399,491 results match your criteria American Journal Of Forensic Medicine And Pathology[Journal]


The inter-agency committee on radiation safety - 30 years of international coordination of radiation protection and safety matters.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

World Health Organization, Geneve, GE, SWITZERLAND.

The Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety (IACRS) was constituted in 1990, as a forum for collaboration and coordination between international bodies with regards to radiation safety. It consists today of representatives of eight intergovernmental member organizations (EC, FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNSCEAR and WHO) and five observer non-governmental organizations (ICRP, ICRU, IEC, IRPA and ISO). The IACRS provides a platform for interaction between these relevant international bodies to contribute to a common understanding of the scientific basis and legal framework for the application of the system of radiation protection, towards global harmonization of radiation safety standards. Read More

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The relationship between urine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and depressive symptoms in American adults.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jun 5;292:227-233. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The School of Public Health of Qingdao University, No.308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266021, China. Electronic address:

Background: Studies have shown that Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were neurotoxic, and PAHs exposure may be related to depressive symptoms. Thus, we conducted this study for further explorations.

Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database of the 2005-2014 cycles were used. Read More

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Story hour at a family homeless center: contribution to graduate students' preparation and confidence in preliteracy skills.

J Commun Disord 2021 Jun 1;93:106124. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Chapman University, Irvine, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study evaluated the potential benefit to graduate students' of participating in a service-learning program conducting a storybook reading program for children in a family homeless shelter.

Method: Ten graduate students in the second year of a two-year master's degree program in communication science and disorders participated in the storybook reading program. The graduate students engaged in reflective writing about their experiences and completed self-ratings of confidence in preliteracy skills before and after program participation. Read More

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Promoting cross-regional collaboration in antimicrobial stewardship: Findings of an infectious diseases working group survey in Arab countries of the Middle East.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 24;14(7):978-984. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a significant global issue that presents an increasing threat to patients' wellbeing. Although a global concern, the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms is of particular significance in the Middle East. In recent years, this region has seen an alarming increase in antimicrobial resistance presenting a major challenge to physicians managing various infectious diseases. Read More

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Methodology for altering omega-3 EPA+DHA and omega-6 linoleic acid as controlled variables in a dietary trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 12;40(6):3859-3867. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background & Aims: Increasing dietary intake of n-3 EPA+DHA and lowering dietary n-6 LA is under investigation as a therapeutic diet for improving chronic pain syndromes as well as other health outcomes. Herein we describe the diet methodology used to modulate intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in a free living migraine headache population and report on nutrient intake, BMI and diet acceptability achieved at week 16 of the intensive diet intervention and week 22 follow-up time-point.

Methods: A total of 178 participants were randomized and began one of three diet interventions: 1) a high n-3 PUFA, average n-6 PUFA (H3) diet targeting 1500 mg EPA+DHA/day and 7% of energy (en%) from n-6 linoleic acid (LA), 2) a high-n-3 PUFA, low-n-6 PUFA (H3L6) targeting 1500 mg EPA+DHA/day and <1. Read More

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Internet gaming disorder and comorbidities among campus-dwelling U.S. university students.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Jun 6;302:114043. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, CA, United States.

This study investigates the prevalence and associations of DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) with sleep impairment, daytime functioning, psychiatric disorders, and health status among young adults living in student houses on the campus of an American university. A random sample of students living on the campus underwent phone interviews during the 2007 & 2015 academic years. The sample included 1,871 undergraduate and 1,113 graduate students (2,984 in total). Read More

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A 1-km hourly air-temperature model for 13 northeastern U.S. states using remotely sensed and ground-based measurements.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 12:111477. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Institute for Exposomic Research, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.

Background: Accurate and precise estimates of ambient air temperatures that can capture fine-scale within-day variability are necessary for studies of air temperature and health.

