12,836 results match your criteria American Journal Of Law & Medicine[Journal]


Strange Bedfellows: Native American Tribes, Big Pharma, and the Legitimacy of Their Alliance.

Authors:
Daniel C Kennedy

Duke Law J 2019 Apr;68(7):1433-68

Lost in the cacophony surrounding the debate about high drug prices is the fundamental principle that pharmaceutical innovation will not occur without the prospect of outsized returns enabled through market exclusivity. Biopharmaceutical patents are currently under siege, subject to challenge both in inter partes review ("IPR") proceedings and in Hatch-Waxman actions. These twin assaults threaten to eliminate the incentives necessary for biotechnological innovation--particularly for discoveries made upstream in the innovation pipeline--thus imperiling the development of new drug therapies. Read More

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Accuracy of Valuations of Surgical Procedures in the Medicare Fee Schedule.

N Engl J Med 2019 04;380(16):1546-1554

From the Center for Health Policy-Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research, Stanford University School of Medicine (D.C.C., D.M.S.), and Stanford Law School (D.M.S.), Stanford, the Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto (D.C.C.), and the Department of Economics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles (J.H.) - all in California.

Background: The Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) of the American Medical Association plays a central role in determining physician reimbursement. The RUC's role and performance have been criticized but subjected to little empirical evaluation.

Methods: We analyzed the accuracy of valuations of 293 common surgical procedures from 2005 through 2015. Read More

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http://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMsa1807379
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa1807379DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Breastfeeding with HIV: An Evidence-Based Case for New Policy.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):152-160

Marielle S. Gross, M.D., M.B.E., is a Hecht-Levi postdoctoral research fellow in the Berman Institute of Bioethics at Johns Hopkins University where she recently completed residency training in Gynecology & Obstetrics. She attended medical school at the University of Florida, and previously completed degrees in Philosophy, Jewish Ethics and Bioethics at Columbia University, the Jewish Theological Seminary, and New York University, respectively. Holly A. Taylor, Ph.D., M.P.H., is a Core Faculty member of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics and Associate Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management (HPM), Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Taylor received her B.A. from Stanford University, her M.P.H. from the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan and her Ph.D. in health policy with a concentration in bioethics from the Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University. Cecilia Tomori, Ph.D., studied biology and education at Swarthmore College and obtained her Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Michigan in 2011. She completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and served as faculty there between 2013-2017. Jenell S. Coleman, M.D., M.P.H., is associate professor in the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics with a joint appointment in the Department of Medicine and is the medical director of the John's Hopkins Women's Health Center. Dr. Coleman earned her M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and completed Ob/Gyn residency at the University of California, Los Angeles. She completed a fellowship in reproductive infectious diseases at the University of California, San Francisco and received an M.P.H. from the University of California, Berkeley.

To help eliminate perinatal HIV transmission, the US Department of Health and Human Services recommends against breastfeeding for women living with HIV, regardless of viral load or combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) status. However, cART radically improves HIV prognosis and virtually eliminates perinatal transmission, and breastfeeding's health benefits are well-established. In this setting, pregnancy is increasing among American women with HIV, and a harm reduction approach to those who breastfeed despite extensive counseling is suggested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840495DOI Listing

Hopeful and Concerned: Public Input on Building a Trustworthy Medical Information Commons.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):70-87

Patricia A. Deverka, M.D., M.S., M.B.E., is Director, Value Evidence and Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses on demonstrating the value of genomic sequencing for health systems and policymakers. Dierdre Gilmore, M.A., is a Senior Researcher at the American Institutes for Research. Gilmore earned a MA in Medical Anthropology at the University of London. Jennifer Richmond, M.S.P.H., is a Research Associate at the American Institutes for Research and a doctoral student in the Department of Health Behavior at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) Gillings School of Global Public Health. Zachary Smith is a Research Assistant at the American Institutes for Research. Rikki Mangrum, M.L.S., is a Senior Research Scientist at the American Institutes for Research. Barbara A. Koenig, Ph.D., is Professor of Bioethics and Medical Anthropology, based at the Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco. She serves as Director of the UCSF Program in Bioethics. Robert Cook-Deegan, M.D., is a Professor in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society at Arizona State University. He is a physician and molecular biologist who turned to policy and then entered academe through Georgetown, Stanford, and Duke Universities before joining ASU. Angela G. Villanueva, M.P.H., is a Research Associate at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Mary A. Majumder, J.D., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Medicine at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine. Amy L. McGuire, J.D., Ph.D., is the Leon Jaworski Professor of Biomedical Ethics and Director of the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Dr. McGuire serves on the program committee for the Greenwall Foundation Faculty Scholars Program in Bioethics and is immediate past president of the Association of Bioethics Program Directors.

