907 results match your criteria American Journal Of Cardiovascular Drugs[Journal]


COVID-19 Pandemic: Cardiovascular Complications and Future Implications.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is now a global pandemic with the highest number of affected individuals in the modern era. Not only is the infection inflicting significant morbidity and mortality, but there has also been a significant strain to the health care system and the economy. COVID-19 typically presents as viral pneumonia, occasionally leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00420-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310596PMC
June 2020
2.203 Impact Factor

Comparative Effectiveness and Costs of Enoxaparin Monotherapy Versus Unfractionated Heparin Monotherapy in Treating Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Duke University School of Medicine, Livongo Health, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) are guideline-recommended anticoagulants for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), including unstable angina (UA) and myocardial infarction with (STEMI) or without ST-segment elevation (NSTEMI). Prior efficacy and safety evidence are mainly from clinical trials. Economic data are insufficient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00419-9DOI Listing

PCSK9 Inhibitors in a German Single-Center Clinical Practice: Real-World Treatment of Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk Over 68 Weeks.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Division of Lipid Disorders, Department of Endocrinology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Ostring 3, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

Aims: Several the use of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) for patients at high/very high cardiovascular risk who are inadequately treated with maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapies (LLTs).

Objectives: We assessed the effectiveness and safety of the PCSK9i alirocumab and evolocumab in a single-center clinical practice for up to 68 weeks.

Methods: In this prospective, open-label study conducted in Germany, 635 enrolled patients were treated with alirocumab [75 or 150 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W)] or evolocumab (140 mg Q2W) according to European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society guidelines (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] > 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00411-3DOI Listing

The Safety and Efficacy of Rivaroxaban Compared with Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210000, China.

Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes mellitus.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched from the establishment of databases up to 15 October 2019. Studies on efficacy and safety outcomes of rivaroxaban and warfarin were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00407-zDOI Listing

Levosimendan Can Improve the Level of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction of Patients with Advanced Heart Failure: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010, China.

Background And Aims: Levosimendan, a calcium (Ca)-sensitizing cardiotonic agent, is mainly used in patients with advanced heart failure. However, no research could explain how levosimendan reduces the mortality in advanced heart failure patients. We aim to illustrate the efficacy of levosimendan through clinical indexes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00416-yDOI Listing

Management of Outpatient Warfarin Therapy amid COVID-19 Pandemic: A Practical Guide.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.

Many healthcare resources have been and continue to be allocated to the management of patients with COVID-19. Therefore, the ongoing care of patients receiving oral anticoagulation with warfarin is likely to be compromised amid this unprecedented crisis. This article discusses a stepwise algorithm for the management of outpatient warfarin therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00415-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247959PMC

Calcium Channel Blockers in Acute Care: The Links and Missing Links Between Hemodynamic Effects and Outcome Evidence.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 330 Cedar Street, TMP 3, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) exert profound hemodynamic effects via blockage of calcium flux through voltage-gated calcium channels. CCBs are widely used in acute care to treat concerning, debilitating, or life-threatening hemodynamic changes in many patients. The overall literature suggests that, for systemic hemodynamics, although CCBs decrease blood pressure, they normally increase cardiac output; for regional hemodynamics, although they impair pressure autoregulation, they normally increase organ blood flow and tissue oxygenation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00410-4DOI Listing

Complexity of Antiplatelet Therapy in Coronary Artery Disease Patients.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Policlinic "G. Martino", University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting with acute coronary syndrome or undergoing coronary stenting are indicated to treatment with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) combining aspirin with a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor. The management of patients with CAD who present with a complex clinical profile due to multiple comorbidities, and/or undergoing complex interventional procedures, remains challenging as a high risk for both ischemic and bleeding events is often present; hence, the risk-benefit balance on the optimal DAPT duration is difficult to evaluate. The complexity of antiplatelet therapy in CAD patients is due to the fact that this complexity embraces several aspects: the coronary anatomy, the number of vascular districts at risk for atherothrombosis, and patient comorbidities, including global frailty. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00414-0DOI Listing
May 2020
2.203 Impact Factor

Once- versus Twice-Daily Aspirin in Patients at High Risk of Thrombotic Events: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Laboratório de Farmacologia Clínica E Terapêutica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa. Avenida Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028, Lisbon, Portugal.

