices are derived for the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination or NAPLEX (ie, TLI-N) and the Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Examination (ie, TLI-M). The TLI can be further nuanced depending on use of in-state (ie, TLI-N and TLI-M) or out-of-state (ie, TLI-N and TLI-M) tuition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe847614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159006PMC

Developing Self-Directed Learners.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):847512

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

To discuss the meaning of self-directed learning, challenges with implementation, and strategies to overcome obstacles in educational settings. In this paper we define self-directed learning, differentiate it from similar terminology, and discuss the empirical evidence for its development and strategies for its use within higher education. Self-directed learning as a defined teaching pedagogy has been around since the 1960s and can be used in classroom and experiential settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe847512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159015PMC
March 2020
1.188 Impact Factor

American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2020: It Is All About People.

Authors:
Lucinda L Maine

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):8064

Executive Vice President and CEO, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Arlington, Virginia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159013PMC

Navigating the Unchartered Waters in the Time of COVID-19.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):8063

University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159014PMC

Is It Time for a Quality Rating System for Colleges of Pharmacy?

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):7700

University of Arizona, College of Pharmacy, Tucson, Arizona.

The quality of educational programs, including Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs, has largely escaped the societal trend towards public reporting. Recent criticisms of pharmacy academia by practitioners should prompt us to reexamine how the quality of pharmacy education is measured and reported to the public. In supporting greater transparency related to quality, important questions that should be addressed include: Is the current public reporting of quality indicators for pharmacy schools sufficient for determining the quality of education provided by a school? Can a quality rating system be developed that will not only provide a valid assessment of quality, but also be easy to interpret by potential applicants and employers? The intent of this commentary is to initiate a discussion centered around this issue and to encourage the development of a new measure of pharmacy school quality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159012PMC

The Impact of Pharmacy Student Participation in the White Coat Ceremony on Professionalization.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):7689

Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, New York.

To assess the impact of participation in a formal white coat ceremony on Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students' professionalization by analyzing students' reflective writing. First-year PharmD students participated in the college's white coat ceremony following orientation. During the Foundations of Pharmacy course in the first semester, students were instructed to reflect on and write about the impact the white coat ceremony had on them as a graded assignment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159004PMC

Impact of Student Pharmacists Teaching a Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support Class.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):7621

Mercer University, College of Pharmacy, Atlanta, Georgia.

To evaluate student pharmacists' knowledge of diabetes and self-perceptions of aptitude and confidence before and after teaching a diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) class. Students enrolled in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in ambulatory care were randomly assigned to the intervention group (taught a DSMES class) or control group (did not teach a DSMES class) between June 2016 to April 2018. Students self-assessed their aptitude and confidence using a 14-item pre- and post-intervention survey instrument. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159008PMC

Global Health Learning Outcomes in Pharmacy Students Completing International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):7586

University of Mississippi, School of Pharmacy, Jackson, Mississippi.

To examine the global health learning outcomes of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students from three US schools who participated in international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). A mixed-methods, prospective study was used to assess fourth-year PharmD students at three US pharmacy schools who participated in an international APPE during the 2017-2018 academic year and a matched cohort (control group) of PharmD students who did not participate in an international APPE. To evaluate students' self-perceived growth in the Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH) competencies, all students completed a 13-item retrospective pre-post instrument using a five-point Likert scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159007PMC

Co-Curriculum Implementation and Assessment in Accredited Doctor of Pharmacy Programs.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):7569

Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, New York.

To determine how accredited Doctor of Pharmacy programs implement and evaluate the co-curriculum requirement as mandated by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). A survey was administered to all ACPE-accredited pharmacy programs to collect information regarding how co-curriculum models were being implemented, including types of activities, structure, learning outcomes, oversight, and assessment. The frequency of responses to items were presented to describe the general features of co-curriculum models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159003PMC
March 2020
1.188 Impact Factor

Patterns of Stress, Coping and Health-Related Quality of Life in Doctor of Pharmacy Students.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):7547

University of California San Diego, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, La Jolla, California.

To examine perceived stress, coping strategies, and health-related quality of life in Doctor of Pharmacy students across the first three years (pre-clinical portion) of the curriculum. Three instruments, the Perceived Stress Scale, Brief COPE, and Short Form-36, were administered to students three times a year over a five-year period. Median annual scores were compared using Skillings-Mack tests and correlations were assessed using Spearman correlation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159002PMC

Comparing Empathy Levels in Doctor of Pharmacy Students and Exemplary Pharmacist Preceptors.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):7497

University of North Carolina, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Asheville, North Carolina.