A medical information commons (MIC) is a networked data environment utilized for research and clinical applications. At three deliberations across the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840486DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Importance of Participant-Centricity and Trust for a Sustainable Medical Information Commons.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):12-20

Amy L. McGuire, J.D., Ph.D., is the Leon Jaworski Professor of Biomedical Ethics and Director of the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Dr. McGuire serves on the program committee for the Greenwall Foundation Faculty Scholars Program in Bioethics and is immediate past president of the Association of Bioethics Program Directors. Mary A. Majumder, J.D., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Medicine at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine. Angela G. Villanueva, M.P.H., is a Research Associate at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Jessica Bardill, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Indigenous Canadian Literatures and Cultures at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec. Juli M. Bollinger, M.S., is a Research Associate in the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at the Baylor College of Medicine and a Research Associate and Associate Faculty at the Berman Institute of Bioethics at Johns Hopkins University. Eric Boerwinkle, Ph.D., is the Dean of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Public Health and the Associate Director, Human Genome Sequencing Center at Baylor College of Medicine. Tania Bubela, Ph.D., J.D., is the Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences at Simon Fraser University and a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences. Patricia Deverka, M.D., M.S., M.B.E., is Director, Value Evidence and Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses systems and policymakers. Barbara Evans, MS, Ph.D., J.D., LL.M., is the Mary Ann and Lawrence E. Faust Professor of Law and Director of the Center for Biotechnology & Law at the University of Houston Law Center and holds a joint appointment as Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the UH Cullen College of Engineering. Nanibaa' A. Garrison, Ph.D. (Navajo), is an Assistant Professor at the Treuman Katz Center for Pediatric Bioethics at Seattle Children's Hospital and Research Institute and at the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Washington School of Medicine. David Glazer is an engineering director at Verily Life Sciences, where he helps life science organizations use cloud computing to accelerate and scale their work with big data. Melissa M. Goldstein, J.D., is an Associate Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Milken Institute School of Public Health at the George Washington University. Henry T. Greely, J.D., is the Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law and a professor (by courtesy) of Genetics at Stanford University, where he directs the Center for Law and the Biosciences. He is President of the International Neuroethics Society, co-chair of the Neuroethics Work Group of the NIH BRAIN Initiative, and a member of the National Academies' Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Scott D. Kahn, Ph.D., is the Chief Information Officer at LunaDNA where he is responsible for all informatics and data science strategy. Bartha M. Knoppers, Ph.D., (Comparative Medical Law), is a Full Professor, Canada Research Chair in Law and Medicine and Director of the Centre of Genomics and Policy of the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University. Barbara A. Koenig, Ph.D., is Professor of Bioethics and Medical Anthropology, based at the Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco. She also serve as Director of the UCSF Program in Bioethics. J. Mark Lambright, M.B.A., is the Chairman, Trident Advisors, LLC - CEO (Interim), Private Access, Inc. Mark Lambright has been a senior executive of a number of healthcare and technology companies ranging in size from startup to multi-billion in revenue. John Mattison, M.D., is Assistant Medical Director, KP, SCAL, Chief Health Information Officer. Founder of CDA/CCD (XML standard for healthcare interoperability). Co-Editor of Healthcare Information Technology (2017 McGraw Hill). Christopher J. O'Donnell, M.D., M.P.H., is Chief, Cardiology Section and Director, Center for Population Genomics, of the Boston VA Healthcare System and co-Principal Investigator (Chief Scientist) of the national VA Million Veteran Program; and is VA Contact Principal Investigator of the NIH All of Us Research Program. He is also a faculty member of the Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School. Arti K. Rai, J.D., is the Elvin R. Latty Professor of Law and co-Director of the Center for Innovation Policy at Duke Law. Laura L. Rodriguez, Ph.D., is the Director of the Division of Policy, Communications, and Education at the National Human Genome Research Institute. Tania Simoncelli, M.S., is the Director of Science Policy at the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative. Formerly Executive Director, Count Me In at the Broad Institute, Assistant Director of Forensic Science and Biomedical Innovation, White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, and Science Advisor to the American Civil Liberties Union. Sharon F. Terry, M.A., is the president and CEO of Genetic Alliance. Adrian Thorogood, B.C.L./LL.B., is a lawyer and Academic Associate at the Centre of Genomics and Policy at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. He manages the Regulatory and Ethics Work Stream of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health. Michael S. Watson, M.S., Ph.D., is the Executive Director, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and ACMG Foundation for Genetic and Genomic Medicine and an Adjunct Professor of Pediatrics at Washington University School of Medicine. John T. Wilbanks is the Chief Commons Officer at Sage Bionetworks, and co-PI on awards for AllofUs Research Program, ELSI Issues in Unregulated Mobile Research, CTSA Center for Data To Health. Robert Cook-Deegan, M.D., is a Professor in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society at Arizona State University.