Background: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is a frequently used antiplatelet agent, although some individuals have reduced antiplatelet responses on ASA, with recurrent ischemic events. It has been proposed that shortening the ASA dosing interval may overcome the time-dependent renewal of the drug target, leading to a greater antiplatelet effect. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy of once- versus twice-daily ASA in conditions with increased platelet turnover. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00409-xDOI Listing

Inflammation May be the Future of Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: Does Colchicine have a Current Indication?

Authors:
Thomas F Whayne

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Gill Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Kentucky, 326 Wethington Building, 900 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY, 40536-0200, USA.

Inflammation as a cardiovascular risk factor has attracted increasing attention . The current standard of care for decreasing the occurrence of cardiovascular events includes controlling risk factors such as hypertension and maximizing the lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, a recent study demonstrated decreased cardiovascular risk with the anti-inflammatory agent canakinumab and created more interest in decreasing cardiovascular risk by decreasing inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00408-yDOI Listing

Cardiovascular Disease and Use of Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors in COVID-19.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun;20(3):217-221

School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.

There is ongoing debate on the safety of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors in COVID-19. Recently published studies highlight a potential relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and COVID-19. This article aims to summarize the evidence on the use of RAS inhibitors in CVD patients with COVID-19, focusing on safety issues of the RAS inhibitors and their relationship with COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00406-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7152511PMC

Association Between Statin Use, Intensity and Acute Liver Injury in Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Uninfected US Veterans.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Apr 1. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Dorn Research Institute, WJB Dorn Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Columbia, SC, USA.

Objective: We sought to evaluate the relationship between acute liver injury (ALI) and statins utilizing the Veterans Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI) database.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study, spanning January 2000-December 2018, compared ALI (aminotransferase > 200 U/L, severe ALI, and hospitalization with ALI) in statin users and non-users among uninfected, hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infected, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV co-infected, and HIV mono-infected veterans within 18 months. We estimated adjusted Cox proportional hazards models comparing statin users and non-users and comparing statin intensity level with non-use; and estimate Cox proportional hazards models utilizing time-dependent coding of statin intensity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00404-2DOI Listing

Exploring Medication Adherence with P2Y Inhibitors Using Conditional and Unconditional Quantile Regression Approaches.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Mar 30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Division of Cardiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Background: Previous research assessing medication adherence with P2Y inhibitors has shown good adherence rates, ranging from 78% to 92%. Studies that used administrative claims data defined adherence using an arbitrary cut point of ≥ 80% medication possession ratio (MPR) or proportion of days covered (PDC). While this method is used frequently, it does not allow the researcher to observe how each factor impacts adherence along the entire distribution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00405-1DOI Listing

Double or Triple Antithrombotic Treatment in Atrial Fibrillation Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Mar 14. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

2nd Department of Cardiology, Attikon University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Rimini 1, Chaidari, 12462, Athens, Greece.

Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have traditionally received triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT) consisting of aspirin and a P2Y inhibitor plus an oral anticoagulant (OAC) to reduce atherothrombotic events, even though this strategy is associated with a high risk of severe bleeding. Recent trials have indicated that dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT), consisting of a P2Y inhibitor plus an OAC, may be superior to TAT in terms of bleeding risk; however, the trade-off regarding ischemic complications may be questionable. Patients who have had a myocardial infarction (MI) before undergoing PCI warrant special consideration because of the accompanying high ischemic risk, including stent thrombosis, which might be exacerbated by an aspirin-free strategy such as DAT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00403-3DOI Listing

A Review of the Efficacy and Tolerability of Bempedoic Acid in the Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Mar 13. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

