2,667 results match your criteria American Journal Of Human Biology[Journal]


Regulation of inflammation during gestation and birth outcomes: Inflammatory cytokine balance predicts birth weight and length.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Apr 13:e23245. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

Objectives: The maternal environment during gestation influences offspring health at birth and throughout the life course. Recent research has demonstrated that endogenous immune processes such as dysregulated inflammation adversely impact birth outcomes, increasing the risk for preterm birth and restricted fetal growth. Prior analyses examining this association suggest a relationship between maternal C-reactive protein (CRP), a summary measure of inflammation, and offspring anthropometric outcomes. Read More

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April 2019
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Bioelectrical impedance vector values in a Spanish healthy newborn population for nutritional assessment.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Apr 11:e23244. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Medicine, Valladolid University, Valladolid, Spain.

Introduction: Vector bioimpedance analysis (BIVA) can be very useful for the evaluation of body composition, hydration, and nutritional status in infants and newborns. The objective of this study was to determine the impedance vector distribution for a group of healthy newborn Spanish children.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted with 154 healthy, Spanish newborns (gestational age: 37-41 weeks) aged 24 to 72 hours (79 males, 75 females). Read More

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Does obstetric protection apply to small-bodied females?-A comparison between small-bodied Jomon foragers and large-bodied Yayoi agriculturalists in the prehistoric Japanese archipelago.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Apr 9:e23236. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

The Doigahama Site Anthropological Museum, Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi, Japan.

Objectives: This study examined the relationship between maternal pelvic and body size in the transition from the Middle-Final Jomon period (c. 5000-3000 BC) to the Middle Yayoi period (c. 400~200 BC to around AD 1) in Japan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23236DOI Listing
April 2019
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Ankle brachial index (ABI) in a cohort of older women in the Philippines: Prevalence of peripheral artery disease and predictors of ABI.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Apr 5:e23237. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rising in low and middle-income countries, but studies of CVD epidemiology in such settings often focus on risk factors rather than measures of disease progression. Here we use the ankle brachial index (ABI) to assess the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) among older women living in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines, and relationships between ABI and CVD risk factors and body composition.

Methods: ABI was measured using the Doppler technique in 538 female participants in the 2015 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (mean age 58 years, range 47-78 years). Read More

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April 2019
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The stillbirth sex ratio as a marker of population health among live-born males in Denmark, 1835-1923.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Mar 25:e23241. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of History/Saxo Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objectives: We know little about whether an elevated stillbirth sex ratio (ratio of male to female stillbirths) gauges stronger selection in utero against frail male gestations and therefore predicts greater male infant survival. An alternative scenario could involve a "low endowment" case in which pregnancy cohorts show both excess male stillbirths and elevated mortality risk among male live births. We exploit the longest sex-specific stillbirth series (Denmark, 1835-1923) to explore whether annual deviations in age-specific male mortality vary with the annual cohort's stillbirth sex ratio. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajhb.23241
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March 2019
8 Reads

Variation in breast milk macronutrient contents by maternal anemia and hemoglobin concentration in northern Kenya.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Mar 25:e23238. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Anthropology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.

Objectives: This study explored differing levels of macronutrients in breast milk in relation to maternal anemia and hemoglobin.

Methods: Archived milk specimens and data from a cross-sectional sample of 208 breastfeeding mothers in northern Kenya, originally collected in 2006, were analyzed; data included milk fat, maternal hemoglobin concentration, and anemia status (anemia defined as hemoglobin <12 g/dL). Total protein and lactose were measured and energy was calculated. Read More

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March 2019
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Disgust sensitivity in relation to menstrual cycle phase in women with and without an infection.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Mar 22:e23233. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Science, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Objectives: The compensatory prophylaxis hypothesis (CPH) proposes that evolved psychological mechanisms enhance the avoidance of potential contaminants during periods of reproductive immunomodulation in order to decrease a chance of infection. However, the results of previous studies are inconclusive. Our aim was to investigate the differences in disgust sensitivity during phases of menstrual cycle in regularly cycling young healthy women and among women who reported having an infection. Read More

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Low water access as a gendered physiological stressor: Blood pressure evidence from Nepal.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Mar 22:e23234. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

Objectives: The study aims to test novel proposed biocultural pathways linking the stressful lived experience of water insecurity to elevated blood pressure, a risk factor for chronic disease. Using the case of Nepal, where women have primary responsibility for managing household water, allows testing for potentially gendered mechanisms that exacerbate negative physiological consequences of water insecurity for women relative to men.