Drawing on a landscape analysis of existing data-sharing initiatives, in-depth interviews with expert stakeholders, and public deliberations with community advisory panels across the U.S., we describe features of the evolving medical information commons (MIC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840480DOI Listing

Ending Disparities and Achieving Justice for Individuals with Mental Disabilities.

Albany Law Rev 2017;80(3):1037-101

Mental Hygiene Legal Service, Third Judicial Department, Albany, New York.

The intersection of crime and mental disabilities is a topic of intense public scrutiny and concern. It is well known that the widespread closure of psychiatric hospitals led to an increase in the arrest and incarceration of individuals with mental illness. Nationally, as the number of state hospital beds that remain open "has fallen to its lowest level on record, … mentally ill individuals inside and outside the criminal justice system" compete for scarce resources in "a bed shell game with life-and-death implications. Read More

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January 2017

Integrating Non-Psychiatric Models of Delusion-Like Beliefs into Forensic Psychiatric Assessment.

Authors:
Joseph M Pierre

J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Dr. Pierre is Chief, Hospital Psychiatry Division, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, and Health Sciences Clinical Professor, Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.

In both clinical and forensic psychiatry, it can often be difficult to distinguish delusions from normal beliefs. The categorical approach of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) leaves few options to describe intermediate delusion-like beliefs (DLBs). Neurocognitive models offer an alternative view of DLBs as existing on a continuum that can be quantified based on dimensions of severity as well as underlying cognitive biases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.29158/JAAPL.003833-19DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Women Caring for Our Aging in Place Seniors Will Lose Out because of U.S. Immigration Policies.

Authors:
Stephen M Golant

J Aging Soc Policy 2019 Apr 15:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

a Professor Emeritus, Department of Geography , University of Florida , Gainesville , USA.

Most older people experiencing chronic health problems, physical disabilities, and memory losses are still able to age in place in their own homes. However, they often need help from others to enjoy healthy, active, and independent lives. They turn mostly to family members, mainly women and usually their daughters, daughters-in-law or wives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08959420.2019.1603535DOI Listing

ASGE guideline on the role of endoscopy in the evaluation and management of choledocholithiasis.

Gastrointest Endosc 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, Colorado, USA. Electronic address:

Each year choledocholithiasis results in biliary obstruction, cholangitis, and pancreatitis in a significant number of patients. The primary treatment, ERCP, is minimally invasive but associated with adverse events in 6% to 15%. This American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Standard of Practice (SOP) Guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for the endoscopic evaluation and treatment of choledocholithiasis. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00165107183316
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2018.10.001DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

CRISPR in the North American popular press.

Genet Med 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Faculty of Law and School of Public Health, Health Law Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Purpose: CRISPR is often called one of the century's most important discoveries and is commonly discussed in terms of its momentous potential impacts. This study analyzed how CRISPR is discussed in the North American popular press, including how it is defined, and which benefits and risks/concerns are attributed to the technology.

Methods: Using the Factiva database, we identified 228 relevant, nonduplicated articles containing either "CRISPR" or "C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0482-5DOI Listing

A species-level phylogeny of Trachylepis (Scincidae: Mabuyinae) provides insight into their reproductive mode evolution.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Biology, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA, 19085, USA.