East Coast Institute for Research, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Despite the widespread use of statins and ezetimibe to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and associated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), many patients do not achieve adequate LDL-C lowering as per the recommended American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) guidelines and demonstrate residual cardiovascular risk. The introduction of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK-9) inhibitors in 2015 was a promising addition to hypercholesterolemia therapies, but their cost and subcutaneous administration has limited their use, and therefore, new affordable and patient friendly treatment strategies are crucial to help reduce ASCVD risk. Bempedoic acid, a drug currently under investigation, is a small molecule that has been shown to upregulate LDL receptors, decrease LDL-C, and reduce atherosclerotic plaque formation in hypercholesterolemic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00399-wDOI Listing

Amiodarone: A Comprehensive Guide for Clinicians.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Mar 13. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, 112345 Anderson St. SP1637, Loma Linda, CA, 92354, USA.

Amiodarone is an effective antiarrhythmic medication frequently used in practice for both ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. Though classified as a class III antiarrhythmic, it affects all phases of the cardiac action potential. However, the drug has several side effects, including thyroid abnormalities, pulmonary fibrosis, and transaminitis, for which routine monitoring is recommended. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00401-5DOI Listing

Defining the Role of Icosapent Ethyl in Clinical Practice.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Mar 11. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, Fresno, CA, USA.

The health benefit of fish oil, i.e. omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA) has a long history of debate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00402-4DOI Listing
March 2020
2.203 Impact Factor

Pharmacologic Management of Gout in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Failure.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Feb 24. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, 20 North Pine Street, Pharmacy Hall Room S402, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis and is often comorbid with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Hyperuricemia and gout are also independent risk factors for cardiovascular events, worsening heart failure (HF), and death. The recommended treatment modalities for gout have important implications for patients with CVD because of varying degrees of cardiovascular and HF benefit and risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00400-6DOI Listing
February 2020

Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Alirocumab in Healthy Chinese Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Ascending Single-Dose Study.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Feb 21. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Sanofi R&D, Shanghai, China.

Background: The addition of alirocumab (a fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 [PCSK9]) to background statin therapy provides significant incremental low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering and cardiovascular event risk reduction.

Objectives: Our objectives were to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of single ascending doses of alirocumab in healthy Chinese subjects.

Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase I study, 35 Chinese subjects (aged 21-45 years) with baseline LDL-C > 100 mg/dL (2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00394-1DOI Listing
February 2020
2.203 Impact Factor

Potentially Harmful Medication Use Among Medicare Patients with Heart Failure.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Feb 21. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Medication Management Program, Institute of Therapeutic Innovations and Outcomes (ITIO), The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, 921 Chatham Lane Suite 100, Columbus, OH, 43221, USA.

Background: The unintentional prescribing of medications harmful for patients with heart failure (HF) remains an ongoing problem. The American Heart Association published a scientific statement detailing a list of medications that may worsen or exacerbate a patient's HF. The use of potentially harmful medications has not been studied in Medicare patients with HF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00396-zDOI Listing
February 2020

Risk of Cardiovascular Outcomes and Antihypertensive Triple Combination Therapy Among Elderly Patients with Hypertension Enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Plan (MAP).

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Feb 11. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, 4849 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX, 77204-5047, USA.

Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular-specific hospitalizations with different types of antihypertensive triple combination therapy among patients enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Plan (MAP).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients with hypertension enrolled in a Texas MAP between January 2014 and December 2016. Antihypertensive combination therapy users were classified into three treatment groups: single-pill triple combination, fixed-dose dual combination plus a third agent, and free triple combination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00395-0DOI Listing
February 2020

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Feb 11. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

East Coast Institute for Research, 3550 University Blvd. South, Suite 101, Jacksonville, FL, 32216, USA.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because of these associated risks, managing diabetes and CVD, including heart failure (HF), has become a joint effort to reduce the risk of adverse outcomes. Although many patients with T2DM are receiving preventive therapies for CVD, their residual risk remains high for atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00397-yDOI Listing
February 2020

Evaluation of the Safety and Effectiveness of Direct-Acting Oral Anticoagulants in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Coexisting Valvular Heart Disease.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Feb 11. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

BJC Medical Group Cardiology, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Current guidelines recommend direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) over warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and valvular heart disease (VHD) without a mechanical valve or moderate to severe mitral stenosis. However, real-world data to support the safety and efficacy of DOACs in this patient population are lacking.