Methods: Data are from the nationally representative 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), N = 8633 women and 6209 men. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajhb.23234
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March 2019
5 Reads

A dried blood spot-based method to measure levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), a marker of bone resorption.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Mar 21:e23240. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

Objectives: A number of basic questions about bone biology have not been answered, including population differences in bone turnover. In part, this stems from the lack of validated minimally invasive biomarker techniques to measure bone formation and resorption in field-based population-level research. The present study addresses this gap by validating a fingerprick dried blood spot (fDBS) assay for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), a well-defined biomarker of bone resorption and osteoclast number. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23240DOI Listing

Testosterone-dependent facial and body traits predict men's sociosexual attitudes and behaviors.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Mar 18:e23235. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Behavioral Ecology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.

Objectives: Strategic Pluralism Theory contends that human mating strategies are calibrated toward short-term (ST) or long-term (LT) mating according to the expression of condition-dependent traits and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Traits reflecting the effects of testosterone have been considered condition-dependent traits that provide information about the calibration of male mating strategy. We investigated the relationship of muscle mass and facial masculinity with attitudes and behaviors reflecting ST and LT mating tactics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23235DOI Listing

The role of urban design in childhood obesity-A case study in Lisbon, Portugal.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Mar 14:e23220. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Life Sciences, Research Centre for Anthropology and Health, University of Coimbra, Portugal Calçada Martim de Freitas, Edifício de São bento, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal.

Objective: We hypothesize that physical features of the urban environment might enhance or prevent childhood obesity. Thus, this study's main goal was to verify if there is an association between the neighborhood urban design and childhood obesity-independent of well-known childhood obesity determinants, such as, father's level of schooling (as a proxy for socioeconomic status), and parent's weight status.

Methods: This study classifies neighborhoods according to land use and building features using hierarchical clusters analysis and examines their association with childhood obesity through logistic regression models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23220DOI Listing

Secondary data analysis to answer questions in human biology.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Mar 12:e23232. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department Social Medicine, Ohio University, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, Ohio.

Despite a growing number of publicly available datasets, the use of these datasets for secondary analyses in human biology is less common compared with other fields. Secondary analysis of existing data offers an opportunity for human biologists to ask unique questions through an evolutionary and biocultural lens, allowing for an analysis of cultural and structural nuances that affect health. Leveraging publicly available datasets for human biology research is a way for students and established researchers to complement their data collection, use existing data for master's and doctoral theses, pilot test questions, and use existing data to answer interesting new questions or explore questions at the population level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23232DOI Listing

Physical activity in women of reproductive age in a transitioning rural Polish population.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Mar 5:e23231. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois.

Objective: Health research often focuses on moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity while neglecting low-intensity habitual activities. Our aim was to understand habitual physical activity in women from a transitioning economy using a physical activity monitor.

Methods: This study investigated physical activity in 68 healthy premenopausal women (age 18-46) in rural Poland using FitBit One activity trackers for 1 week. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23231DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Cesarean birth and the growth of Yucatec Maya and Toba/Qom children.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Feb 28:e23228. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Anthropology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Objective: Cesarean delivery is often epidemiologically associated with childhood obesity. However, little attention is paid to post-birth modulatory environments, and most studies are conducted in settings where obesity arises for a number of reasons in addition to birth mode. We therefore assess population differences in the relationship between birth mode and childhood growth using data from rural and peri-urban Latin American indigenous populations, and test predictions developed using life history theory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23228DOI Listing
February 2019
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Humans as inverted bats: A comparative approach to the obstetric conundrum.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Feb 27:e23227. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Theoretical Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: The narrow human birth canal evolved in response to multiple opposing selective forces on the pelvis. These factors cannot be sufficiently disentangled in humans because of the limited range of relevant variation. Here, we outline a comparative strategy to study the evolution of human childbirth and to test existing hypotheses in primates and other mammals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23227DOI Listing
February 2019

High energy requirements and water throughput of adult Shuar forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Ecuador.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Feb 23:e23223. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Objectives: We measured total energy expenditure (TEE; kcal/d) and water throughput (L/d) among Shuar forager-horticulturalists from Amazonian Ecuador to compare their daily energy and water demands to adults in other small-scale and industrialized populations.

