13,295 results match your criteria American Journal Of Neuroradiology[Journal]


The Development of Subcortical Gray Matter Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis: One Size Does Not Fit All.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Advanced Biomedical SciencesUniversity "Federico II"Naples, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6698DOI Listing

Occam's Razor, Stroke and COVID-19.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Radiology UnitGuglielmo da Saliceto HospitalPiacenza, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6656DOI Listing

Reply.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Neuroscience InstituteCerebrovascular CenterAllegheny Health NetworkPittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6686DOI Listing

Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension: Atypical Radiologic Appearances, Imaging Mimickers, and Clinical Look-Alikes.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

and Departments of Radiology (J.C.B., D.K.K., F.E.D., C.M.C.)

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a condition characterized by low CSF volume secondary to leakage through a dural defect with no identifiable cause. Patients classically present with orthostatic headaches, but this symptom is not specific to spontaneous intracranial hypotension, and initial misdiagnosis is common. The most prominent features of spontaneous intracranial hypotension on intracranial MR imaging include "brain sag" and diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement, but these characteristics can be seen in several other conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6637DOI Listing

Association of Isolated Congenital Heart Disease with Fetal Brain Maturation.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Neurology (C.K.R.), Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging

Background And Purpose: Brain MRI of newborns with congenital heart disease show signs of immaturity relative to healthy controls. Our aim was to determine whether the semiquantitative fetal total maturation score can detect abnormalities in brain maturation in fetuses with congenital heart disease in the second and third trimesters.

Materials And Methods: We analyzed data from a prospective study of fetuses with and without congenital heart disease who underwent fetal MR imaging at 25-35 weeks' gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6635DOI Listing

Lower Lactate Levels and Lower Intracellular pH in Patients with -Mutant versus Wild-Type Gliomas.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

From the Departments of Neuroradiology (K.J.W., U.P., E.H.).

Background And Purpose: Preclinical evidence points toward a metabolic reprogramming in () mutated tumor cells with down-regulation of the expression of genes that encode for glycolytic metabolism. We noninvasively investigated lactate and Cr concentrations, as well as intracellular pH using H/phosphorus 31 (P) MR spectroscopy in a cohort of patients with gliomas.

Materials And Methods: Thirty prospectively enrolled, mostly untreated patients with gliomas met the spectral quality criteria (World Health Organization II [ = 7], III [ = 16], IV [ = 7]; -mutant [ = 23]; wild-type [ = 7]; 1p/19q codeletion [ = 9]). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6633DOI Listing

The Risk of Stroke and TIA in Nonstenotic Carotid Plaques: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

From the Departments of Clinical Neurosciences (N.S., M.M., J.M.O., M.G., M.A.).

Background: Severe carotid stenosis carries a high risk of stroke. However, the risk of stroke with nonstenotic carotid plaques (<50%) is increasingly recognized.

Purpose: We aimed to summarize the risk of TIA or stroke in patients with nonstenotic carotid plaques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6613DOI Listing

Reply.

Authors:
B A Fasen R M Kwee

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of RadiologyZuyderland Medical CenterHeerlen/Sittard/Geleen, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6700DOI Listing

Missed Medium-Vessel Occlusions on CT Angiography: Make It Easier . . . Easily!

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Departments of Clinical Neurosciences and RadiologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgary, Alberta, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6670DOI Listing

Parental Leave and Neuroradiology Fellowships.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

From the Division of Neuroradiology, the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background And Purpose: A uniform policy on parental leave in radiology training programs is lacking. Although previous publications have addressed the status of parental leave policy among radiology residency programs, the state of parental leave in radiology fellowships has not been addressed to date. Our aim was to determine the state of parental leave policies in American neuroradiology fellowship programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6648DOI Listing

Level of Evidence during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Making the Case for Case Series and Case Reports.

Authors:
I Ikuta

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Radiology & Biomedical ImagingYale University School of MedicineNew Haven, Connecticut.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6676DOI Listing

Heterogeneous Continuum of Cerebral and Cervicofacial Venous Malformations.

Authors:
S Manjila

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Skull Base and Cerebrovascular SurgeryDepartment of NeurosurgeryHartford Hospital, Hartford, ConnecticutMidState Medical Center, Meriden, ConnecticutThe Hospital of Central Connecticut, New Britain, Connecticut.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6694DOI Listing

Intraluminal Carotid Artery Thrombus in COVID-19: Another Danger of Cytokine Storm?

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Radiology (B.G., S.C.P., H.M.).

