396,792 results match your criteria American Journal Of Orthodontics And Dentofacial Orthopedics[Journal]


Increased Incidence of COVID-19 Infections Amongst Interpersonal Violence Patients.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 30;266:62-68. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Acute Care Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Objective: To investigate whether any specific acute care surgery patient populations are associated with a higher incidence of COVID-19 infection.

Background: Acute care providers may be exposed to an increased risk of contracting the COVID-19 infection since many patients present to the emergency department without complete screening measures. However, it is not known which patients present with the highest incidence. Read More

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Cardiovascular responses to putative chemoreceptor stimulation of embryonic common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) chronically incubated in hypoxia (10% O).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 May 10:110977. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #310559, Denton, TX 76203, United States of America. Electronic address:

Developmental hypoxia has been shown to result in significant changes in cardiovascular development of American alligators and common snapping turtles. These include similar effects on cardiac mass and aspects of cardiovascular function. However, given the distant phylogenetic relationship between crocodilians and chelonians, we hypothesized that snapping turtles would also exhibit differences in the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular regulation. Read More

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Advance Care Planning, Palliative Care, and End-of-life Care Interventions for Racial and Ethnic Underrepresented Groups: A Systematic Review.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing, NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing.

Context: Persons from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups experience disparities in access to and quality of palliative and end-of-life care.

Objectives: To summarize and evaluate existing palliative and end-of-life care interventions that aim to improve outcomes for racial and ethnic underrepresented populations in the United States.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature in the English language from four databases through January 2020. Read More

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Degradation of p53 by HPV16-E6 variants isolated from cervical cancer specimens of Moroccan women.

Gene 2021 May 10:145709. Epub 2021 May 10.

Biology and Medical Research Unit, National Centre for Energy, Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (CNESTEN), Rabat, Morocco. Electronic address:

Cervical cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in Moroccan women. The main etiological factor for developing cervical cancer is the persistent infection with HPV16. Genetic studies have reported the occurrence of amino acid variations within the E6 oncoprotein that promotes host cell transformation by targeting p53 for degradation. Read More

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Kidney-Related Research in the United States: A Position Statement From the National Kidney Foundation and the American Society of Nephrology.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA,; Departments of Public Health Science and Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL and Edward Hines VA Medical Center, Hines, IL. Electronic address:

Kidney disease is an important U.S. public health problem because it affects over 37 million Americans, and Medicare expenditures for patients with chronic kidney disease now alone exceed 130 billion dollars annually. Read More

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Interventions to Reduce Meat Consumption by Appealing to Animal Welfare: Meta-Analysis and Evidence-Based Recommendations.

Appetite 2021 May 10:105277. Epub 2021 May 10.

Stanford Solutions Science Lab, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University. Electronic address:

Reducing meat consumption may improve human health, curb environmental damage, and limit the large-scale suffering of animals reared in factory farms. Most attention to reducing consumption has focused on restructuring environments where foods are chosen or on making health or environmental appeals. However, psychological theory suggests that interventions appealing to animal welfare concerns might operate on distinct, potent pathways. Read More

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Safe resumption of elective surgery: a Latin American proposal.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Anesthesiologist Policlínica Las Mercedes, Chair Education Committee CLASA, Caracas, Venezuela.

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Racial and Ethnic Differences in Reconstructive Surgery for Apical Vaginal Prolapse.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Science, University of California San.

Background: There is limited literature identifying racial and ethnic health disparities among surgical modalities and outcomes in the field of urogynecology and specifically pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

Objective: To evaluate differences in surgical approach for apical vaginal prolapse and postoperative complications by race and ethnicity STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing surgical repair for apical vaginal prolapse between 2014 and 2017 using data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they underwent either a vaginal colpopexy or abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC). Read More

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An investment case for the prevention and management of rheumatic heart disease in the African Union 2021-30: a modelling study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Program in Global Noncommunicable Disease and Social Change, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Partners In Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Despite declines in deaths from rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Africa over the past 30 years, it remains a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality on the continent. We present an investment case for interventions to prevent and manage RHD in the African Union (AU).

Methods: We created a cohort state-transition model to estimate key outcomes in the disease process, including cases of pharyngitis from group A streptococcus, episodes of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), cases of RHD, heart failure, and deaths. Read More

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Does Burnout Exist in Academic Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in the United States?

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Associate Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine; Chief, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Information regarding burnout in academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) in the United States (US) does not exist. The purpose of this project was to answer the following question: "Does burnout exist in academic OMSs in the United States?"

Materials And Methods: A 15-question anonymous survey was created based on Expanded Physician Well-Being Index (WBI, MedEd Web Solutions). Survey was sent electronically to fellows of the American Academy of Craniomaxillofacial Surgeons (AACMS) consisting of demographics, professional obligations, wellness indicators (burnout, emotional hardening, depression, anxiety, fatigue, overwhelmed), and overall quality of life statements. Read More

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A comparative study of the NAART and WRAT4 Word Reading subtest to estimate reading level.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2021 May 13:1-6. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Social Work, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA.