Methods: TEE and water throughput were measured using the doubly labeled water method among 15 Shuar adults (eight women, seven men; age range 18-60 years) living in a relatively remote village. We used multiple regression to assess the effects of anthropometric variables (body size, fat free mass, age, and sex) on TEE and water throughput. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23223DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Development and validation of hair specimen collection methods among extremely short-length Afro-textured hair.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Feb 21:e23222. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Objectives: Cortisol, a biomarker of stress, is slowly deposited into the growing hair strands on the head. Meyer, Novak, Hamel, and Rosenberg (2014) established a method for hair cortisol extraction and analysis, and showed that hair cortisol can serve as an integrated measure of psychophysiological stress activity during the period of hormone incorporation into the hair. The hair sample collection methods offered, however, (ie, cutting as close to the scalp as possible with scissors) is inefficient when collecting samples among participants with Afro-textured and extremely short-length hair types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23222DOI Listing
February 2019

Maternal motives behind elective cesarean sections.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Feb 21:e23226. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Anthropology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

Objectives: The World Health Organization recommends a target cesarean section rate of 10-15%. In recent years, the US has had a nation-wide rate of 30.3% and some developed countries are even higher. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23226DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Short sleep and low milk intake are associated with obesity in a community of school aged children from Argentina.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Feb 19:e23224. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Investigador Independiente, CONICET Instituto de Desarrollo e Investigaciones Pediátricas (IDIP-MS/CIC, PBA) Hospital de NIños Sor M. Ludovica La Plata ARGENTINA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objectives: Understanding the factors related to obesity during childhood allows for improved preventive actions specifically adapted to particular communities. The purpose of this study was to identify individual and familiar factors related to obesity in children.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban community in Argentina during the years 2015-2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23224DOI Listing
February 2019

Tracking of physical fitness in elementary school children: The role of changes in body fat.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Feb 12:e23221. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Study and Research Group in Physical Activity and Exercise - GEPAFE/Study and Research Group in Metabolism, Nutrition, and Exercise - GEPEMENE, State University of Londrina - UEL, Londrina, Brazil.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the stability of physical fitness, and the interrelationships among intra-individual changes in fitness and fatness among elementary school children.

Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted among 372 adolescents (196 boys) and followed up over 3 years (from childhood to adolescence). Physical fitness was estimated using three indicators: cardiorespiratory fitness (through a 9-minute running test), flexibility (through a sit-and-reach test), and muscle resistance (through maximal abdominals in 1 minute). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23221DOI Listing
February 2019
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Sedentary behavior and metabolic syndrome in physically active adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Feb 8:e23225. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Health, Exercise Science, and Recreation Management, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi.

Objectives: The detrimental associations of sedentary behavior (SB) with metabolic syndrome have been shown to be independent of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). Therefore, researchers, in addition to promoting MVPA, are calling attention to the need to reduce SB. However, there has been limited research on the association of SB with metabolic syndrome among those who already meet the PA guidelines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23225DOI Listing
February 2019

Caesarean birth and adiposity parameters in 6- to 8-year-old urban Maya children from two cities of Yucatan, Mexico.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Feb 1:e23217. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Departamento de Ecología Humana, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between birth mode and fat mass index (FMI = fat mass [kg]/height [m] ), and z-score values of waist circumference (WCZ) and sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds (SumSkfZ) in a sample of 256 6- to 8-year-old urban Maya children from the cities of Merida and Motul in Yucatan, Mexico.

Methods: From September 2011 to January 2014, we measured height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds in children, and height and weight in their mothers. Body composition was estimated in both generations through bioelectrical impedance analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23217DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Birth mode, breastfeeding and childhood infectious morbidity in the Yucatec Maya.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 31:e23218. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Anthropology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Objectives: Cesarean delivery is linked to breastfeeding complications and child morbidity. These outcomes may disproportionately affect Latin American indigenous populations that are experiencing rising cesarean delivery rates, but often inhabit environments that exacerbate postnatal morbidity risks. We therefore assess relationships between birth mode, infant feeding practices, and childhood infectious morbidity in a modernizing Yucatec Maya community, where prolonged breastfeeding is the norm. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajhb.23218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23218DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Pathways linking caesarean delivery to early health in a dual burden context: Immune development and the gut microbiome in infants and children from Galápagos, Ecuador.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 28:e23219. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Objectives: Global increases in caesarean deliveries are exposing more infants to perinatal environments that are evolutionarily novel and potentially increasing their risks for inflammatory conditions. Yet, the pathways linking caesareans to later health outcomes are not well understood, particularly in dual burden contexts. We test two of the hypothesized pathways, altered immune function and gut microbiota, which may link delivery mode to later health outcomes and test whether these associations persist when controlling for postnatal nutritional and pathogenic exposures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23219DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Heritability estimation of 2D:4D finger ratio in a Chuvashian population-based sample.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 11:e23212. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Human Population Biology Research Unit, Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the familial correlations and heritability of 2D:4D ratio traits using a large population-based sample of ethnically homogeneous pedigrees from Chuvasha and Bashkortostan Autonomies of the Russian Federation.