Trachylepis (Mabuyinae) includes ∼80 species of fully-limbed skinks found primarily in Africa and Madagascar, but a robust species-level phylogeny for this genus is lacking and this impedes studies on a wide-range of topics from biogeography to character evolution. Trachylepis and its close relatives (which together form the Mabuya group or Mabuyinae) are notable in that they have undergone multiple transitions and remarkable specializations in their reproductive modes. A Trachylepis phylogeny will be particularly useful for investigating reproductive evolution, because it includes species that exhibit oviparity, viviparity, and bimodal parity (species with both oviparous and viviparous populations). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2019.04.002DOI Listing

A 'community enterprise' model for recreational cannabis: Lessons from alcohol licensing trusts in New Zealand.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 5;67:72-78. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

SHORE & Whāriki Research Centre, College of Health, Massey University, New Zealand.

The legalisation of cannabis on the American continent in recent years has reinvigorated calls for cannabis law reform in many countries. Yet researchers have described potentially negative public health and social impacts of profit driven commercial markets for cannabis. Consequently, they have suggested exploring a number of alternative regulatory options, such as "not-for-profit" or "for-benefit" organisations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.03.007DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Parental Education and Genetics of BMI from Infancy to Old Age: A Pooled Analysis of 29 Twin Cohorts.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze how parental education modifies the genetic and environmental variances of BMI from infancy to old age in three geographic-cultural regions.

Methods: A pooled sample of 29 cohorts including 143,499 twin individuals with information on parental education and BMI from age 1 to 79 years (299,201 BMI measures) was analyzed by genetic twin modeling.

Results: Until 4 years of age, parental education was not consistently associated with BMI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22451DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads
3.734 Impact Factor

Expanded definitions of the 'good death'? Race, ethnicity and medical aid in dying.

Sociol Health Illn 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Health Policy and Management, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

The range of end-of-life options is expanding across North America. Specifically, medical aid in dying (AID), or the process by which a patient with a terminal illness may request medical assistance with hastening death, has recently become legal in eight jurisdictions in the United States and all of Canada. Debates about AID often rely on cultural constructions that define some deaths as 'good' and others as 'bad'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12903DOI Listing

Child abuse and the pediatric surgeon: A position statement from the Trauma Committee, the Board of Governors and the Membership of the American Pediatric Surgical Association.

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of General Surgery, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Brenner Children's Hospital, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC. Electronic address:

Background: The pediatric surgeon is in a unique position to assess, stabilize, and manage a victim of child physical abuse (formerly nonaccidental trauma [NAT]) in the setting of a formal trauma system.

Methods: The American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) endorses the concept of child physical abuse as a traumatic disease that justifies the resource utilization of a trauma system to appropriately evaluate and manage this patient population including evaluation by pediatric surgeons.

Results: APSA recommends the implementation of a standardized tool to screen for child physical abuse at all state designated trauma or ACS verified trauma and children's surgery hospitals. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00223468193021
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.03.009DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Ambulance diversions following public hospital emergency department closures.

Health Serv Res 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Fielding School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Objective: To examine whether hospitals are more likely to temporarily close their emergency departments (EDs) to ambulances (through ambulance diversions) if neighboring diverting hospitals are public vs private.

Data Sources/study Setting: Ambulance diversion logs for California hospitals, discharge data, and hospital characteristics data from California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development and the American Hospital Association (2007).

Study Design: We match public and private (nonprofit or for-profit) hospitals by distance and size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13147DOI Listing

Transforming responses: Exploring the treatment of substance-using African American women.

J Ethn Subst Abuse 2019 Apr 3:1-29. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

c Clarity Treatment Center, LLC , Perth Amboy , New Jersey.

This article explores how intrapersonal and structural oppression may impact treatment and the recovery process of 23 self-identified African American women with histories of incarceration and substance use. Using a critical consciousness (CC) framework and content-based thematic analysis, researchers systematically coded and extracted themes and patterns from focus group data to evaluate how marginalizing processes-such as race-based discrimination-impact treatment, the therapeutic relationship, and service provision. Results indicate that participants' health and treatment were negatively impacted by oppressive factors, specifically the oppressive process of silencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15332640.2019.1579141DOI Listing

Change in geographic access to community health centers after Health Center Program expansion.

Health Serv Res 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objective: To examine geographic access to community health centers (CHC accessibility) before and after Health Center Program expansion in three Southern states.

Data Sources: Community health center data were from the Health Resources and Services Administration (1967-2016). Population estimates and sociodemographic characteristics were from the American Community Survey (2006-2015). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13149DOI Listing

After Gestational Diabetes: Impact of Pregnancy Interval on Recurrence and Type 2 Diabetes.