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a severe inflammatory response. Inflammation affects atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and promotes a thrombogenic environment. We report a series of 6 patients with COVID-19 with acute ischemic stroke due to intraluminal carotid artery thrombus presenting during an 8-day period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6674DOI Listing

Erratum.

Authors:

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6660DOI Listing

Acute Common Carotid Artery Bifurcation Thrombus: An Emerging Pattern of Acute Strokes in Patients with COVID-19?

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Radiology Division of NeuroradiologyWestchester Medical CenterValhalla, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6657DOI Listing

Initial Stroke Thrombectomy Experience in New York City during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

From the Department of Neurosurgery, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York.

New York City has become the global epicenter of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite a massive shift in health care resources, cerebrovascular disease continues to be a substantial burden. We review the first 10 patients undergoing thrombectomy following a series of governmental and institutional policy changes diverting resources to the care of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6652DOI Listing

Focal Leptomeningeal Disease with Perivascular Invasion in -Mutant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

From the Department of Radiation Oncology (A.D., F.Y.M., D.B.S.)

We report a previously undescribed pattern of brain metastases in patients with e-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and radiation therapy. These highly distinct lesions appear to spread focally within the leptomeninges, with invasion along the perivascular spaces (FLIP). The survival of patients with FLIP was significantly better compared with patients with classic leptomeningeal disease (median survival, 21 versus 3 months; = . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6640DOI Listing

Potentially Reversible and Recognizable Acute Encephalopathic Syndromes: Disease Categorization and MRI Appearances.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Radiology (A.M.M.), University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

"Encephalopathy" is a vague term that encompasses varying definitions, often with a nonspecific clinical presentation and numerous possible pathophysiologic causes. Hence, MR imaging plays a crucial role in the early diagnosis and treatment by identifying imaging patterns when there is limited clinical history in such patients with acute encephalopathy. The aim of this review was to aid in remembrance of etiologies of potentially reversible acute encephalopathic syndromes on MR imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6634DOI Listing

MRI Head Coil Malfunction Producing Artifacts Mimicking Malformation of Cortical Development in Pediatric Epilepsy Work-Up.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Diagnostic Imaging (X.-C.W.), Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

We recently observed a type of MR imaging artifact that consistently mimics an abnormal appearance of the cerebral cortex, leading to initial misinterpretation and repeat scans. The artifact is caused by malfunction of part of the multichannel phased array head coil and is manifested by irregularity of cortical surface and gray-white matter junctions. The presence of such an artifact can be confirmed by assessing the background noise of the MR images and checking the coil element status on the MR imaging operator console. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6639DOI Listing

Changes of Neurotransmitters in Youth with Internet and Smartphone Addiction: A Comparison with Healthy Controls and Changes after Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Siemens Healthcare (I.K.), Seoul, Korea.

Background And Purpose: Neurotransmitter changes in youth addicted to the Internet and smartphone were compared with normal controls and in subjects after cognitive behavioral therapy. In addition, the correlations between neurotransmitters and affective factors were investigated.

Materials And Methods: Nineteen young people with Internet and smartphone addiction and 19 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (male/female ratio, 9:10; mean age, 15. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6632DOI Listing

Pediatric Acute Toxic Leukoencephalopathy: Prediction of the Clinical Outcome by FLAIR and DWI for Various Etiologies.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

From the Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background And Purpose: Pediatric acute toxic leukoencephalopathy is a clinicoradiologic entity comprising various etiologies. This study aimed to identify the MR imaging appearance of pediatric acute toxic leukoencephalopathy from various etiologies and determine whether the etiology correlates with clinical outcome.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic records of patients with pediatric acute toxic leukoencephalopathy younger than 19 years of age who had MR imaging within <2 weeks of presentation, including DWI and FLAIR sequences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6624DOI Listing

In Vivo Evaluation of White Matter Abnormalities in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Using DTI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology (M.K., J.S.)

Background And Purpose: Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness and prominent nonmotor manifestations, such as a low intelligence quotient and neuropsychiatric disturbance. We investigated WM integrity in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using DTI.

Materials And Methods: Fractional anisotropy and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (DTI measures) were used to assess WM microstructural integrity along with neuropsychological evaluation in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy ( = 60) and controls ( = 40). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6604DOI Listing

Headache and Neuroimaging: Why We Continue to Do It.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Radiology (A.E.F.), Division of Neuroradiology/ENT, Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The appropriate imaging of patients with headache presents a number of important and vexing challenges for clinicians. Despite a number of guidelines and studies demonstrating a lack of cost-effectiveness, clinicians continue to image patients with chronic nonfocal headaches, and the trend toward imaging is increasing. The reasons are complex and include the fear of missing a clinically significant lesion and litigation, habitual and standard of care practices, lack of tort reform, regulatory penalties and potential impact on one's professional reputation, patient pressures, and financial motivation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6591DOI Listing

COVID-19 Is an Independent Risk Factor for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

From the Departments of Diagnostic, Molecular and Interventional Radiology (P.B., J.S., S.K., B.R., B.N.D., K.M., J.Y., A.A., D.L., A.H.D.).