Patients are often asked to fill out paperwork in medical settings, but varying reading levels can affect the ability to self-report. By screening for reading level, clinicians can prevent potential patient confusion, frustration, and embarrassment. Clinicians can also avoid problems leading to misdiagnosis and providing materials that patients will not understand. Read More

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National examination for medical residency admission: academic variables and performance among different schools.

Salud Publica Mex 2020 Dec 22;63(1, ene-feb):60-67. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Objective: To identify medical school characteristics associated with performance in a medical residency admission test.

Materials And Methods: Performance and selection rates according to type of medical school (Student´s t-test, Chi-squared test), accreditation status (Student´s t-test) and geographic regions (Anova) were analyzed from a database comprising 153 654 physicians who took the residency admission test Examen Nacional de Aspirantes a Residencias Médicas (ENARM) in the period 2014-2018.

Results: Performance was 62. Read More

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December 2020

Promoting Cultural Awareness, Professionalism, and Communication Skills in Medicine through Anatomy: The Deaf Culture Session.

Clin Anat 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

College of Education and Human Development, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia.

The anatomy curriculum is a place where professionalism can be learned and practiced, including training in cultural competence and communication skills for working with diverse populations. One population that has received little attention in terms of medical education are d/Deaf and hard of hearing patients, although there is much evidence to support health care disparities in this population. Several major contributing factors include differing views of deafness between medical professionals and those who are culturally Deaf, a lack of understanding of Deaf Culture and American Sign Language (ASL) by medical professionals, a lack of educational resources in ASL, and poor experiences in health care. Read More

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Prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. in the Respiratory Tract of Healthy North American Bison (Bison bison) and Comparison with Serum Antibody Status.

J Wildl Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Wildlife Livestock Disease Investigations Team, USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services, 4101 LaPorte Ave., Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA.

Mycoplasma bovis is a primary cause of respiratory and reproductive diseases in North American bison (Bison bison), with significant morbidity and mortality. The epidemiology of M. bovis in bison is poorly understood, hindering efforts to develop effective control measures. Read More

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Does perioperative respiratory event increase length of hospital stay and hospital cost in pediatric ambulatory surgery?

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251433. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand.

Objective: We examined the consequences of perioperative respiratory event (PRE) in terms of hospitalization and hospital cost in children who underwent ambulatory surgery.

Methods: This subgroup analysis of a prospective cohort study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02036021) was conducted in children aged between 1 month and 14 years who underwent ambulatory surgery between November 2012 and December 2013. Read More

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Gut microbiome differences among Mexican Americans with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251245. Epub 2021 May 13.

College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.

Purpose: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an urgent public health problem and disproportionately affects Mexican Americans. The gut microbiome contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetes; however, no studies have examined this association in Mexican-Americans. The objective of this study was to compare gut microbiome composition between Mexican-Americans with and without T2DM. Read More

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Common genetic variants associated with obesity in an African-American and Hispanic/Latino population.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250697. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Introduction: Over 35% of all adults in the world are currently obese and risk of obesity in racial or ethnic minority groups exist in the US, but the causes of these differences are not all known. As obesity is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, an improved understanding of risk factors across racial and ethnic groups may improve outcomes.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if susceptibility to obesity is associated with genetic variation in candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in African Americans and Hispanic/Latinos. Read More

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Outcomes and costs of publicly funded patient navigation interventions to enhance HIV care continuum outcomes in the United States: A before-and-after study.

PLoS Med 2021 May 13;18(5):e1003418. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Background: In the United States, patients with HIV face significant barriers to linkage to and retention in care which impede the necessary steps toward achieving the desired clinical outcome of viral suppression. Individual-level interventions, such as patient navigation, are evidence based, effective strategies for improving care engagement. In addition, use of surveillance and clinical data to identify patients who are not fully engaged in care may improve the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these programs. Read More

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Demographic and Social Factors Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination Initiation Among Adults Aged ≥65 Years - United States, December 14, 2020-April 10, 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 May 14;70(19):725-730. Epub 2021 May 14.

Compared with other age groups, older adults (defined here as persons aged ≥65 years) are at higher risk for COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality and have therefore been prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination (1,2). Ensuring access to vaccines for older adults has been a focus of federal, state, and local response efforts, and CDC has been monitoring vaccination coverage to identify and address disparities among subpopulations of older adults (2). Vaccine administration data submitted to CDC were analyzed to determine the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination initiation among adults aged ≥65 years by demographic characteristics and overall. Read More

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The Equivalence of the Test Response Function to the Maximum Likelihood Ability Estimate for the Dichotomous Rasch Model: A Proof.