Objective: Our objective was to assess the safety and effectiveness of DOACs in patients with AF and VHD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-020-00398-xDOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Weight Excess Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jan 3. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Social Medicine Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Background: Obesity hypertension is an ongoing pandemic. The first-line medications to treat this condition are still subject to debate. We compared diuretics, calcium-channel blockers (CCB), beta-blockers (BB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) as an initial antihypertensive therapy for prevention of cardiovascular morbimortality of hypertensive individuals who are overweight or obese. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00393-xDOI Listing
January 2020

Evolution of Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Starting Macitentan After the Discontinuation of Other Endothelin-Receptor Antagonists: Results of a Retrospective Study.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2019 Dec 27. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Pneumology Service, University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain.

Background: Macitentan is the latest endothelin-receptor antagonist (ERA) approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), presenting enhanced properties over previous ERAs.

Objective: We describe the clinical and echocardiographic evolution of patients with PAH who started macitentan after discontinuing bosentan/ambrisentan.

Methods: This was a retrospective series of patients with different etiologies who started macitentan after the suspension of other ERAs under routine clinical practice at five Spanish hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00392-yDOI Listing
December 2019

Statins, LDL Cholesterol Control, Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, and Atherosclerosis Progression: A Clinical Perspective.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2019 Dec 16. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Laboratory of Metabolism, Nutrition and Atherosclerosis, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Savi 8, 56100, Pisa, Italy.

Despite the longstanding and widespread use of statins, they are used quite inefficiently in everyday clinical practice. This might be because of a lack of robust evidence or the wide variety of different guidelines that are frequently changed. Using data from clinical trials and some simple mathematical modeling, we sought to expand upon the relation between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control and cardiovascular risk to offer a firm basis for independent decision making in everyday clinical practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00391-zDOI Listing
December 2019

Safety of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Monoclonal Antibodies in Regard to Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2019 Dec 11. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Hospital Medical University of Chinese People's Armed Police Force, 220 Chenglin Rd, Dongli District, Tianjin, 300162, China.

Background: Evidence shows a positive association between the use of statins and new-onset diabetes. There is, however, contradictory evidence as to whether a similar association exists for the use of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies (PCSK9-mAbs) in regard to incident diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00386-wDOI Listing
December 2019
2.203 Impact Factor

Effectiveness and Safety of Restarting Oral Anticoagulation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation after an Intracranial Hemorrhage: Analysis of Medicare Part D Claims Data from 2010-2016.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2019 Dec 6. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, 3609 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA, 15216, USA.

Background: In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who survive an anticoagulant-related intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), the benefits of restarting oral anticoagulation (OAC) remain unclear.

Objective: In this study, we sought to determine the effectiveness and safety associated with resumption of OAC in atrial fibrillation patients who survive an ICH.

Methods: Using 2010-2016 Medicare claims data, we identified patients with non-valvular AF who experienced an OAC-related ICH and survived at least 6 weeks after the ICH (n = 1502). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00388-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274872PMC
December 2019

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Optimization for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Patients (ROAD-HF): Rationale and Design.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2019 Dec 4. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Division of Nephrology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Introduction: The long-term benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on outcomes in patients with chronic congestive heart failure are well-known, making them one of the most widely prescribed medications. However, the administration of ACEIs/ARBs in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) can increase the risk of morbidity and mortality secondary to worsening renal function (WRF). A decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the treatment of ADHF has been associated with an increase in mortality proportional to the degree of WRF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00389-7DOI Listing
December 2019

