21,681 results match your criteria American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition[Journal]


Reply to W. H. Hartl.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

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Common errors and pitfalls in observational studies examining the association of medical nutrition therapy with outcomes in critically ill patients.

Authors:
Wolfgang H Hartl

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, University Medical Center, Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Germany.

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Food texture trumps food processing in the regulation of energy intake.

Authors:
Michael J Gibney

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

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Vitamin B-12 malabsorption and renal function are critical considerations in studies of folate and vitamin B-12 interactions in cognitive performance: NHANES 2011-2014.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Cognitive health is a public health concern among older adults. Dietary supplement (SUP) use is common and concerns have been raised about high folic acid intake among those with vitamin B-12 deficiency and exacerbation of poor cognitive performance (PCP).

Objectives: We evaluated SUP use, usual folic acid intake, and blood folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations in relation to cognitive performance. Read More

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Urinary Potassium Excretion and Mortality Risk in Community-Dwelling Individuals with and without obesity.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: Potassium intake has been shown to be inversely associated with blood pressure and premature mortality. Previous studies suggested that the association between potassium intake and blood pressure is modified by obesity, but whether obesity similarly influences the association between potassium intake and mortality is unclear.

Objectives: To investigate whether potassium intake, reflected by 24-hour urinary excretion, is associated with all-cause mortality, and to explore potential effect modification by obesity. Read More

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Infant and child formula shortages: now is the time to prevent recurrences.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Center for Nutrition, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Boston Children's Hospital.

An acute shortage of infant formulas in the United States occurred in early 2022, exacerbating a longer-standing less severe shortage over the last several years. The shortage has been particularly problematic for specialized formulas such as those needed for infants and children with food allergies, intestinal failure, kidney disease, and metabolic disorders. Although undoubtedly the magnitude of the shortage will abate over time, it has affected many children and caused tremendous distress for thousands of families. Read More

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Prenatal choline supplementation improves biomarkers of maternal docosahexaenoic acid status among pregnant participants consuming supplemental DHA: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Background: Dietary methyl donors (e.g., choline) support the activity of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway, which generates phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that are exported from the liver and made available to extrahepatic tissues. Read More

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The accuracy of methods for determining the internal length of a nasogastric tube in adult patients: A systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Blind insertion of nasogastric tubes is performed for several reasons: Nutrition and medication administration, gastric aspiration/decompression, and other, diagnostic reasons. Accidental intraesophageal and intestinal placement is common, and increases the risk of serious complications. Therefore, accurate determination of the internal length of the nasogastric tube prior to placement is considered a prerequisite for achieving correct gastric positioning. Read More

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Pre-pregnancy fat intake in relation to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Background: Many studies have linked intakes of fat and of specific fatty acids during pregnancy and preeclampsia, however the relation of intake before pregnancy with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is scant.

Objective: Evaluate intakes of major and specific types of fat before pregnancy with the risk of HDP: preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (GHTN).

Methods: We followed 11,535 women without chronic disease participating in the Nurses' Health Study-II from 1991 and 2009. Read More

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Effects of vitamin C supplementation on gout risk: results from the physicians' health study II trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Division of Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Short-term randomized trials suggest that a 500 mg/day vitamin C supplement reduces serum urate, while observational studies show vitamin E is inversely associated with gout risk.

Objective: We evaluated the effect of supplemental vitamin C (pre-specified primary exposure) and vitamin E (pre-specified secondary exposure) on new diagnoses of gout.

Design: We performed a post-hoc analysis of data from the Physicians' Health Study II (PHS II), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial of randomized vitamin C (500 mg/day) and vitamin E (400 IU every other day). Read More

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Arginine catabolism metabolites and atrial fibrillation or heart failure risk: two case-control studies within the PREDIMED trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

University of Navarra, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Pamplona, Spain.

Background: Arginine-derived metabolites are involved in oxidative and inflammatory processes related with endothelial function and cardiovascular risk.

Objective: To prospectively examine the associations of arginine catabolism metabolites with the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) or heart failure (HF), and to evaluate the potential modification of these associations through Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions in a large primary prevention trial.

Methods: Two nested matched case-control studies were designed within the PREDIMED trial. Read More

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The association of genetic susceptibility to smoking with cardiovascular disease mortality and the benefits of adhering to a DASH diet: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Understanding the genetic predisposition to cardiovascular disease (CVD), may help to improve clinical intervention strategies. Lifestyle factors such as diet may differ among ethnic groups and may, in turn, modify individuals' risks to diseases.

Objective: We examined genetic predisposition to ever smoking in relation to CVD mortality and assessed whether such association could be modified by dietary intakes. Read More

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Adherence to the Mediterranean-style diet and high intake of total carotenoids reduces the odds of frailty over 11 years in older adults: Results from the Framingham Offspring Study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: The benefit of a Mediterranean-style diet in reducing frailty is not well established in older Americans.

Objective: To determine associations of a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern and related antioxidants with frailty onset and worsening of the Fried Phenotype in adults.

Design And Methods: This prospective study included 2,384 non-frail adults from the Framingham Offspring Study with Mediterranean-style dietary pattern score (MSDPS) and antioxidant intakes [vitamin C, E, and total carotenoids] estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at the index examination (1998-2001) and one prior examination (if available), and frailty assessment at the index examination and at least 1 follow-up. Read More

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Visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat mass accumulation in a prospective cohort of adolescents.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA.

Background: Race and sex differences in adolescents' body fat are demonstrated in cross-sectional cohorts, yet a longitudinal design would better identify patterns of fat distribution over time.

Objective: The aim was to examine race and sex differences in adiposity between Black and White adolescents over 2-years.