Biores Open Access 2019 25;8(1):59-64. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

The contribution of pregnancy interval after gestational diabetes (GDM) to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) onset is a poorly understood but potentially modifiable factor for T2DM prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of GDM recurrence and/or delivery interval on follow-up care and T2DM onset in a sample of continuously insured women with a term livebirth within 3 years of a GDM-affected delivery. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort of 12,622 women with GDM, 2006-2012, drawn from a national administrative data system (OptumLabs Data Warehouse). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/biores.2018.0043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437620PMC

Preliminary Investigation of Civilian Clinician Perspectives & Just-in-Time Guidance for Tourniquet Use to "Stop the Bleed".

Mil Med 2019 Mar;184(Supplement_1):28-36

Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, 200 First Street, Rochester, MN.

Objective: The American College of Surgeons (ACS) encourages clinicians to provide training to laypeople on tourniquet application. It is unclear whether clinicians are confident in their abilities and equipped with adequate knowledge, skills, and resources. This study aimed to determine surgical trainee knowledge and attitudes regarding tourniquet application and compare the effectiveness of instructions. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/milmed/article/184/Supplement_1/28/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy331DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Web-Based Program Exposure and Retention in the Families Improving Together for Weight Loss Trial.

Ann Behav Med 2019 Mar;53(4):399-404

Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Interventions that incorporate behavioral skills training and parental involvement have been effective for promoting weight loss among middle and upper class youth; however, few studies have produced similar weight loss effects in underserved ethnic minority youth.

Purpose: This study examined whether online program exposure (in both an online tailored intervention and an online health education comparison program) predicted greater retention among African American youth and their parents in the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss trial.

Methods: Parent-adolescent dyads (N = 125) were randomized to either an online tailored intervention program (n = 63) or an online health education comparison program (n = 62). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abm/kay047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426012PMC

Effects of in-person and telephone-based cognitive behavioral therapies on health services use and expenditures among African-American dementia caregivers with depressive symptoms.

Ethn Health 2019 Mar 19:1-14. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

d Department of Behavioral Sciences & Social Medicine , College of Medicine, Florida State University , Tallahassee , USA.

Objectives: To compare the effects of telephone-based and in-person cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on health services use and expenditures among African-American dementia caregivers (CGs) with depressive symptoms.

Methods: We analyzed data collected from 109 caregivers in a randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of telephone-based and in-person CBT on health services use and costs. Study participants were assigned randomly to either telephone or in-person CBT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2019.1590536DOI Listing

The impact of proficiency testing information and error aversions on the weight given to fingerprint evidence.

Behav Sci Law 2019 Mar 18;37(2):195-210. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Duke University School of Law, Durham, NC, USA.

Fingerprint examiners regularly participate in tests designed to assess their proficiency. These tests provide information relevant to the weight of fingerprint evidence, but no prior research has directly examined how jurors react to proficiency testing information. Using a nationally representative sample of American adults, we examined the impact of proficiency testing information on the weight given to the opinions of fingerprint examiners by mock jurors considering a hypothetical criminal case. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bsl.2402DOI Listing

Higher Gestational Choline Levels in Maternal Infection Are Protective for Infant Brain Development.

J Pediatr 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

Objective: To assess whether maternal choline decreases effects of mothers' infections on fetal brain circuit development and on expression of infant behavior at 1 year of age.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a public hospital obstetrics and midwifery service, with prenatal assessments of maternal infection, C-reactive protein, and choline level and postnatal assessments of cerebral neuronal inhibition in 162 newborns. At 1 year, 136 parents completed reports of their child's behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.12.010DOI Listing

Blood bank preparedness for mass casualty incidents and disasters: a pilot study in the Piedmont region, Italy.

Vox Sang 2019 Apr 12;114(3):247-255. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

CRIMEDIM - Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Medicine, UPO - Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy.

Background And Objectives: Blood is a critical resource for responding to mass casualty incidents (MCI). The main framework for transfusion preparedness is the American Association of Blood Bank (AABB) Disaster Operation Handbook. A disaster preparedness plan for co-ordinated blood supply was issued in Italy in 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.12761DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Prescription opioid misuse among African-American adults: A rural-urban comparison of prevalence and risk.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 Apr 27;197:191-196. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Sociology, University of Central Florida, 4297 Andromeda Loop N., Orlando FL, 32816, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Prescription opioid misuse (POM) remains a public health concern in the United States. Although the problem has been studied extensively, little research attention is paid to POM among African-Americans (AAs), and even fewer studies consider rural status in their analysis. The goal of this study, therefore, was to identify and compare prevalence and predictors of POM among rural and urban AA adults using data from a nationally representative sample. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.01.023DOI Listing

AAPLOG practice bulletin no. 3: Previable induction of labor for chorioamnionitis.