Abbreviated Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Followed by P2Y Inhibitor Monotherapy versus 12 Months' Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Post Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2019 Nov 30. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Introduction: An increased incidence of stent thrombosis after implantation of first-generation drug-eluting stents led to a recommendation of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for 12 months after the procedure. However, given the use of second-generation and newer drug-eluting stents, this recommendation needs to be revisited. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have studied an abbreviated DAPT regimen of ≤ 3 months followed by P2Y inhibitor monotherapy, and results have been conflicting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00390-0DOI Listing
November 2019

Value of Galectin-3 in Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2019 Nov 30. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan People's Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China.

Galectins are an ancient family of lectins characterized by evolutionarily conserved amino acid sequences and β-galactoside recognition and binding sites. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is one of 15 known galectins. This protein has important functions in numerous biological activities, including cardiac fibrosis and heart failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00387-9DOI Listing
November 2019
2.203 Impact Factor

Dexmedetomidine Reduces Atrial Fibrillation After Adult Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun;20(3):271-281

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 10, Tieyi Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100038, China.

Background: Dexmedetomidine has been shown to have antiarrhythmic effects by exhibiting sympatholytic properties and activating the vagus nerve in preclinical studies. Results from clinical trials of dexmedetomidine on atrial fibrillation (AF) following adult cardiac surgery are controversial.

Materials And Methods: We searched EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the antiarrhythmic effect of dexmedetomidine versus placebo or other anesthetic drugs in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00380-2DOI Listing
June 2020
2.203 Impact Factor

Lipid-Lowering Efficacy of Ezetimibe in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun;20(3):239-248

Sanofi, Bridgewater, NJ, USA.

Introduction: Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), especially those with recent (< 1 year) acute coronary syndrome (ACS), are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events. This risk can be reduced by lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. A comprehensive meta-analysis on the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of ezetimibe is lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00379-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266788PMC

Tinzaparin Sodium Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Practical Implications.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun;20(3):223-228

Hôpital Louis-Mourier, Service de Médecine Interne (APHP), Université Paris Diderot, Université de Paris, Colombes, France.

Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are the mainstay of the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Due to their renal elimination, the risk of accumulation with the related bleeding risk may represent a limitation for the use of LMWHs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as the risk of major bleeding is increased in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) < 30 mL/min, especially in patients with cancer. LMWH structure and molecular weight (MW) are heterogeneous among available agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00382-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266849PMC

Effects of Metformin on Left Ventricular Size and Function in Hypertensive Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results of a Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter, Phase IV Trial.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun;20(3):283-293

Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, 1-1 Mukaihata-cho, Fukakusa, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, 612-8555, Japan.

Background: Metformin is the most widely used oral antihyperglycemic agent for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the possible benefits of metformin on diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF), acute or unstable HF remains a precaution for its use.

Objective: The aim of the present prospective randomized controlled trial was to assess whether metformin treatment has beneficial effects on patients with T2DM with hypertension without overt HF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00381-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266803PMC

Ubiquinol Improves Endothelial Function in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Single-Center, Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Crossover Pilot Study.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2019 Nov 12. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Division of Cardiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, 232-0024, Japan.

Background: Endothelial dysfunction is reportedly associated with worse outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure. Ubiquinol is a reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) that may improve endothelial function.

Objective: We assessed the hypothesis that ubiquinol improves peripheral endothelial function in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00384-yDOI Listing
November 2019

Reversal of Apixaban and Rivaroxaban Using Activated Prothrombin Complex Concentrates in Patients with Major Bleeding.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun;20(3):295-299

Department of Pharmacy, Huntsville Hospital, Huntsville, AL, USA.

Background: Clinical experience with using activated prothrombin complex concentrates (aPCCs) to reverse the effects of factor Xa inhibitors is limited.