Design: A cohort of adolescents aged 10 to 16 years (38% Black; 52% girls; 15% overweight, 34% with obesity) underwent body composition measurements at baseline (n=309) and 2 years later (n=236), using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to quantify whole-body fat mass (FM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes. Read More

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Association between postterm pregnancy and adverse growth outcomes in preschool-aged children.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Growth Regulation and Translational Research of Zhejiang Province, School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Postterm pregnancy has been associated with higher risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but its long-term health effects on offspring are poorly understood.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the prospective associations between maternal postterm pregnancy and adverse growth outcomes in children.

Method: The Jiaxing Birth Cohort is part of a large population-based health surveillance system in China and recruited pregnant females resident in Jiaxing area between 1999 and 2013, and newborns were followed up with an average duration of 5. Read More

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Abnormal urinary loss of vitamin C in diabetes: prevalence and clinical characteristics of a vitamin C renal leak.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Section, Digestive Diseases Branch Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Diabetes is associated with low plasma vitamin C concentrations.

Objectives: We investigated the contribution of dysregulated vitamin C renal physiology, its prevalence, and associated clinical characteristics.

Methods: An essential prerequisite was determination of normal vitamin C renal threshold, the plasma concentration at which vitamin C first appears in urine. Read More

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Dose-dependent effect of carbohydrate restriction for type 2 diabetes management: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Carbohydrate restriction is effective for type 2 diabetes management.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effect of carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science to May 2021 for randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of a carbohydrate-restricted diet (≤45% total calories) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Read More

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Is "renal leak" of vitamin C an issue for people with diabetes?

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.

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How strong is the evidence base for carbohydrate restriction in the management of type 2 diabetes?

Authors:
Gary Frost

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College Hammersmith Campus, London, United Kingdom.

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Early pregnancy vitamin D status is associated with blood pressure in children: An Odense Child Cohort study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Background: Blood pressure in childhood tracks into later life. Vitamin D status in adults is associated with blood pressure, but the impact of vitamin D status in pregnancy and childhood on blood pressure still needs investigation.

Objective: To investigate whether fetal rather than current vitamin D status is associated with blood pressure in children. Read More

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Dietary quality and risk of heart failure in men.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Background: Due to the increasing disease burden, strategies to predict and prevent heart failure (HF) are urgently needed.

Objective: We aimed to investigate whether the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and the clinically-abbreviated Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS) are associated with the risk of overall HF, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Methods: Our study included 44,525 men free from cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Read More

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Associations between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease risk in Canadian adults: a comparison of partial least squares, reduced rank regression and the simplified dietary pattern technique.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 2. Epub 2022 May 2.

Food, Nutrition and Health Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Hybrid methodologies have gained continuing interest as unique data reduction techniques for establishing a direct link between dietary exposures and clinical outcomes.

Objectives: We aimed to compare partial least squares (PLS) and reduced rank regression (RRR) in identifying a dietary pattern associated with a high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Canadian adults, construct PLS- and RRR-based simplified dietary patterns, and assess associations between the four dietary pattern scores and CVD risk.

Design: Data were collected from 24-hour dietary recalls of adult respondents in the two cycles of the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-Nutrition: CCHS 2004 linked to health administrative databases (n = 12,313) and CCHS 2015 (n = 14,020). Read More

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Bioavailability of Phosphorus and Kidney Function in the Jackson Heart Study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 2. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Biomedical and Nutritional Sciences and Center for Population Health, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA.

Background: High phosphorus (P) exposure may have negative effects on kidney function. Nutrient databases provide total P, but bioavailability varies by source.

Objective: We aimed to assess natural, added and bioavailable P intake, and to relate these to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ml/min/1. Read More

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Time to revisit the passive overconsumption hypothesis? Humans show sensitivity to calories in energy-rich meals.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Nutrition and Behaviour Unit, School of Psychological Sciences, University of Bristol, 12a Priory Road, Bristol, BS8 1TU, UK.

Background: A possible driver of obesity is insensitivity (passive overconsumption) to food energy density (ED, kcal/g); however, it is unclear whether this insensitivity applies to all meals.

Objectives: We assessed the influence of ED on energy intake (kcal) across a broad and continuous range of energy densities comprised of non-covertly manipulated, real-world meals. We also allowed for the possibility that the association between energy intake and ED is non-linear. Read More

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Re: Adjustment for energy intake in nutritional research: a causal inference perspective.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Nutrition Department, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

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Gastrointestinal dysfunction during enteral nutrition delivery in ICU patients: Risk factors, natural history and clinical implications. A post-hoc analysis of the TARGET trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 Apr 26. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Adelaide Medicine School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: Slow gastric emptying occurs frequently during critical illness and is roughly quantified at bedside by large gastric residual volumes (GRVs). A previously published trial (The Augmented versus Routine approach to Giving Energy Trial; TARGET) reported larger GRVs with energy-dense (1.5kcal/ml) compared with standard (1. Read More

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Ultra-processed foods and risk of all-cause mortality in renal transplant recipients.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 Apr 26. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Background: Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have a 6-fold higher risk of mortality than age- and sex-matched controls. Whether high consumption of ultra-processed foods is associated with survival in RTRs is unknown.

Objectives: We aimed to study the association between high consumption of ultra-processed foods and all-cause mortality in stable RTRs. Read More

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Sugar-sweetened beverage and sugar consumption and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality according to anatomic subsite.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Recent preclinical research strongly suggests that dietary sugars can enhance colorectal tumorigenesis by direct action, particularly in the proximal colon that unabsorbed fructose reaches.

Objectives: We aimed to examine long-term consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and total fructose in relation to incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) by anatomic subsite.

Methods: We followed 121,111 participants from 2 prospective US cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2014) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014), for incident CRC and related death. Read More

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