Authors:

Issues Law Med Fall 2018;33(2):247-256

When intrauterine infection develops prior to viability, prognosis for the fetus is guarded. Previable partuition can be pursued when infection is present, but physician must challenge themselves to do only what is indicated and avoid causing unnecessary effects by their methods of terminating pregnancy. Read More

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March 2019
5 Reads

AAPLOG practice bulletin no. 2: Fetal pain.

Authors:

Issues Law Med Fall 2018;33(2):237-246

The evidence the fetuses feel pain at earlier gestational ages than previously thought prompts a call for universal management than individual practice. The purpose of this document is to present the available evidence for fetal pain, discuss implications for procedures in pregnancy, and to provide recommendations for situations requiring termination of pregnancy. Read More

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"There Is a Big Question Mark": Managing Ambiguity in a Moroccan Maternity Ward.

Med Anthropol Q 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Anthropology, Temple University.

In Morocco, where extramarital sex and abortion are illegal, single mothers' ambiguous status before the law inflects medical decision-making. Leaky boundaries between the court and the hospital required doctors and administrators to work with multiple forms of documentation while anticipating external surveillance. Gaps between everyday experience and legalized forms of identity created confusion across multiple institutions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/maq.12510DOI Listing
February 2019

Epidemiological situation of yaws in the Americas: A systematic review in the context of a regional elimination goal.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 02 25;13(2):e0007125. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Independent consultant, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Yaws is targeted for eradication by 2020 in the WHA66.12 resolution of the World Health Assembly. The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of yaws in the Americas and to contribute to the compilation of evidence based on published data to undertake the certification of yaws eradication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405159PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Filling Voice Promotion Gaps in Healthcare through a Comparative Analysis of Error Reporting and Learning Systems and Open Communication and Disclosure Policies in the United States and Germany.

Am J Law Med 2018 Nov;44(4):579-605

J.D., Lecturer and Ph.D. Candidate at University of Passau School of Law. Financial assistance during the research and writing of this article was provided by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation's German Chancellor Fellowship Program and the Chair of Common Law and the University of Passau School of Law. Preliminary research for this article was presented at the American Society of Comparative Law Younger Comparativists Committee's 2018 Global Conference. Special thanks to doctors Günther Jonitz and Hermann Liebermeister for never hesitating to take time from their busy schedules to discuss this project with me, to David Anderson for his comments and critiques during the revision process of this article, and to my husband Rene Duffourc, a natural proofreader, for suffering through many, many pages of legal writing.

Voice in healthcare is crucial because of its ability to improve organizational performance and prevent medical errors. This paper contends that a comparative analysis of voice promotion in the American and German healthcare industries can strengthen a culture of safety in both countries. It provides a brief introduction to the concept of voice in healthcare, including its impact on safety culture, barriers to voice, and the dual influences of confidentiality and transparency on voice promotion policies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0098858818821137DOI Listing
November 2018

The Regulatory Failure to Define Essential Health Benefits.

Authors:
Amy B Monahan

Am J Law Med 2018 Nov;44(4):529-577

Melvin C. Steen Professor, University of Minnesota Law School. I am grateful for the feedback and comments received at faculty workshops at Duke University, Washington University, and the University of Minnesota. My thanks also go to the anonymous peer reviewers for the American Journal of Law & Medicine, whose helpful comments improved this article.

Basic principles of economics suggest that health insurers should seek to avoid covering sick individuals and attempt to minimize the amount they have to spend if, despite the insurer's best efforts, such individuals enroll in coverage. The drafters of the Affordable Care Act recognized this natural tendency of insurers and put in place multiple provisions aimed at avoiding such behavior. One such tool was the requirement that all health insurers in the individual and small group markets cover an identical, comprehensive set of benefits known as the Essential Health Benefits ("EHBs"). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0098858818821136DOI Listing
November 2018

Retooling American Foodralism.