Methods: We calculated the familial correlations and performed a heritability analysis of 2D:4D ratio traits in a sample of 1541 subjects (803 men and 738 women, mean age 47.78 ± 16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23212DOI Listing
January 2019
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Cutoff points for continuous metabolic risk score in adolescents from southern Brazil.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 11:e23211. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Objective: There is no consensus on the best diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the child and adolescent population. Thus, the present study aimed to establish cutoff points for a continuous metabolic risk score (cMetS) in adolescents from southern Brazil.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between 2014 and 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23211DOI Listing
January 2019

Inbreeding in the last ruling dynasty of Portugal: The house of Braganza.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Dec 26:e23210. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Ironbridge Institute, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Objectives: To determine whether: (1) there are high levels of inbreeding in a European royal dynasty that continues until the 20th century, and (2) whether inbreeding is negatively associated with pre-reproductive survival and longevity.

Methods: Genealogical information of all Braganza monarchs (1640-1910) was used to compute the individual's inbreeding coefficient (F) and the coefficient of kinship (θ) of the marriage which were examined in relation to two life-history traits.

Results: Mean F of the monarchs was 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23210DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Effects of C-section on the human microbiota.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Dec 26:e23196. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Biochemistry and Miocrobiology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23196DOI Listing
December 2018

Physical activity and time budgets of Hadza forager children: Implications for self-provisioning and the ontogeny of the sexual division of labor.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 21;31(1):e23209. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Nutrition and Reproduction Laboratory, Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Objectives: To determine the effects of age and sex on physical activity and time budgets of Hadza children and juveniles, 5-14 years old, including both in-camp and out-of-camp activities.

Methods: Behavioral data were derived from ~15 000 hourly in-camp scan observations of 76 individuals and 13 out-of-camp focal follows on nine individuals. The data were used to estimate energy expended and percentage of time engaged in a variety of routine activities, including food collection, childcare, making and repairing tools, and household maintenance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342658PMC
January 2019
1 Read

High levels of objectively measured physical activity across adolescence and adulthood among the Pokot pastoralists of Kenya.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 20;31(1):e23205. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

University of Arizona, School of Anthropology, Tucson, Arizona.

Objectives: Levels of physical activity (PA) across the lifespan are important predictors of physical fitness, impacting individual health, and longevity. Individuals living in industrialized societies are often characterized as more sedentary than those who live in small-scale societies, and this inactivity is generally linked with increased incidence of chronic disease, especially during aging. However, less empirical data exist regarding levels and patterns of PA across the lifespan among small-scale societies compared with industrialized societies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23205DOI Listing
January 2019

Birth mode and infectious morbidity risks in Qom children of Argentina.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Dec 19:e23200. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Objectives: Cesarean delivery may increase childhood infectious morbidity risks via altered birth exposures and subsequent immune, microbial, and epigenetic development. Many Latin American indigenous populations experience dual burdens of infectious and chronic diseases, and are particularly vulnerable to rising rates of cesarean delivery and associated adverse outcomes. The Qom/Toba are an indigenous population in Argentina experiencing rapid lifestyle transitions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23200DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Sex selection in late Iberian infant burials: Integrating evidence from morphological and genetic data.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 16;31(1):e23204. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Unitat d'Antropologia biològica, Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Facultat Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra-Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the infant burials found inside Iberian homes in relation to a possible case of sex selection.

Methods: The study included the remains of 11 infant individuals buried under the 10 houses excavated in the late Iberian village of Camp de les Lloses (Tona, Barcelona, Spain). Sex was determined using genetic analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23204DOI Listing
January 2019

Assessment of physical fitness and its correlates in Chinese children and adolescents in Shanghai using the multistage 20-M shuttle-run test.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 16;31(1):e23148. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Physical Education, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chendu, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multistage 20-m shuttle-run test (20-m SRT) in assessing the physical fitness of Chinese children and adolescents in Shanghai.