Authors:
Ben Babcock

J Appl Meas 2020 ;21(3):256-259

Ben Babcock American Registry of Radiologic Technologists, 1255 Northland Dr., St. Paul, MN 55116, USA,

While several proofs exist that the number keyed (or number correct) score is a sufficient statistic to estimate person measure (or ability, beta) in the dichotomous Rasch model, there are few proofs about the direct mathematical link from beta to the number correct score. This manuscript proves that the estimation link going from score to beta is the test response function, which is the sum of the probabilities correct for all items given the difficulty (delta) values and beta. Read More

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January 2020

Population structure of a worldwide Phytophthora palmivora collection suggests lack of host specificity and reduced genetic diversity in South American and Caribbean.

Plant Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Michigan State University, Plant Pathology, 140 Plant Biology Lab, East Lansing, Michigan, United States, 48824;

Phytophthora palmivora (Butler) is a highly destructive plant pathogen that infects tropical hosts worldwide - many are economically important crops. Despite the broad host range and the wide distribution, the pathogen has displayed considerable variation in morphological characters, including virulence. However, the genetic variability at the global level was still unclear, preventing understanding of the center of origin and the potential disease transmission pathway(s). Read More

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The role of perceived thought control ability in the psychological functioning of Black American mothers.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):246-257

Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, University of Texas at Austin.

Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the extent to which perceived thought control ability (PTCA) promotes the psychological functioning of Black American mothers, as well as moderates the negative effects of key stressors faced by this population, including discrimination experiences, financial strain, and parenting stress.

Methods: An online survey was administered to 305 Black American mothers across the U.S. Read More

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January 2021

An investigation of coping in response to different race-related stressor experiences in school among racially diverse participants.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):181-192

Andrew Young Center for Global Leadership, Morehouse College.

The landmark Brown versus Board of Education decision led to the desegregation of public schools in the United States. Consequently, Black/African American, Latinx, Asian, and Native American (BALANA) students experienced multiple race-related stressors. Not surprisingly, BALANA students still report experiences with racial discrimination, exclusion, and harassment in public schools. Read More

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January 2021

Alcohol use and related consequences for monoracial and multiracial Native American/American Indian college students.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University.

Native American/American Indian (NA/AI) and Multiracial people (those who claim multiple racial identities) report notably high alcohol use compared to other racial groups in the United States. Nearly half of the NA/AI population is also Multiracial, yet NA/AI and Multiracial college students report different motivations for drinking alcohol. Therefore, it remains unclear if NA/AI individuals who are also Multiracial are at different risk for alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, and if there are distinct patterns of risk factors in these understudied populations. Read More

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Identifying and overcoming barriers to trauma screening in the primary care setting.

Fam Syst Health 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.

Underrecognition of trauma exposure and PTSD has a significant impact on psychiatric health, physical health, and health behaviors. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers and opportunities for trauma screening in primary care. Primary care physicians (PCPs) and their patients were interviewed about the acceptability of trauma screening and brief treatment in primary care. Read More

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White matter microstructure in trauma-exposed children: Associations with pubertal stage.

Dev Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Puberty represents a critical period in maturation during which major changes in neural architecture emerge; these changes are shaped, in part, by environmental experiences, including exposure to psychological trauma. However, little is known about how trauma exposure affects white matter microstructure across pubertal stages. This was the goal of the present cross-sectional study. Read More

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The Role of Clearinghouses in Promoting Transparent Research: A Methodological Study of Transparency Practices for Preventive Interventions.

Prev Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, Department of Social Policy & Intervention, Oxford University, Oxford, England.

Transparency of research methods is vital to science, though incentives are variable, with only some journals and funders adopting transparency policies. Clearinghouses are also important stakeholders; however, to date none have implemented formal procedures that facilitate transparent research. Using data from the longest standing clearinghouse, we examine transparency practices for preventive interventions to explore the role of online clearinghouses in incentivizing researchers to make their research more transparent. Read More

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Safety and Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Patients with Resectable Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review.

Target Oncol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Thoracic Surgery Department, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Panjiayuan Nanli No 17, Beijing, 100021, People's Republic of China.

Background: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for most new diagnoses of lung cancer, with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has transformed the treatment of metastatic and advanced NSCLC. For resectable NSCLC, while surgery is the cornerstone of standard treatment, a number of clinical trials of neoadjuvant immunotherapy have been conducted. Read More

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Genomic sequencing of a frog virus 3 strain from cultured American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) in Brazil.

Arch Virol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Frog virus 3 (FV3) was detected in cultured bullfrogs in Southeast Brazil. Phylodynamic analysis revealed recombination events in this strain that were nearly identical to those detected in North American and Brazilian FV3 strains. These data suggest that international trade of live bullfrogs has spread recombinant strains of FV3. Read More

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Natural variation in fecundity is correlated with species-wide levels of divergence in Caenorhabditis elegans.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.

Life history traits underlie the fitness of organisms and are under strong natural selection. A new mutation that positively impacts a life history trait will likely increase in frequency and become fixed in a population (e.g. Read More

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