Am J Law Med 2018 Nov;44(4):489-506

Assistant Director of Scholarship, Resnick Center for Food Law & Policy, UCLA Law. I am grateful to my co-author, Professor Laurie Beyranevand, for such an easy and fruitful collaboration.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0098858818821134DOI Listing
November 2018

Shared extremes by ectotherms and endotherms: Body elongation in mustelids is associated with small size and reduced limbs.

Evolution 2019 Apr 1;73(4):735-749. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Coastal Biology Building, University of California, Santa Cruz, California, 95060.

An elongate body with reduced or absent limbs has evolved independently in many ectothermic vertebrate lineages. While much effort has been spent examining the morphological pathways to elongation in these clades, quantitative investigations into the evolution of elongation in endothermic clades are lacking. We quantified body shape in 61 musteloid mammals (red panda, skunks, raccoons, and weasels) using the head-body elongation ratio. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.13702DOI Listing

Untangling Truth, Facts, and Opinions: Why Simple Tenets of Science Have Become Uneasy.

Authors:
Paul E Terry

Am J Health Promot 2019 Mar 19;33(3):337-341. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Editor in Chief, American Journal of Health Promotion and a Senior Fellow at the Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO).

TIME magazine selected "The Guardians and the War on Truth" as their 2018 "Person of the Year." Journalists everywhere urge us to remember writer Jamal Khashoggi's murder as a harsh testament to the risks of speaking truth to power. But Khashoggi was a perceived threat to a totalitarian government, surely truth is more respected in America, right? Suggest that to the Columbia University School of Law who built a "silencing science tracker" to document "government attempts to restrict or prohibit scientific research, education or discussion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890117119831864DOI Listing

Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for high- and medium-risk probationers.

Behav Sci Law 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

19th Circuit Court of Illinois, Waukegan, IL, USA.

Reducing recidivism is a central goal of treatment programs for offenders. Preliminary evidence suggests that cognitive-behavioral group interventions based on the National Institute of Corrections curriculum (Bush, Glick, & Taymans, ) may be effective in reducing recidivism rates among adult probationers. We evaluated the effectiveness of a program based on this curriculum among 167 high- and medium-risk probationers assigned to this program and a comparison group of 120 high- and medium-risk probationers matched on age and number of prior criminal charges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bsl.2394DOI Listing
February 2019

Collective health and regional integration in Latin America: An opportunity for building a new international health agenda.

Glob Public Health 2019 Feb 17:1-12. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

c Department of Public Law I, Faculty of Law , Buenos Aires University (UBA), Buenos Aires , Argentina.

From its origins, the Latin American Social Medicine and the Collective Health (LASM/CH) movements have focused on thinking about health from and for the region. After the implementation of neoliberal policies, social improvements and the geopolitical strengthening of the region became the roots of new regional integration projects in South America. The objective of this article is twofold. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2019.1572207DOI Listing
February 2019

Brazil's Fight against Hepatitis C - Universalism, Local Production, and Patents.

N Engl J Med 2019 Feb;380(7):605-607

From the Department of Public Administration, São Paulo Business School, São Paulo (E.M.F.), and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro (F.I.B.) - both in Brazil; the Center for Latin American Studies, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley (E.M.F.); and the Department of International Development, London School of Economics and Political Science, London (K.S.). Data collection for this article was funded under the auspices of the São Paulo Research Foundation.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1812959DOI Listing
February 2019

A Simplified Model of Communication Between Time Cells: Accounting for the Linearly Increasing Timing Imprecision.

Front Comput Neurosci 2018 29;12:111. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Psychology, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Many organisms can time intervals flexibly on average with high accuracy but substantial variability between the trials. One of the core psychophysical features of interval timing functions relates to the signatures of this timing variability; for a given individual, the standard deviation of timed responses/time estimates is nearly proportional to their central tendency (scalar property). Many studies have aimed at elucidating the neural basis of interval timing based on the neurocomputational principles in a fashion that would explain the scalar property. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2018.00111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361830PMC
January 2019
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A Seat at the Table.

J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2019 Mar 13;47(1):12-21. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Dr. Thompson is Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry in the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA in Los Angeles, California.

Organized medicine and psychiatry have a long tradition of governmental advocacy and public engagement. The American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL), since its founding 50 years ago, has made some forays into these fields. However, its involvement has been less substantial than other similarly situated professional organizations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.29158/JAAPL.003812-19DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

[Obtaining Informed Consent for Anesthesia in Elective Surgery at a Tertiary-Care Hospital: Practices and Ethical-Legal Context].