Methods: A total of 4833 children and adolescents (2437 males and 2396 females, aged 7-17 years) were enrolled in this study. Height, weight, body fat percentage, fat-free mass, BMI, and skinfold thickness were measured or calculated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23148DOI Listing
January 2019
1.700 Impact Factor

Physical activity energy expenditure and cardiometabolic health in three rural Kenyan populations.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 10;31(1):e23199. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Objectives: Physical activity is beneficial for metabolic health but the extent to which this may differ by ethnicity is still unclear. Here, the objective was to characterize the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiometabolic risk among the Luo, Kamba, and Maasai ethnic groups of rural Kenya.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 1084 rural Kenyans, free-living PAEE was objectively measured using individually-calibrated heart rate and movement sensing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435188PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Genetic variation of FTO: rs1421085 T>C, rs8057044 G>A, rs9939609 T>A, and copy number (CNV) in Mexican Mayan school-aged children with obesity/overweight and with normal weight.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 10;31(1):e23192. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Programa Integral de Atención a la Obesidad, Secretaria de Educación del Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.

Objectives: Genetic variation of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and obesity traits. Distribution of FTO single nutleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1421085T>C, rs9939609T>A, rs8057044G>A and copy number variation (CNV) was evaluated in association with childhood obesity or overweight status in children with Mayan ethnicity.

Methods: We included 318 school-aged children with obesity or overweight status (body mass index [BMI]: >85th percentile) and 303 children with normal weight (BMI: 15th-85th percentile). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23192DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Body mass index and parasympathetic nervous system reactivity and recovery following graded exercise.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 10;31(1):e23208. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Objectives: The present study sought to expand upon prior investigations examining patterns of vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and perceived exertion as a function of body mass index (BMI) in response to and recovery from exercise.

Methods: Participants underwent a resting (baseline) period, followed by a graded exercise protocol on an ergometer with ascending difficulty stages, and finally another resting (recovery) period. Individuals were stratified into three BMI groups: low, moderate, and high. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23208DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Body mass index trajectories during the first year of life and their determining factors.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 30;31(1):e23188. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectories of body mass index (BMI) in the first year of life and their determining factors.

Methods: We used data from the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II restricted to children with 2 or more time points of BMI data during follow-up visits within the first year of life (n = 2320). Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct BMI trajectories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23188DOI Listing
January 2019
16 Reads

Alterations of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M levels in the breast milk of mothers with exclusive breastfeeding compared to mothers with non-exclusive breastfeeding during 6 months postpartum: The Jordanian cohort study.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 29;31(1):e23197. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to measure changes in the concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the mature breast milk of Jordanian mothers during the first 6 months after giving birth between exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) mothers and non-exclusively breastfeeding (non-EBF) mothers.

Methods: A longitudinal follow-up design was used to measure changes in the concentration of IgG and IgM in the mothers' mature milk during the first 6 months after giving birth. Sixty-nine lactating mothers were recruited in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23197DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Facial masculinity is only weakly correlated with handgrip strength in young adult women.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 29;31(1):e23203. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Institute of Neuroscience & Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.

Objectives: Ancestrally, strength is likely to have played a critical role in determining the ability to obtain and retain resources and the allocation of social status among humans. Responses to facial cues of strength are therefore thought to play an important role in human social interaction. Although many researchers have proposed that sexually dimorphic facial morphology is reliably correlated with physical strength, evidence for this hypothesis is somewhat mixed. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajhb.23203
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23203DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads

Sex- and age-based differences in mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic on the island of Newfoundland.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 29;31(1):e23198. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

Objectives: Our aim was to understand sex- and age-based differences in mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic on the island of Newfoundland. The pandemic's impact on different age groups has been the focus of other research, but sex-based differences in mortality are rarely considered. Aspects of social organization, labor patterns, and social behaviors that contribute to mortality between males and females at all ages are used to explain observed mortality patterns. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajhb.23198
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23198DOI Listing
January 2019
15 Reads

Is there a female disadvantage in child undernutrition in South India?: Exploring gender differences in height in infancy, childhood, and adolescence in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Jan 18;31(1):e23153. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether gender-based disparities in health and well-being extend to a female disadvantage in height in infancy, childhood, and adolescence in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

Methods: Using longitudinal data from the Young Lives study in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, India, linear mixed effects and linear regression models examined associations between gender and height and the modifying influences of birth order and older siblings' gender composition.