Background And Purpose: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an active worldwide pandemic with diverse complications. Stroke as a presentation has not been strongly associated with COVID-19. The authors aimed to retrospectively review a link between COVID-19 and acute stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6650DOI Listing

Variable Refocusing Flip Angle Single-Shot Imaging for Sedation-Free Fast Brain MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Radiology (T.M.C., U.Y., S.S.V., K.W.Y.), Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California

Background And Purpose: Conventional single-shot FSE commonly used for fast MRI may be suboptimal for brain evaluation due to poor image contrast, SNR, or image blurring. We investigated the clinical performance of variable refocusing flip angle single-shot FSE, a variation of single-shot FSE with lower radiofrequency energy deposition and potentially faster acquisition time, as an alternative approach to fast brain MR imaging.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively compared half-Fourier single-shot FSE with half- and full-Fourier variable refocusing flip angle single-shot FSE in 30 children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6616DOI Listing

Cervicofacial Venous Malformations Are Associated with Intracranial Developmental Venous Anomalies and Dural Venous Sinus Abnormalities.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

From the Departments of Radiology (W.B., I.T.M., V.M.S., J.B.G.).

Background And Purpose: Prior studies have suggested an association between the presence of cervicofacial venous malformations and intracranial developmental venous anomalies. We reviewed our institutional cohort of patients with cervicofacial venous malformations and examined the spectrum of intracranial venous anomalies, including developmental venous anomalies, cavernous malformations, and dural venous sinus abnormalities.

Materials And Methods: Consecutive patients who presented to our institution with cervicofacial venous malformations and underwent postcontrast MR imaging were studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6617DOI Listing

Residual Flow Inside the Woven EndoBridge Device at Follow-Up: Potential Predictors of the Bicêtre Occlusion Scale Score 1 Phenomenon.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

From the Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: The Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device is an established technique for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Occasionally, persistent opacification inside the WEB lumen can be observed at follow-up (previously described as Bicêtre Occlusion Scale Score 1). We evaluated potential risk factors of this phenomenon, hypothesizing that initial deviation of the WEB device from the aneurysm axis, size of the aneurysmal neck surface, or inappropriate WEB sizing correlates with Bicêtre Occlusion Scale Score 1 findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6605DOI Listing

High Spatiotemporal Resolution 4D Flow MRI of Intracranial Aneurysms at 7T in 10 Minutes.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

From the Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (L.M.G., E.S.P., P.v.O., A.J.N.).

Background And Purpose: Patients with intracranial aneurysms may benefit from 4D flow MR imaging because the derived wall shear stress is considered a useful marker for risk assessment and growth of aneurysms. However, long scan times limit the clinical implementation of 4D flow MR imaging. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether highly accelerated, high resolution, 4D flow MR imaging at 7T provides reliable quantitative blood flow values in intracranial arteries and aneurysms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6603DOI Listing

Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma in Infants ≤10 kg: 74 Treated Eyes with 222 IAC Sessions.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

From the Department of Neurosurgery (A.S., J.H.W., V.X., K.S., M.P.B., S.D., S.R., S.T., P.J.), Thomas Jefferson University and Jefferson Hospital for Neuroscience, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Background And Purpose: Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma has dramatically altered the natural history of the disease. The remarkable outcomes associated with a high safety profile have pushed the envelope to offer treatment for patients weighing ≤10 kg. The purpose was to determine the efficacy and safety of IAC infusions performed in infants weighing ≤10 kg with intraocular retinoblastoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6590DOI Listing

Depth-of-Fissure Cerebellar Infarcts in Adults.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of RadiologyUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrecht, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6626DOI Listing

Reply.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Development and Genetic Medicine University of Washington and Seattle Children's HospitalSeattle, Washington.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6673DOI Listing

Anosmia in COVID-19 Associated with Injury to the Olfactory Bulbs Evident on MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

From the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (M.F.V.V.A., M.C.L., M.M.V.), Recife, Brazil.