To determine how student pharmacists' empathy compares to that of exemplary pharmacist preceptors. First- through third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students and nominated preceptors demonstrating a model level of empathy in patient care were invited to take the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) and answer demographic questions. A comparison of total JSE scores was made between students and preceptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159009PMC

Status of Pharmacy Ethics Education in Australia and New Zealand.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):7452

The University of Sydney, Sydney Pharmacy School, Sydney, Australia.

To explore models of teaching in, resources available to, and delivery of a standardized course in pharmacy ethics. An email invitation was sent to the educator responsible for teaching pharmacy ethics at each of 19 institutions in Australia and New Zealand. Over a six- to eight-week period, semi-structured interviews were conducted in person, by email, or by phone, and were audio-recorded where possible, transcribed verbatim, and entered into data analysis software. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159001PMC

Longitudinal Evaluation of the Healthy Living Assessment as an Experiential Learning Activity Provided On-Campus.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):7026

University of Reading, School of Pharmacy, Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom.

To implement and evaluate the effectiveness of healthy living assessments (HLA) conducted on campus by undergraduate pharmacy students. Because of a shortage of workplace-based placements for undergraduate pharmacy students, a program was developed for students to conduct HLAs on campus for volunteer patients. Pharmacy students underwent training and completed a competency assessment before being approved to conduct HLAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159011PMC

Pharmacy Students Teaching Prescription Writing and Nonprescription Product Selection to Medical Students.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 03;84(3):6972

University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, Illinois.

To measure the impact of an interprofessional education intervention in which pharmacy students provided education to medical students. In a required workshop, fourth-year pharmacy students taught second-year medical students the basics of prescription writing. In a subsequent selective education session, the pharmacy students led a case-based discussion on nonprescription drug use for third-year medical students on their family medicine rotation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159010PMC

Curricular Hoarding.

Authors:
Frank Romanelli

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):847714

University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Lexington, Kentucky.

As practice evolves and scientific advancements are achieved the natural inclination for educators and administrators is to add new content to existing curricula. Often pre-existing curricula that may be outdated or no longer relevant may go un-checked leading to excessive coursework and program completion times. Faculty may also have emotional or other attachments to certain topics or content and that may serve as an additional or independent barrier to removing extraneous material. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe847714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055401PMC
January 2020

Strategies, Ideas, and Lessons Learned While Engaging in SoTL Without Formal Training.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7702

Duquesne University, School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Most pharmacy faculty members are more confident in their foundation as research scientists or clinical pharmacists than with the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL). However, many wish to enter this rewarding field of scholarship in order to test pedagogical innovations, measure teaching effectiveness, and share success with the Academy. This commentary provides general advice for those who wish to explore SoTL but lack formal education and training in this area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055414PMC
January 2020

Report of the 2018-2019 Strategic Engagement Standing Committee.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7597

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Arlington, Virginia.

Strategic engagement is critical to the success of colleges and schools of pharmacy in expanding pharmacy and public health practice, meeting programmatic needs, and fulfilling institutional missions. The AACP 2019-2020 Strategic Engagement Committee was charged with exploring faculty leadership and development as they relate to strategic engagement, considering challenges and barriers to faculty participation and identifying successes in faculty engagement and opportunities for professional development. The committee reviewed literature and examples regarding strategic engagement across academic pharmacy, with strategic engagement understood as being part of the service mission of academic institutions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055409PMC
January 2020

A Conceptual Framework for Exploring the Experiences of Underrepresented Racial Minorities in Pharmacy School.

Authors:
Antonio A Bush

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7544

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

To explore the social and academic experiences of students identifying as underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) in a pharmacy school, how they made meaning of their experiences, and the strategic actions they took to navigate towards degree completion. Twenty students from a school of pharmacy within a research-intensive institution participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed through several rounds of coding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055416PMC
January 2020

Impact of Pharmacy Student Observation Versus Active Participation in an Interprofessional Simulation.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7492

State University of New York at Buffalo School of Nursing, Buffalo, New York.

To compare the change in pharmacy students' self-reported competence toward interprofessional collaboration between those that were active participants in or observers of an interprofessional simulation. Second- and third-year (P2 and P3) pharmacy students and senior nursing students participated in an interprofessional simulation. Third-year pharmacy students and senior nursing students were divided into teams of four (two from each profession) and were active participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055403PMC
January 2020

Changes in Pharmacy Students' Metacognition Through Self-Evaluation During Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7489

Wingate University, School of Pharmacy, Wingate, North Carolina.