Method: We developed statistical models to predict temperature at each hour in each cell of a 927-m square grid across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic United States from 2003 to 2019, across ∼4000 meteorological stations from the Integrated Mesonet, using inputs such as elevation, an inverse-distance-weighted interpolation of temperature, and satellite-based vegetation and land surface temperature. We used a rigorous spatial cross-validation scheme and spatially weighted the errors to estimate how well model predictions would generalize to new cell-days. Read More

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Microanatomical and secretory characterization of the salivary gland of the (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae), a main vector of Chagas disease.

Open Biol 2021 Jun 16;11(6):210028. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Instituto René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Minas Gerais, Av. Augusto de Lima, 1715, CEP 30190-002, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

is the principal vector of , the aetiological agent of Chagas disease in American countries. This insect is haematophagous during all life cycles and, to antagonize its haemostatic, inflammatory and immune systems, it secretes saliva while feeding on the vertebrate host's blood. Here, we investigated characteristic changes of the salivary glands (SG) that occur during insect development. Read More

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Gynogenetic diploids, tetraploids, or octoploids, and a path to polyploidy in Anuran Amphibians.

Authors:
James P Bogart

Genome 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Guelph, Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1;

Unreduced gametes have been implicated in the evolution of polyploid species of plants and animals and are normally produced by female anuran amphibians. Such eggs may initiate the evolution of polyploid species that have independently arisen in several anuran families. Polyploid females could also produce unreduced eggs that might lead to species with higher ploidy levels or their eggs may develop gynogenetically to reduce the ploidy level. Read More

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Low blood transfusion rate after implementation of tranexamic acid for fast- track hip- and knee arthroplasty. An observational study of 5205 patients.

Acta Orthop Belg 2021 Mar;87(1):9-16

The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of a tranexamic acid (TXA) perioperative protocol for primary hip- and knee arthroplasty, in terms of allogenic blood transfusion rates. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and included all primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures in the period of 2014-2019. Patients who underwent surgery due to trauma or revision were excluded. Read More

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Interventions to prevent preterm delivery in twin-twin transfusion with short cervix.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, UTHealth The University of Texas McGovern Medical School and the Fetal Center at Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX.

Objective: Pre-operative short cervical length (CL) remains a major risk factor for preterm birth after laser surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Interventions to prolong pregnancy remain elusive. The objective of this study is to compare secondary preventive methods used in the setting of short CL at the time of laser surgery by five North American Fetal Treatment Network (NAFTNet) centers. Read More

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Assessing university guidance and tutoring in higher education: Validating a questionnaire on Ecuadorian students.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253400. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain.

This study was intended to explore and confirm the factorial structure and to analyze the psychometric properties of an instrument for university guidance and tutoring, apply it, and detect differences between sociodemographic variables. A total of 1,048 students from five universities in the province of Manabi (Ecuador) participated. The study was divided into two phases with differentiated samples. Read More

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Toe-brachial index is beyond a peripheral issue in patients with type 2 diabetes.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253138. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Background: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the association between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and toe-brachial index (TBI) with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

Methods: This cross sectional study included 296 patients with T2DM who met the American Diabetes Association criteria for the assessment of peripheral arterial atherosclerosis. Read More

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A Pre-Doctoral Clinical Ethics Fellowship for Medical Students.

J Clin Ethics 2021 ;32(2):165-172

Michigan Medicine, Learning Health Services, 1111 Catherine St., Rm 229, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109.

Introduction: Despite the need for trained physician ethicists, fellowships in clinical ethics are limited and primarily offered to those who have completed a graduate degree. The standardization of credentialing for clinical ethics consultants (CECs) and the restructuring of undergraduate medical education allow innovative models to train CECs that can provide an expanded opportunity for formal ethics training at an earlier stage.

Methods: At the University of Michigan Medical School we developed, implemented, and evaluated a pre-doctoral clinical ethics fellowship program from 2017 to 2019 for senior medical students, designed to meet established competencies for CECs. Read More

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Clinical Ethics Consultation during the First COVID-19 Lock Down in France: The "Commitment Model": Balancing General Questions and Individual Cases.