Objectives: Our objective was to assess the achievement of effective clinical hemostasis using aPCC in patients on chronic apixaban or rivaroxaban therapy presenting with major bleeding in whom a reversal agent is warranted. We also assessed the safety of the drug. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00383-zDOI Listing
June 2020
5 Reads

Bioequivalence of a Newly Developed Dabigatran Etexilate Tablet Versus the Commercial Capsule and Impact of Rabeprazole-Induced Elevated Gastric pH on Exposure in Healthy Subjects.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun;20(3):249-258

Medicine Division, Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd., 2-1-1 Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 141-6017, Japan.

Background And Objective: Dabigatran etexilate (DE) is an anticoagulant with proven efficacy and tolerability for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. For the commercial capsule, a complex formulation is used to maintain the acidic microenvironment required for maximal absorption. Consequently, its efficacy and safety are similar with or without concomitant intake of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00377-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266796PMC

Overall Mortality and LDL Cholesterol Reduction in Secondary Prevention Trials of Cardiovascular Disease.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2019 Oct 25. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Unitat de Medicina Vascular i Metabolisme, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, IISPV, CIBERDEM, Reus, Spain.

Pooled data from randomized clinical trials on lipid-lowering therapy have provided valuable information and clinical insights. Although cardiovascular disease is a common cause of death, mortality data have rarely been prominent in key lipid trials. The 4S, LIPID and HPS trials were the first to demonstrate a reduction in overall mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00376-yDOI Listing
October 2019

Predictors of Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Friedreich's Ataxia in a 16-Year Observational Study.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Apr;20(2):209-216

Cardiology Department, AP-HP, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Background: Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a cerebellar ataxia due to GAA repeat expansions in the FXN gene, and in affected patients, lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) leads to poorer prognosis. We aimed to identify patients likely to develop worsening LVEF at an early stage.

Methods: We included 115 FRDA patients aged 30 ± 10 years with 620 ± 238 GAA repeats on the shorter allele and disease onset of 15 ± 7 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00375-zDOI Listing

Non-inferiority Trial Design in Drug Development: A Primer for Cardiovascular Healthcare Professionals.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun;20(3):229-238

Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Noninferiority trials, in which a new treatment is compared with a standard active treatment, are becoming increasingly popular in cardiovascular medicine. A noninferiority trial seeks to test whether the effect of a new drug is not unacceptably worse than that of an active comparator by more than a predefined noninferiority margin. Noninferiority trials are typically used when a new drug is anticipated to have an efficacy profile similar to its comparator and offers advantages over the existing drug (better toxicity profile, less expensive, less invasive, simpler regimen, shorter treatment duration, different resistance profile). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00378-wDOI Listing

Efficacy and Safety of Clopidogrel, Prasugrel and Ticagrelor in ACS Patients Treated with PCI: A Propensity Score Analysis of the RENAMI and BleeMACS Registries.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Jun;20(3):259-269

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Turin, Italy.

Introduction: Real-life data comparing clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor for unselected patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are lacking, as are data for the temporal distribution of ischemic and bleeding risks.

Methods: A total of 19,825 patients were enrolled from the RENAMI and BleeMACS registries. Both were multicenter, retrospective, observational registries including the data and outcomes of consecutive patients with ACS who underwent primary PCI and were discharged with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00373-1DOI Listing
June 2020
8 Reads
2.203 Impact Factor

Obesity Paradox in Atrial Fibrillation: Implications for Outcomes and Relationship with Oral Anticoagulant Drugs.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Apr;20(2):125-137

Cardiology Division, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Policlinico di Modena, Via del Pozzo, 71, 41124, Modena, Italy.

In the last 40 years, concern about the obesity epidemic has increased. Data from the current literature highlight a strong relationship between obesity and atrial fibrillation (AF), particularly in relation to an increased risk for incident and recurrent AF. A phenomenon called the "obesity paradox" has emerged: the apparently counterintuitive evidence from epidemiological data indicating that overweight and obese patients may have a better prognosis than healthy-weight patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00374-0DOI Listing
April 2020
1 Read

Impact of Perioperative Levosimendan Administration on Risk of Bleeding After Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Apr;20(2):149-160

The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chinese National Health Commission and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, The State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, No.107, Wen Hua Xi Road, Jinan, 250012, China.

