2,994 results match your criteria American Journal Of Human Biology[Journal]


Effects of adiposity and body composition on adjusted resting energy expenditure in women.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 May 7:e23610. Epub 2021 May 7.

Human Biomechanics and Applied Physiology Laboratory, High Point University, High Point, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: Fat-free mass (FFM) accounts for ~80% of the variance in resting energy expenditure (REE), and this relationship is complicated by adiposity. The objective was to compare adjusted REE and contributions of skeletal lean mass and fat mass (FM) to adjusted REE in women with varying adiposity levels using a novel approach.

Methods: Women were divided into tertiles by body fat percent (%fat): Tertile 1 (T1): %fat = 18. Read More

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Investigating the normalization and normative views of gestational weight gain: Balancing recommendations with the promotion and support of healthy pregnancy diets.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 May 6:e23604. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: Gestational weight gain (GWG) is increasingly monitored in the United States and Canada. While promoting healthy GWG offers benefits, there may be costs with over-surveillance. We aimed to explore these costs/benefits. Read More

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No association between adult sex steroids and hand preference in humans.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 May 5:e23605. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: There is ongoing debate about the effects of hormones on the lateralization of the developing brain. In humans, there are conflicting theories of how testosterone during development should affect lateralization. Empirical studies linking prenatal and postnatal testosterone levels to hand preference (a proxy for lateralization) are similarly mixed. Read More

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COVID-19 and India's vulnerable indigenous populations.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 May 3:e23608. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

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Incidence of excess body weight and annual weight gain in women and men: Results from the ELSA-Brasil cohort.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Apr 28:e23606. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Gonçalo Moniz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Brazil.

Objective: To estimate annual weight gain and the incidence of overweight and obesity, stratified according to gender and socioeconomic factors.

Methods: From the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we included 13 625 women and men aged 35-74 (2008-2010) who attended a follow-up visit after a mean 3.8-years. Read More

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Corrigendum.

Authors:

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Apr 26:e23607. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

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Long-term trends in the somatic and motor characteristics of female students at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland (2000-2018).

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 28:e23600. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Physical Education, University of Physical Education in Poznan, Gorzow Wielkopolski, Poland.

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe changes in the anthropometric and motor characteristics of female students attending the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn between 2000 and 2018.

Materials And Methods: A total of 4046 randomly selected female university students aged 19-21 years (20.1 ± 1. Read More

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CURRENT OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF STANDING COMMITTEES.

Authors:

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 25:e23594. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

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Body adiposity index to analyze the percentage of fat in young men aged between 7 and 17 years.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 24:e23599. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Health Sciences Center, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN, Natal, RN, Brazil.

Background: The body adiposity index (BAI), uses anthropometry to estimate percent body fat (%F). However, previous studies have shown that the BAI has limited accuracy for children and adolescents.

Objective: We propose to develop and validate an adjusted BAI for use in male children and adolescents from 7 to 17 years of age. Read More

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What is normal, healthy growth? Global health, human biology, and parental perspectives.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 24:e23597. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: The widespread variation seen in human growth globally stands at odds with the global health perspective that young child growth should not vary across populations if nutritional, environmental and care needs are met. This paper: (1) evaluates the idea that a single standard of "healthy" growth characterizes children under age 5, (2) discusses how variation from this standard is viewed in global health, in human biology and by parents, and (3) explores how views of "normal" growth shape biomedical and parental responses.

Methods: This paper reviews the anthropological, public health and clinical literature on the nature of child growth and the applicability of World Health Organization Multicenter Growth Reference Study growth standards across contexts. Read More

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Ancestry and admixture of a southernmost Chilean population: The reflection of a migratory history.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 24:e23598. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Programa de Genética Humana, ICBM, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Objectives: Punta Arenas is a Chilean city situated on ancestral Aönikenk territory. The city was founded by 19th- and 20th-century colonists from Chile (Chiloé) and Europe (Croatia). This work uses uniparental and ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) to explore the effects of historic migratory and admixture patterns on the current genetic composition of Punta Arenas. Read More

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How can evolutionary and biological anthropologists engage broader audiences?

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 9:e23592. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Integrative Biology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA.

Objectives: With our diverse training, theoretical and empirical toolkits, and rich data, evolutionary and biological anthropologists (EBAs) have much to contribute to research and policy decisions about climate change and other pressing social issues. However, we remain largely absent from these critical, ongoing efforts. Here, we draw on the literature and our own experiences to make recommendations for how EBAs can engage broader audiences, including the communities with whom we collaborate, a more diverse population of students, researchers in other disciplines and the development sector, policymakers, and the general public. Read More

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Assessment of skeletal age in youth female soccer players: Agreement between Greulich-Pyle and Fels protocols.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 21:e23591. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

University of Texas, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, Austin, Texas, USA.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the agreement between the Fels and Greulich-Pyle methods for the assessment of skeletal age (SA) in female youth soccer players.