J Clin Ethics 2021 ;32(2):155-164

Centre d'éthique clinique, 27 Rue du Faubourg St. Jacques, 75014 Paris, France.

During the first outbreak of COVID-19, the French governmental advisory council on bioethics suggested the need to support healthcare providers with ad hoc "ethical support units." Several units engaged in such endeavors across the country. This article outlines some methodological considerations made by the Cochin Hospital Clinical Ethics Center (the Cec). Read More

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Going Backwards to Fill in the Missing Processes for Training and Evaluation of Clinical Bioethicists: What Has Been Needed for Decades to Move Real Professionalism Forward.

Authors:
Evan G DeRenzo

J Clin Ethics 2021 ;32(2):149-154

John J. Lynch Center for Ethics, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia 20020 USA.

As the field of clinical bioethics has moved from its pioneers, who turned their attention to ethics problems in clinical medicine and clinical and animal research, to today's ubiquity of university degrees and fellowships in bioethics, there has been a steady drumbeat to professionalize the field. The problem has been that the necessary next steps-to specify the skills, knowledge, and personal and professional attributes of a clinical bioethicist, and to have a method to train and evaluate mastery of these standards-are lacking. Ordinarily, the path to professionalism in medicine starts with the intellectual pioneers. Read More

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Competencies and Milestones for Bioethics Trainees: Beyond ASBH's Healthcare Ethics Certification and Core Competencies.

J Clin Ethics 2021 ;32(2):127-148

Seattle Children's Research Institute, 1900 Ninth Ave., M/S JMB-6, Seattle, Washington 98101 USA.

Clinical ethics training programs are responsible for preparing their trainees to be competent ethics consultants worthy of the trust of patients, families, surrogates, and healthcare professionals. While the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH) offers a certification examination for healthcare ethics consultants, no tools exist for the formal evaluation of ethics trainees to assess their progress toward competency. Medical specialties accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) use milestones to report trainees' progress along a continuum of professional development as a means of "operationalizing and implementing" medical competencies. Read More

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Putting the Patient First: A Scoping Review of Patient Desires in Canada.

Healthc Policy 2021 May;16(4):46-69

Director, North American Observatory on Health Systems and Policies; Professor, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Patient-centred care is a key priority for governments, providers and stakeholders, yet little is known about the care preferences of patient groups. We completed a scoping review that yielded 193 articles for analysis. Five health states were used to account for the diversity of possible preferences based on health needs. Read More

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Assessing the Viability of American Horseshoe Crab () Embryos in Salt Marsh and Sandy Beach Habitats.

Biol Bull 2021 Jun 26;240(3):145-156. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

AbstractFor animal embryos that develop externally, the physio-chemical environment can substantially affect offspring viability. In the case of the American horseshoe crab (), sediment conditions along estuarine shorelines influence development rates and embryonic viability. Sandy beach habitats are considered to have optimal conditions for horseshoe crab embryonic development; however, spawning is often observed outside of these optimal habitats, in areas such as salt marshes, where reduced oxygen availability is thought to decrease the viability of eggs laid in these sediments. Read More

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Impact of Incisional Surgical Site Infections on Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction after General Surgery: A Case Controlled Study.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Otago Medical School-Dunedin Campus Dunedin, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Most incisional surgical site infections (ISSI) are now diagnosed after discharge from hospital. In this context, it is important to document the impact ISSI has on our patients. Our surgical department sent a validated questionnaire to patients after they had been discharged. Read More

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Strengthening Pathology Capacity to Deliver Quality Cancer Care in Cities in LMICs.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Jun;7:917-924

American Society for Clinical Pathology, Chicago, IL.