Background: Levosimendan, a calcium sensitizer and potassium channel opener, has been demonstrated to improve myocardial function without increasing oxygen consumption and to show protective effects in other organs. Recently, a prospective, randomized controlled trial (RCT) revealed an association between levosimendan use and a possible increased risk of bleeding postoperatively. Levosimendan's anti-platelet effects have been shown in in vitro studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00372-2DOI Listing
April 2020
2.203 Impact Factor

Adherence to Anticoagulation and Risk of Stroke Among Medicare Beneficiaries Newly Diagnosed with Atrial Fibrillation.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Apr;20(2):199-207

Division of General Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Introduction: The objective of this study was to compare the risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) with adherent use of oral anticoagulation (OAC), non-adherent use, and non-use of OAC.

Methods: Using 2013-2016 Medicare claims data, we identified patients newly diagnosed with AF in 2014-2015 and collected prescriptions filled for OAC in the 12 months after AF diagnosis (n = 39,272). We categorized participants each day into three time-dependent exposures: adherent use (≥ 80% of the previous 30 days covered with OAC), non-adherent use (0-80% covered with OAC), and non-use (0%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00371-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073283PMC
April 2020
2 Reads

Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation Following Cardiac Surgery: From Pathogenesis to Potential Therapies.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Feb;20(1):19-49

Heart Valve Disease Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Vali-e-Asr Avenue, Tehran, 1995614331, Iran.

Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a major complication after cardiac surgery which can lead to high rates of morbidity and mortality, an enhanced length of hospital stay, and an increased cost of care. POAF is postulated to be a multifactorial phenomenon; however, some major pathogeneses have been proposed, including inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and autonomic dysfunction. Genetic studies also showed that inflammatory pathways, beta-1 adrenoreceptor variants, G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 gene variants, and non-coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 4q25 chromosomal locus are involved in this phenomenon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00365-1DOI Listing
February 2020
8 Reads

Non-vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants Versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Apr;20(2):139-147

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi, China.

Background: The effect of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and liver disease remains largely unresolved. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of NOACs with warfarin in this population.

Methods: We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase databases for studies reporting the comparisons of NOACs with warfarin in patients with AF and liver disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00369-xDOI Listing

High-Dose Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Prevention: Finally Living Up to Their Potential?

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Feb;20(1):11-18

Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Monash University, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, VIC, 3168, Australia.

Despite the widespread use of statins in the setting of high cardiovascular risk, many patients continue to experience clinical events. This highlights the need to identify additional therapeutic strategies for high-risk patients. Interest in the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent cardiovascular disease has been high for several decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00363-3DOI Listing
February 2020
2.203 Impact Factor

Adherence to Disease-Modifying Therapy in Patients Hospitalized for HF: Findings from a Community-Based Study.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Apr;20(2):179-190

Cardiovascular Center, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Background: Much data about prescription adherence in patients with heart failure (HF) are available, but few exist about the evaluation of true patient adherence. Further, methods for analyzing this issue are poorly known.

Objectives: Our objective was to evaluate the impact of patient adherence to disease-modifying drugs after HF hospitalization in a community-based cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00367-zDOI Listing
April 2020
2 Reads

Current Evidence for Pharmacologic Reversal Using Direct Oral Anticoagulants: What's New?

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Apr;20(2):117-123

Department of Pharmacy, People's Hospital of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan, China.

Direct oral anticoagulants are increasingly used in clinical practice and have addressed many of the issues related to vitamin K antagonists. However, the lack of reversal in life-threatening situations raises concerns regarding patient safety. Thus, current research is aimed at developing reversal agents that can safely neutralize the effects of anticoagulants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00366-0DOI Listing
April 2020
5 Reads