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have symptoms of anosmia or partial loss of the sense of smell, often accompanied by changes in taste. We report 5 cases (3 with anosmia) of adult patients with COVID-19 in whom injury to the olfactory bulbs was interpreted as microbleeding or abnormal enhancement on MR imaging. The patients had persistent headache ( = 4) or motor deficits ( = 1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6675DOI Listing

Leukoencephalopathy Associated with Severe COVID-19 Infection: Sequela of Hypoxemia?

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

From the Departments of Radiology (M.L., K.B., M.D.L., W.A.M., Jr, S.P.R.).

There is increasing evidence to suggest that complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection are not only limited to the pulmonary system but can also involve the central nervous system. Here, we report 6 critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection and neuroimaging findings of leukoencephalopathy. While these findings are nonspecific, we postulate that they may be a delayed response to the profound hypoxemia the patients experienced due to the infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6671DOI Listing

COVID-19-Associated Bifacial Weakness with Paresthesia Subtype of Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Radiology and Imaging Sciences (A.E.C., N.A.K.)

We report a case of bifacial weakness with paresthesia, a recognized Guillain-Barré syndrome subtype characterized by rapidly progressive facial weakness and paresthesia without ataxia or other cranial neuropathies, which was temporally associated with antecedent coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). This case highlights a potentially novel but critically important neurologic association of the COVID-19 disease process. Herein, we detail the clinicoradiologic work-up and diagnosis, clinical course, and multidisciplinary medical management of this patient with COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6654DOI Listing

Value of Advanced MR Imaging Techniques in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

Authors:
S Hähnel

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Neuroradiology University of Heidelberg Medical Center Heidelberg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6629DOI Listing

CT Fluid-Blood Levels in COVID-19 Intracranial Hemorrhage.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience InstituteDuke-NUS Graduate Medical School, SingaporeSingapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6672DOI Listing

COVID-19 Neurologic Complication with CNS Vasculitis-Like Pattern.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Neuroradiology (N.D., F.D., D.M., J.-M.C.), University Hospital of Amiens, Amiens, France.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which spreads rapidly from person to person and manifests in most symptomatic patients as a respiratory illness, similar to prior SARS viruses. Neurologic manifestations of COVID-19 are uncommon; those so far reported include encephalopathy, stroke from large-vessel occlusion, and polyneuropathy. We report a unique neurologic complication of COVID-19 in a patient who had extensive cerebral small-vessel ischemic lesions resembling cerebral vasculitis in a characteristic combined imaging pattern of ischemia, hemorrhage, and punctuate postcontrast enhancement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6651DOI Listing

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Associated with COVID-19.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

From the Departments of Radiology (D.D.C., E.R., M.S., S.D., R.J., A.R., P.K.N.).

Despite the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) being more frequently related to acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute cardiac and renal injuries, thromboembolic events have been increasingly reported. We report a unique series of young patients with COVID-19 presenting with cerebral venous system thrombosis. Three patients younger than 41 years of age with confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) infection had neurologic findings related to cerebral venous thrombosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6644DOI Listing

Atypical Deep Cerebral Vein Thrombosis with Hemorrhagic Venous Infarction in a Patient Positive for COVID-19.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

From the Service de Neuroradiologie (L.C., N.S.).

There is growing evidence that Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a neurotropic and neuroinvasive potential. In particular, neurologic complications associated with the infection by SARS-CoV-2 include strokes that may result from a dysregulated inflammatory response to the infection. We report an atypical deep cerebral vein thrombosis complicated with hemorrhagic venous infarction in a patient positive for SARS-CoV-2 with no risk factors for thrombosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6642DOI Listing

Comparison of Intraoperative Sonography and Histopathologic Evaluation of Tumor Thickness and Depth of Invasion in Oral Tongue Cancer: A Pilot Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Radiology (H.D.C., A.F.J.)

Background And Purpose: For primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue, accurate assessment of tumor thickness and depth of invasion is critical for staging and operative management. Currently, typical imaging modalities used for preoperative staging are CT and MR imaging. Intraoperatively, CT or MR imaging cannot provide real-time guidance, and assessment by manual palpation is limited in precision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6625DOI Listing

Combination of Imaging Features and Clinical Biomarkers Predicts Positive Pathology and Microbiology Findings Suggestive of Spondylodiscitis in Patients Undergoing Image-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

From the Department of Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Background And Purpose: Pathology and microbiology results for suspected spondylodiscitis on MR imaging are often negative in up to 70% of cases. We aimed to predict whether MR imaging features will add diagnostic value when combined with clinical biomarkers to predict positive findings of spondylodiscitis on pathology and/or microbiology from percutaneous biopsy.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective single-center institutional review board-approved study, patients with radiologically suspected spondylodiscitis and having undergone percutaneous biopsies were assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6623DOI Listing