Methods: The sample included 441 Portuguese players 10.08-16. Read More

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Low prevalence of anemia among Shuar communities of Amazonian Ecuador.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 21:e23590. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, USA.

Objective: Anemia is an important global health challenge. We investigate anemia prevalence among Indigenous Shuar of Ecuador to expand our understanding of population-level variation, and to test hypotheses about how anemia variation is related to age, sex, and market integration.

Methods: Hemoglobin levels were measured in a total sample of 1650 Shuar participants (ages 6 months to 86 years) from 46 communities between 2008 and 2017 to compare anemia prevalence across regions characterized by different levels of market integration. Read More

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Biologically normal sleep in the mother-infant dyad.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 17:e23589. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Anthropology, Infancy & Sleep Centre, Durham University, Durham, UK.

Objectives: We examine infant sleep from evolutionary, historico-cultural, and statistical/epidemiological perspectives and explore the distinct conceptions of "normal" produced by each. We use data from the "Sleeping Like a Baby" study to illustrate how these perspectives influence the ideals and practices of new parents.

Methods: The "Sleeping Like a Baby" study investigated maternal-infant sleep in north-east England. Read More

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Leukocyte telomere length is inversely associated with a metabolic risk score in Mesoamerican children.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 15:e23596. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Objective: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) may be involved in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the associations of LTL with MetS and its components among Mesoamerican children and their adult parents, in a region where MetS prevalence is high.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 151 children aged 7-12 years and 346 parents from the capitals of Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Chiapas State, Mexico. Read More

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Low birth weight and its relation to physical fitness parameters in children: Its negative effect on muscle strength and cardiorespiratory endurance.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 12:e23595. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Division of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: There is increasing evidence that low birth weight has a negative effect on physical fitness, muscle strength, and cardiorespiratory endurance, although the findings are inconsistent.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate whether birth weight acts as a prenatal determinant of physical fitness parameters and to determine the role of environmental or biological variables on this effect.

Methods: One hundred and sixty-seven children aged 6-14 years were included in this study. Read More

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Within-family intergenerational trends in age at menarche relative to political changes in Czechoslovakia after World War II.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 1:e23588. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Laboratory of Morphology and Forensic Anthropology (LaMorFA), Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine a secular trend in age at menarche (AAM) in the former Czechoslovak (and descendant Slovak and Czech) population in relation to its large-scale political and social events taking place after World War II.

Methods: The study included 211 women aged 18-30 (born during 1984-1998), and their relatives: mothers, sisters, and grandmothers, yielding a total of 421 women. Changes in retrospectively recalled AAM between the three generations of women (oldest-grandmothers, middle-mothers, and youngest-daughters) were studied in pairwise comparisons. Read More

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Pathways linking activity, adiposity, and inflammation to bone mineral density in women and men from NHANES 2007 to 2010.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 03 1;33(2):e23583. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: Age, sedentary activity, central adiposity, and inflammation have all been independently associated with bone mineral density (BMD). We assessed how the effects of sedentary activity and central adiposity on BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck change across early to late adulthood and whether these relationships are mediated by inflammation.

Methods: We analyzed data from 7135 women and men 20 years of age and older from NHANES 2007 to 2010. Read More

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Contributions of biomass/solid fuel burning to blood pressure modification in women: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 1:e23586. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Environmental and Global Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Objectives: Approximately 2½ billion people worldwide rely on solid/biomass fuel as fuel for cooking/heating the home. Environmental exposure to the smoke associated with biomass fuel burning has been associated respiratory diseases, cardiac disorders, and altered blood pressure. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to study this relationship across multiple studies. Read More

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Comparing different sample collection and storage methods for field-based skin microbiome research.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Mar 1:e23584. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA.

Objectives: The skin, as well as its microbial communities, serves as the primary interface between the human body and the surrounding environment. In order to implement the skin microbiome into human biology research, there is a need to explore the effects of different sample collection and storage methodologies, including the feasibility of conducting skin microbiome studies in field settings.

Methods: We collected 99 skin microbiome samples from nine infants living in Veracruz, Mexico using a dual-tipped "dry" swab on the right armpit, palm, and forehead and a "wet" swab (0. Read More

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Socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Portuguese preschool-aged children: Changes from 2009 to 2016.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Feb 26:e23582. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Research Centre for Anthropology and Health, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Objectives: We evaluated, for the first time in Portugal, the prevalence of overweight and obesity according to parental education in a population of preschool-aged Portuguese children in 2009/2010 and 2016/2017.