To explore whether metacognition can be improved in Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students through routine self-assessment over a year-long advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sequence. Differences between self-assessment scores and preceptors' scores for three cohorts of pharmacy students between 2015 and 2018 were compared between the first, second, and third trimester to determine whether students more accurately evaluated their performance over time. The primary endpoint was change in the absolute difference between student and preceptor evaluation (rubric and composite scores) between trimesters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055412PMC
January 2020

Appropriateness of Term Limits for Administrative Appointments in Pharmacy Programs.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7462

University of North Texas Health Science Center College of Pharmacy, Fort Worth, Texas.

The appropriateness of term limits for administrative appointments is a subject of much discussion, not just within pharmacy programs, but in organizations of all types. The prospect of term limits for involves a wide variety of important organizational issues, including succession planning, institutional memory, strategic decision-making, and concepts regarding leadership styles overall. This paper examines both sides of the debate regarding the appropriateness of term limits for administrative appointments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055408PMC
January 2020

An Applied Improvisational Pharmacy Communication Workshop Implemented During Orientation for First-Year Pharmacy Students.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7250

The University of Texas at Austin, Moody College of Communication, Austin, Texas.

To deliver a brief, applied workshop in improvisational communication skills during the new student orientation for first-year Doctor of Pharmacy students and to assess students' perceptions about the experience. Communication instructors developed a two-hour communication "boot camp" based on established principles of clear, responsive, flexible communication. They taught core skills through interactive applied improvisational exercises and facilitated debriefings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055415PMC
January 2020

Exploring the Impact of Participating as Pharmacy Camp Counselors on Student Pharmacists' Professional Identity.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7128

Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn, Alabama.

To explore how participation as a pharmacy camp counselor impacted pharmacy students' professional identity and views on professionalism. A pharmacy camp was developed to introduce rising high school juniors and seniors to the pharmacy profession. First- and second-year student pharmacists were invited to serve as counselors and, afterward, to participate in a focus group to share their experiences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055400PMC
January 2020

Overview and Prospect of Autoethnography in Pharmacy Education and Practice.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7127

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

To provide an overview of autoethnography as a valuable qualitative methodology in the human and health sciences and to endorse its use to answer meaningful research questions in pharmacy education and assist with the preparation of person-centered pharmacists. Today, pharmacists must participate in the health care system as care providers rather than simply drug dispensers. The call for change, which began with the evolution of clinical pharmacy and continued with the introduction of pharmaceutical care practice in the 1990s, is still proving to be dramatic for the profession. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055405PMC
January 2020

Essential Attributes for the Community Pharmacist as Care Provider.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7125

University of Washington School of Pharmacy, Seattle, Washington.

To identify skills and attributes that pharmacy students need upon graduation if planning to pursue a career path as a community pharmacy practice care provider. In-depth interviews with community pharmacy stakeholders were conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Interview transcripts were thematically analyzed to identify the skills and attributes pharmacy students need upon graduation to be prepared to practice as a community pharmacy-based care provider. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055410PMC
January 2020

A Review of Strategies for Enhancing Clarity and Reader Accessibility of Qualitative Research Results.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7124

University of Washington School of Pharmacy, Seattle, Washington.

To characterize elements of the results section of qualitative research reports that make findings more accessible to readers. Two analytical methods were used for this review. First, published reviews and textbooks written by experts outlining how to evaluate qualitative research were retrieved and reviewed to identify common elements that enhance clarity of the results section. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055402PMC
January 2020

Applying Visual Research Methods in Pharmacy Education.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7123

University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

To explore the use of a qualitative visual research method, analysis of , to understand students' conceptions of their social and material worlds. The Lifenet View model and drawing exercise invites students to create a cognitive map of the self in social and material contexts. Ninety-five undergraduate students enrolled in an online undergraduate human development course created Lifenet drawings depicting their connections to people, places, and things at two points in time: the present and the distant future. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055413PMC
January 2020

Using Focus Groups to Explore Evolving Perceptions of Student Pharmacists' Curricular Experiences.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7122

University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio.

To explore student pharmacists' shared experiences as they transitioned through the first three years of a Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum, from dependent learners to autonomous contributors. The researchers used interpretive phenomenology to examine the lived experiences of student pharmacists. Previously gathered focus group data for 309 student pharmacists from the 2015-2016 academic year were explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055406PMC
January 2020

A Review of the Quality Indicators of Rigor in Qualitative Research.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 01;84(1):7120

Louisiana State University, School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Attributes of rigor and quality and suggested best practices for qualitative research design as they relate to the steps of designing, conducting, and reporting qualitative research in health professions educational scholarship are presented. A research question must be clear and focused and supported by a strong conceptual framework, both of which contribute to the selection of appropriate research methods that enhance trustworthiness and minimize researcher bias inherent in qualitative methodologies. Qualitative data collection and analyses are often modified through an iterative approach to answering the research question. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055404PMC
January 2020