Implications of the Revisions and Revaluation of Office/Outpatient Evaluation and Management Codes for Neuroradiology Reimbursement.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Neuroradiology (M.M.C.), Division of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

In the 2020 Final Rule, the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services adopted a new coding structure and accepted the substantial increase in valuation for office/outpatient Evaluation and Management codes set to begin in 2021. Given budget neutrality requirements, the projected increase in reimbursement will require a reduction in the conversion factor to offset such increases. The aim is to inform neuroradiologists the impact of these proposed changes on reimbursement and the profession. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6619DOI Listing

A Hemodynamic Mechanism Correlating with the Initiation of MCA Bifurcation Aneurysms.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

From the Departments of Neurosurgery (Z.H., M.Z., F.H.C., W.G.T.)

Background And Purpose: Previous studies have reported that MCA bifurcation aneurysms usually emerge on inclined bifurcations; however, the reason is unclear. We designed this study to explore hemodynamic mechanisms that correlate with the initiation of MCA bifurcation aneurysms.

Materials And Methods: Fifty-four patients with unilateral MCA bifurcation aneurysms and 54 control patients were enrolled in this study after propensity score matching, and their clinical and CTA data were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6615DOI Listing

Posttreatment Imaging in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer without Clinical Evidence of Recurrence: Should Surveillance Imaging Extend Beyond 6 Months?

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

From the Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences (A.G., K.B., X.W., A.H.A.)

Background And Purpose: Early detection of residual or recurrent disease is important for effective salvage treatment in patients with head and neck cancer. Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines do not recommend standard surveillance imaging beyond 6 months unless there are worrisome signs or symptoms on clinical examination and offer vague guidelines for imaging of high-risk patients beyond that timeframe. Our goal was to evaluate the frequency of clinically occult recurrence in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with positive imaging findings (Neck Imaging Reporting and Data Systems scores of 2-4), especially after 6 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6614DOI Listing

Spine MRI in Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension for CSF Leak Detection: Nonsuperiority of Intrathecal Gadolinium to Heavily T2-Weighted Fat-Saturated Sequences.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

From the University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (T.D., A.W., P.S.B., L.G., G.P., P.J.M., J.K., P.M., J.G., E.I.P.)

Background And Purpose: Spine MR imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnostic work-up of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced spine MR imaging and intrathecal gadolinium-enhanced spine MR imaging for identification and localization of CSF leaks in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study of patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension examined from February 2013 to October 2017 was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6592DOI Listing

Brain Cortical Structure and Executive Function in Children May Be Influenced by Parental Choices of Infant Diets.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

From the Departments of Radiology (T.L., X.O.)

Background And Purpose: While it is known that breastfeeding promotes healthy brain development in children, the potential effects of formulas substantially differing in composition (ie, milk-based versus soy-based) during infancy on brain development are unclear.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-one 8-year-old children who were predominantly breastfed, milk formula fed, or soy formula fed during infancy were recruited for an MR imaging examination of the brain and a Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function assessment (completed via a questionnaire to the parents). Brain cortical features measured from MR imaging such as cortical thickness and surface area were extracted and compared among groups and correlated with Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function test scores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6601DOI Listing

Evolving Neuroimaging Findings during COVID-19.

Authors:
R Jain

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

From the Departments of Radiology and Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6658DOI Listing

Neurovascular Complications in COVID-19 Infection: Case Series.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Neuroradiology Section (R.W., M.C.), Department of Radiology, The University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

We present a series of 10 hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus 2019 infections who developed severe neurovascular complications and discuss the possible reasons for these findings and their relationship to the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6655DOI Listing

Neuroimaging Findings in Patients with COVID-19.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

From the Division of Neuroradiology (P.N., T.K.), Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Little is known about the neurologic sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assessed neuroimaging findings in 4 patients positive for COVID-19. All had abnormal mental status, deranged coagulation parameters, and markedly elevated D-dimer levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6630DOI Listing

Neurologic Involvement in COVID-19: Cause or Coincidence? A Neuroimaging Perspective.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

From the Radiology Department (A.P.-E., P.N.-B., C.M., A.C., M.C., N.C.), Institut de Diagnòstic per la Imatge.

The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has shaken hospitals worldwide. Some authors suggest that neurologic involvement could further complicate the disease. This descriptive study is a cross-sectional review of 103 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who underwent neuroimaging (of a total of 2249 patients with COVID-19 in our center). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6627DOI Listing