Methods: Anthropometric data were collected in public and private preschools (n = 1996 in 2009/2010; n = 2077 in 2016/2017). Body mass index was calculated and weight status categories were based on the International Obesity Task Force cutoff points. Read More

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February 2021

Hotter and sicker: External energy expenditure and the tangled evolutionary roots of anthropogenic climate change and chronic disease.

Authors:
Herman Pontzer

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Feb 25:e23579. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: The dual crises of climate change and chronic, or non-communicable, disease (NCD) have emerged worldwide as the global economy has industrialized over the past two centuries.

Aims: In this synthesis I examine humans' dependence on external (non-metabolic) energy expenditure (e.g. Read More

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February 2021

Bilateral asymmetry in arm anthropometric measurements according to laterality and nutritional status in children and adolescents from 6 to 12 years old.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Feb 22:e23585. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Unidad de Investigación Médica en Epidemiología Clínica, Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Guadalajara, Mexico.

Objective: To compare and correlate anthropometric measurements of the left arm versus the right arm and to establish their relation to laterality, sex, and nutritional status in children and adolescents from 6 to 12 years of age.

Methods: A cross-sectional study included 605 children and adolescents (285 males; 320 females), with a middle socioeconomic status, that attended an urban elementary school. Anthropometric measurements were taken in both arms, along with height and weight, to assess nutritional status. Read More

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February 2021

"We didn't get much schooling because we were fishing all the time": Potential impacts of irregular school attendance on the spread of epidemics.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Feb 17:e23578. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

Objectives: Especially in traditional, rural, and low-income areas, children attend school irregularly. School-based interventions are common mitigation strategies for infectious disease epidemics, but if daily attendance is not the norm, the impact of schools on disease spread might be overestimated.

Methods: We use an agent-based model of an early 20th century Newfoundland community to compare epidemic size and duration in three scenarios: (1) all school-aged children attend school each weekday, (2) students aged 10-15 have a chance of engaging in adult activities each day, and (3) students aged 10-15 have a chance of being reassigned to adult roles at the start of each simulation and thus never attend school. Read More

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February 2021

Changes in maternal anthropometric measurements in the first postpartum month and associated factors.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Facuty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: Maternal anthropometry offers a rapid, inexpensive, and non-invasive method for assessing nutritional status during pregnancy. We aimed to assess the changes in maternal anthropometric measurements in the first month after delivery and to investigate the factors associated with longitudinal changes in maternal postpartum nutritional status.

Design: This prospective longitudinal study included 147 mothers who were on the 5th postpartum day applied to outpatient clinics, from January 2018 through January 2020. Read More

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February 2021

Relationship between rs9939609 FTO polymorphism with waist circumference and body fat is moderated by ponderal index at birth in youth.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Feb 15:e23575. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Life Sciences. Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Objective: The goal of this study was to analyze whether the relationship between the rs9939609 polymorphism of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) with nutritional status is moderated by the ponderal index (PI) at birth in children and adolescents.

Methods: A cross-sectional study evaluated 382 schoolchildren aged 6-17 years. Anthropometric variables such as waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) were used to assess nutritional status. Read More

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February 2021

Does age estimated from teeth forming in different early life periods show differential discrepancy with known age?

Am J Hum Biol 2021 03 15;33(2):e23577. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore growth discrepancies in the dentition of impoverished children and examine how dental development is impacted by environmental influences throughout childhood, thereby identifying which teeth are more sensitive to the effects of biocultural factors and are consequently less useful to predict age.

Methods: Length measurements of developing teeth (deciduous and permanent) were taken from individuals of known age and sex (n = 61) from the Certosa collection, a 19th century skeletal assemblage representing Italian children of low socioeconomic status. Discrepancies between age estimates based on tooth length and chronological age were calculated, and the accuracy and precision of age prediction between earlier forming teeth and later forming teeth were compared. Read More

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Association among length of residence, physical activity, and obesity in the US immigrants: A regression-based mediation analysis.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Feb 9:e23576. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Health and Sport Analytics Laboratory, Department of Health, Exercise Science, and Recreation Management, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi, USA.

Objectives: To examine the mediated relationship between objectively measured obesity, accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and length of residence among US immigrants.

Methods: A total of 885 adults (≥18 years) who were born outside the United States from the 2003 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in the analysis. The participants were categorized into two groups (i. Read More

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February 2021

Linking subsistence harvest diversity and productivity to adaptive capacity in an Alaskan food sharing network.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Feb 8:e23573. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.

Background: Although anthropogenic climate change poses existential challenges for Indigenous communities in the Arctic, these challenges are not entirely unprecedented. Over many generations, Arctic peoples have developed a wide range of behavioral strategies to navigate environmental change and uncertainty, and these strategies provide a foundation for contemporary adaptation.

Aims: In this article, we focus on mixed cash-subsistence economies and the social networks that underlie them in Alaska. Read More

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February 2021