Diagnostic pathology services for oncology health systems are essential; yet, surveys, observations, and hard data from across low- and middle-income countries have revealed that these services are almost always lacking adequate quality and often missing completely. The City Cancer Challenge Foundation (C/Can), the American Society for Clinical Pathology, and C/Can partner cities undertook intense analysis of their existing pathology services as part of a year-long assessment process including the specific formation of a pathology-focused team. Internal and external expert assessments identified sustainable solutions adapted to the local context and level of resources and created specific local implementation projects. Read More

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Managing Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e000078. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Atrial fibrillation and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Atrial fibrillation can precipitate and can be a consequence of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and cardiomyopathy. Atrial fibrillation and heart failure, when present together, are associated with worse outcomes. Read More

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The association between neurohormonal therapy and mortality in older adults with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

The Dartmouth Institute, Geisel School of Medicine, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.

Background/objectives: Neurohormonal therapy, which includes beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARBs), is the cornerstone of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) treatment. While neurohormonal therapies have demonstrated efficacy in randomized clinical trials, older patients, which now comprise the majority of HFrEF patients, were underrepresented in those original trials. This study aimed to determine the association between short- (30 day) and long-term (1 year) mortality and the use of neurohormonal therapy in HFrEF patients, across the age spectrum. Read More

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The Validity of Neutrophil/lymphocyte Ratio as A Predictive Factor for Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome after Flexible Ureteroscopy Lithotripsy.

Urol J 2021 06 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Urology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, China 74#Linjiang Road, Chongqing, CN 400010.

Purpose: To explore the risk factors and predictive factors of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) for upper urinary tract stones.

Materials And Methods: Patients experienced fURS from January 2014 to September 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, which were divided into the SIRS group and non-SIRS group. Clinical data of all patients, including gender, age, American society of anesthesia score, diabetes, etc. Read More

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Does Shared Decision-Making for Prostate Cancer Screening Among African American Men Happen? It Depends on Who You Ask.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Informatics, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, WA, 98195, Seattle, USA.

Background: Shared decision-making (SDM) is recommended for prostate cancer screening, but little is known about how this process is perceived by patients and providers. SDM is especially important for African American men, who are at high risk for the disease.

Objective: To evaluate agreement in SDM ratings among patients, providers, and objective observers. Read More

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Elevated Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels in Newborns of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Based on Observational Studies.

Reprod Sci 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

We performed this updated systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate anti-Müllerian hormone levels (AMH) in newborns of mothers with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with healthy controls. A search of the literature was conducted in the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, WANFANG, and VIP for articles to assess AMH levels in offspring of PCOS and non-PCOS mothers irrespective of language. These databases were searched from their inception to December 7, 2020. Read More

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The AGE Presents Introduction to Geroscience video lecture series.

Geroscience 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195-7470, USA.

The AGE Presents Introduction to Geroscience video lecture series is a collection of high-quality didactic video lectures and associated teaching materials focused on foundational topics in aging biology. The videos are made freely available on YouTube and are targeted toward an audience familiar with concepts learned in the first year of a college undergraduate biology/biomedical major. Members of the American Aging Association also receive the original lecture slides and lecture notes, with additional course materials to be developed in the future. Read More

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Does margin width impact breast cancer recurrence rates in women with breast conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ?

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, 600 Highland Ave, Madison, WI, 53792, USA.

Purpose: Controversy remains regarding the optimal margin width for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) who undergo breast conserving surgery (BCS).

Methods: Women with a primary DCIS diagnosis were enrolled in a statewide population-based cohort from 1997 to 2006. Patients were surveyed every two years with follow-up data available through 2016. Read More

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Adolescents' Experiences, Emotions, and Coping Strategies Associated With Exposure to Media-Based Vicarious Racism.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2113522. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Division of Advanced General Pediatrics and Primary Care, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Importance: Adolescents frequently encounter racism vicariously through online news and social media and may experience negative emotional responses due to these exposures. To mitigate potential adverse health impacts, including negative emotional health, it is important to understand how adolescents cope with these exposures.

Objectives: To examine adolescents' responses to online and media-based vicarious racism exposure and to explore coping strategies, particularly positive coping strategies, that may be used to combat negative emotions. Read More

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