Acta Med Port 2019 Feb 1;32(1):53-60. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Serviço de Anestesiologia. Centro Hospitalar São João. Porto. Departamento de Anestesiologia. Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade do Porto. Porto. Portugal.

Introduction: Informed consent is an active process of the doctor-patient relationship, based on ethical and legal principles. The anesthetic act has inherent risks, which should be subject of specific consent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of implementation of written specific informed consent for anesthesia in the context of elective surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20344/amp.10592DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Limitations on the Ability to Negotiate Justice: Attorney Perspectives on Guilt, Innocence, and Legal Advice in the Current Plea System.

Psychol Crime Law 2018 6;24(9):915-934. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Department of Human Development, Cornell University.

In the American criminal justice system the vast majority of criminal convictions occur as the result of guilty pleas, often made as a result of plea bargains, rather than jury trials. The incentives offered in exchange for guilty pleas mean that both innocent and guilty defendants plead guilty. We investigate the role of attorneys in this context, through interviews with criminal defense attorneys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2018.1457672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368263PMC

Public Support for Smoke-Free Section 8 Public Housing.

West J Nurs Res 2019 Feb 10:193945919826238. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

1 American Academy of Pediatrics Julius B. Richmond Center of Excellence, Itasca, IL, USA.

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) recently issued rules requiring that federally funded authorities administering public housing must have smoke-free policies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193945919826238DOI Listing
February 2019
1.375 Impact Factor

Asian American Women Sexual Assault Survivors' Choice of Coping Strategies: The Role of Post-Assault Cognitive Responses.

Women Ther 2018 13;41(3-4):298-315. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Department of Criminology, Law & Justice, University of Illinois, Chicago.

Even though approximately one in three Asian American (AA) and Pacific Islander women experience sexual assault victimization, there is a dearth of literature examining how AA women sexual assault survivors cope with this traumatic experience. This study examined AA female sexual assault survivors' choice of coping strategies post-assault and how their cognitive responses toward sexual assault victimization (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02703149.2018.1430340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366838PMC
February 2018
1 Read

Use of Manifest Injustice in the Washington State Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration.

J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2019 Mar 8;47(1):42-47. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Dr. Sussman is a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellow with the Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School Teaching Hospital, Boston, MA. Dr. Lee is an Associate Professor, Division of Public Behavioral Health & Justice Policy, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Dr. Hallgren is an Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

In the Washington State Juvenile Code, the Manifest Injustice (MI) provision allows judges to sentence youth outside of the standard guidelines. We compared rates of Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration (JRA) involvement and MI between racial minority youth and Caucasian youth. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend toward African American and multiracial youth having MI used to decrease their sentence less frequently than Caucasian youth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.29158/JAAPL.003816-19DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Professional Boundaries in Corrections.

J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2019 Mar 7;47(1):91-98. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Dr. Cooke is Associate Professor, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL. Dr. Hall is Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, University of Central Florida College of Medicine; Affiliate Assistant Professor, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL; and Adjunct Professor, Barry University School of Law, Orlando, FL. Dr. Friedman is Associate Professor of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland; Staff Psychiatrist, Mason Clinic, Auckland Regional Forensic Psychiatry Services, Auckland, New Zealand; and the Philip Resnick Professor of Forensic Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. Dr. Jain is a Forensic Psychiatry Research Fellow, Columbia University and New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY. Dr. Wagoner is Assistant Professor, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL. Portions of this article were presented at the 2017 American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting, May 20-24, 2017, in San Diego, CA.

Boundary violations occurring in corrections settings require special attention. There is a unique relationship between officers and inmates, governed by policies and procedures as well as ethics in general (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.29158/JAAPL.003825-19DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Casino Ownership and Health-Related Community Resources Among Native American Tribes in California.

Prev Chronic Dis 2019 02 7;16:E14. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

University of Washington School of Public Health, Department of Health Services, Seattle, Washington.

Introduction: Casinos are significantly associated with improved health among some Native Americans living on tribal lands. An increase in health-related community resources related to tribal ownership of casinos may be one mechanism through which the health of Native Americans is improved. However, no studies have quantitatively assessed whether casinos are associated with having more community resources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd16.180252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395078PMC
February 2019