Results: In the younger cohort, at 6-18 months, girls were 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23153DOI Listing
January 2019

Siberian genetic diversity reveals complex origins of the Samoyedic-speaking populations.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Nov 8;30(6):e23194. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

ARL Division of Biotechnology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Objectives: We examined autosomal genome-wide SNPs and Y-chromosome data from 15 Siberian and 12 reference populations to study the affinities of Siberian populations, and to address hypotheses about the origin of the Samoyed peoples.

Methods: Samples were genotyped for 567 096 autosomal SNPs and 147 Y-chromosome polymorphic sites. For several analyses, we used 281 093 SNPs from the intersection of our data with publicly available ancient Siberian samples. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajhb.23194
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23194DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Association of prepubertal obesity with pubertal development in Chinese girls and boys: A longitudinal study.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Nov 2;30(6):e23195. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Community and Family Medicine and Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of prepubertal body mass index (BMI) and weight status with pubertal development in boys and girls in Chongqing, China.

Methods: In a longitudinal study, 1237 students (695 boys and 542 girls) were recruited from Chongqing, China, and examined at baseline, then followed every 6 months for three and a half years. Height, weight, testicular volume, and breast development were measured at every examination. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajhb.23195
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23195DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads

Salivary steroid hormone responses to dyadic table tennis competitions among Hong Kongese juvenile boys.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Nov 2;30(6):e23190. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Education Studies, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong.

Objectives: Little is known about salivary steroid hormone responses to dyadic competition among prepubescent boys. The current study explored pre-match and post-match testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and cortisol among 22 ethnically Chinese, Hong Kongese table tennis athletes, aged 8-11 years, during dyadic competition against peers. These data provide novel comparative insight into boys' hormone responses when participating in similar forms of competition to that of adults. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajhb.23190
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23190DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Does a man's testosterone "rebound" as dependent children grow up, or when pairbonds end? A test in Cebu, Philippines.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Nov 16;30(6):e23180. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

Objective: Cross-culturally, men's T declines in response to pairbonding and fatherhood, but less is known about what happens to T during and after life history transitions that theoretically lead to renewed mating effort. We tested whether men's T rises (or declines less with age) as their children age, or when pairbonds end, independent of changes in fatherhood-related variables such as co-residence with children.

Methods: We used demographic, behavioral, and salivary hormone data (waking and pre-bed T) collected in 2009 and 2014 for the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 571 men). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23180DOI Listing
November 2018
14 Reads

Brown adipose tissue, energy expenditure, and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic health among the Yakut (Sakha) of northeastern Siberia.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Nov 4;30(6):e23175. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

Objectives: This study provides the first investigation of non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity among an indigenous circumpolar population, the Yakut of northeastern Siberia. The study also examines the health significance of BAT activity in this population by testing the relationships between BAT thermogenesis and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic disease risk, such as percent body fat and blood glucose and cholesterol levels.

Methods: Data were collected in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) for 31 men and 43 women. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajhb.23175
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23175DOI Listing
November 2018
18 Reads

Associations between different weight-related anthropometric traits and lifestyle factors in Norwegian children and adolescents: A case for measuring skinfolds.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Nov 17;30(6):e23187. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Clinical Science, Section for Pediatrics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between weight-related anthropometric measures and children's eating habits, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle at a population level.

Methods: Data from the Bergen Growth Study were used to study the association of z-scores of waist circumference (WC), weight-to-height ratio (WHtR), subscapularis (SSF) and triceps (TSF) skinfolds and BMI, with lifestyle factors in 3063 Norwegian children (1543 boys) aged 4-15 years, using linear regression analysis. Each sex was analyzed separately. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23187DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Time-to-pregnancy and offspring finger-length ratio (2D:4D).

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Nov 17;30(6):e23176. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.

Objectives: Time-to-Pregnancy (TTP) is an epidemiological tool to assess couple fecundity. The finger digit ratio (2D:4D) has been suggested as a marker of androgen exposure in utero. Maternal, paternal, or couple-mediated factors related to fecundity may also have an effect on androgen exposure during pregnancy. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajhb.23176
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23176DOI Listing
November 2018
14 Reads

Accuracy of self-reported heights and weights in a predominately low-income, diverse population living in the USA.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Nov 17;30(6):e23184. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Objectives: This study explored the accuracy of self-reported heights and weights and factors associated with self-reported bias in a diverse American sample.

Methods: Demographic, self-reported, and measured height and weight data from different studies with the same PI were compiled into one SPSS file and analyzed with paired t-tests to detect differences between self-reported and actual values. Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by pairwise t-tests detected differences among age, ethnicity, sex, income, and education. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajhb.23184
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23184DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads