380 results match your criteria American Economic Review[Journal]


Subsidizing Health Insurance for Low-Income Adults: Evidence from Massachusetts.

Am Econ Rev 2019 Apr;109(4):1530-67

Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, MA 02138.

How much are low- income individuals willing to pay for health insurance, and what are the implications for insurance markets? Using administrative data from Massachusetts’ subsidized insurance exchange, we exploit discontinuities in the subsidy schedule to estimate willingness to pay and costs of insurance among low- income adults. As subsidies decline, insurance take- up falls rapidly, dropping about 25 percent for each $40 increase in monthly enrollee premiums. Marginal enrollees tend to be lower- cost, indicating adverse selection into insurance. Read More

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Targeting with In-Kind Transfers: Evidence from Medicaid Home Care.

Am Econ Rev 2019 Apr;109(4):1461-85

Department of Economics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903.

Making a transfer in kind reduces its value to recipients but can improve targeting. We develop an approach to quantifying this tradeoff and apply it to home care. Using randomized experiments by Medicaid, we find that in-kind provision significantly reduces the value of the transfer to recipients while targeting a small fraction of the eligible population that is sicker and has fewer informal caregivers than the average eligible. Read More

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April 2019
2 Reads

Alcohol and Self-Control: A Field Experiment in India.

Authors:
Frank Schilbach

Am Econ Rev 2019 Apr;109(4):1290-322

Department of Economics, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142.

This paper studies alcohol consumption among low-income workers in India. In a 3-week field experiment, the majority of 229 cycle-rickshaw drivers were willing to forgo substantial monetary payments in order to set incentives for themselves to remain sober, thus exhibiting demand for commitment to sobriety. Randomly receiving sobriety incentives significantly reduced daytime drinking while leaving overall drinking unchanged. Read More

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Integrated Insurance Design in the Presence of Multiple Medical Technologies.

Am Econ Rev 2007 May;97(2):427-432

The Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago, 1155 E 60th St, Chicago, IL 60637.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.97.2.427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461210PMC

Equilibrium Provider Networks: Bargaining and Exclusion in Health Care Markets.

Authors:
Kate Ho Robin S Lee

Am Econ Rev 2019 02;109(2):473-522

Department of Economics, Harvard University, Littauer Center, Cambridge, MA 02138.

We evaluate the consequences of narrow hospital networks in commercial health care markets. We develop a bargaining solution, "Nash- in-Nash with Threat of Replacement," that captures insurers' incentives to exclude, and combine it with California data and estimates from Ho and Lee (2017) to simulate equilibrium outcomes under social, consumer, and insurer- optimal networks. Private incentives to exclude generally exceed social incentives, as the insurer benefits from substantially lower negotiated hospital rates. Read More

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February 2019
1 Read

Moved to Opportunity: The Long-Run Effects of Public Housing Demolition on Children.

Authors:
Eric Chyn

Am Econ Rev 2018 Oct;108(10):3028-3056

Department of Economics, University of Virginia, PO Box 400182, Charlottesville, VA 22904

This paper provides new evidence on the effects of moving out of disadvantaged neighborhoods on the long-run outcomes of children. I study public housing demolitions in Chicago, which forced low-income households to relocate to less disadvantaged neighborhoods using housing vouchers. Specifically, I compare young adult outcomes of displaced children to their peers who lived in nearby public housing that was not demolished. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.20161352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342486PMC
October 2018

How Do Patents Affect Follow-On Innovation? Evidence from the Human Genome.

Am Econ Rev 2019 ;109(1):203-36

Department of Economics, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, E52-440, Cambridge, MA 02139.

We investigate whether patents on human genes have affected follow-on scientific research and product development. Using administrative data on successful and unsuccessful patent applications submitted to the US Patent and Trademark Office, we link the exact gene sequences claimed in each application with data measuring follow-on scientific research and commercial investments. Using these data, we document novel evidence of selection into patenting: patented genes appear more valuable--prior to being patented--than non-patented genes. Read More

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February 2019

How Do Patents Affect Follow-on Innovation? Evidence from the Human Genome.

Am Econ Rev 2019 Jan;109(1):203-236

MIT and NBER.

We investigate whether patents on human genes have affected follow-on scientific research and product development. Using administrative data on successful and unsuccessful patent applications submitted to the US Patent and Trademark Office, we link the exact gene sequences claimed in each application with data measuring follow-on scientific research and commercial investments. Using this data, we document novel evidence of selection into patenting: patented genes appear more valuable-prior to being patented-than non-patented genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.20151398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6317741PMC
January 2019

Health Care Access, Costs, and Treatment Dynamics: Evidence from In Vitro Fertilization.

Am Econ Rev 2018 Dec;108(12):3725-77

Department of Economics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY.

We study public policies designed to improve access and reduce costs for in vitro fertilization (IVF). High out-of-pocket prices can deter potential patients from IVF, while active patients have an incentive to risk costly high-order pregnancies to improve their odds of treatment success. We analyze IVF's rich choice structure by estimating a dynamic model of patients' choices within and across treatments. Read More

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December 2018

Strategic Patient Discharge: the Case of Long-Term Care Hospitals.

Am Econ Rev 2018 Nov;108(11):3232-65

Department of Economics, Duke University, 228B Social Sciences Building, Durham, NC 27708.

Medicare's prospective payment system for long-term acute-care hospitals (LTCHs) provides modest reimbursements at the beginning of a patient's stay before jumping discontinuously to a large lump-sum payment after a prespecified number of days. We show that LTCHs respond to the financial incentives of this system by disproportionately discharging patients after they cross the large-payment threshold. We find this occurs more often at for-profit facilities, facilities acquired by leading LTCH chains, and facilities colocated with other hospitals. Read More

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November 2018

Near-Feasible Stable Matchings with Couples.

Am Econ Rev 2018 11;108(11):3154–69

Economics Department, University of Pennsylvania, 451 McNeil Building, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

The National Resident Matching program seeks a stable matching of medical students to teaching hospitals. With couples, stable matchings need not exist. Nevertheless, for any student preferences, we show that each instance of a matching problem has a "nearby" instance with a stable matching. Read More

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November 2018
14 Reads

Medical Care Spending and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Workers' Compensation Reforms.

Am Econ Rev 2018 Oct;108(10):2995-3027

Department of Emergency Medicine and Leonard D. Schaeffer Center for Health Policy and Economics, University of Southern California, 635 Downey Way, VPD 414C, Los Angeles, CA 90089.

Medical care represents an important component of workers' compensation benefits with the potential to improve health and post-injury labor outcomes, but little is known about the relationship between medical care spending and the labor outcomes of injured workers. We exploit the 2003--2004 California workers' compensation reforms which reduced medical spending disproportionately for workers incurring low back injuries. We link administrative claims data to earnings records for injured workers and their uninjured coworkers. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6166442PMC
October 2018
6 Reads

Incidental Bequests and the Choice to Self-Insure Late-Life Risks.

Authors:
Lee M Lockwood

Am Econ Rev 2018 Sep;108(9):2513-50

Despite facing significant uncertainty about their lifespans and health care costs, most retirees do not buy annuities or long-term care insurance. In this paper, I find that retirees’ saving and insurance choices are highly inconsistent with standard life-cycle models in which people care only about their own consumption but match well models in which bequests are luxury goods. Bequest motives tend to reduce the value of insurance by reducing the opportunity cost of precautionary saving. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Do Larger Health Insurance Subsidies Benefit Patients or Producers? Evidence from Medicare Advantage.

Am Econ Rev 2018 Aug;108(8):2048-87

University of Chicago Booth School of Business, 5807 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637

A central question in the debate over privatized Medicare is whether increased government payments to private Medicare Advantage (MA) plans generate lower premiums for consumers or higher profits for producers. Using difference‑in‑differences variation brought about by a sharp legislative change, we find that MA insurers pass through 45 percent of increased payments in lower premiums and an additional 9 percent in more generous benefits. We show that advantageous selection into MA cannot explain this incomplete pass‑through. Read More

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Marketplaces, Markets, and Market Design.

Authors:
Alvin E Roth

Am Econ Rev 2018 Jul;108(7):1609-58

Stanford University, 579 Serra Mall, Standford, CA 94305

Marketplaces are often small parts of large markets, and both markets and marketplaces come in many varieties. Market design seeks to understand what marketplaces must accomplish to enable different kinds of markets. Marketplaces can have varying degrees of success, and there can be marketplace failures. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Escaping Malthus: Economic Growth and Fertility Change in the Developing World.

Am Econ Rev 2018 Jun;108(6):1440-67

Department of Economics, Princeton University, Julis Romo Rabinowitz Building, Princeton, NJ, 08544

Following mid-twentieth century predictions of Malthusian catastrophe, fertility in the developing world more than halved, while living standards more than doubled. We analyze how fertility change related to economic growth during this episode, using data on 2.3 million women from 255 household surveys. Read More

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Legal Origins and Female HIV.

Authors:
Siwan Anderson

Am Econ Rev 2018 May;108(5):1407-89

Vancouver School of Economics, 6000 Iona Drive, Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1L4

More than one-half of all people living with HIV are women and 80 percent of all HIV-positive women in the world live in sub- Saharan Africa. This paper demonstrates that the legal origins of these formerly colonized countries significantly determine current-day female HIV rates. In particular, female HIV rates are significantly higher in common law sub- Saharan African countries compared to civil law ones. Read More

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Family Ruptures, Stress, and the Mental Health of the Next Generation.

Am Econ Rev 2018 Apr;108(4):1214-52

Stanford University School of Medicine, Redwood Building T101C, 259 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305

This paper studies how in utero exposure to maternal stress from family ruptures affects later mental health. We find that prenatal exposure to the death of a maternal relative increases take-up of ADHD medications during childhood and anti-anxiety and depression medications in adulthood. Further, family ruptures during pregnancy depress birth outcomes and raise the risk of perinatal complications necessitating hospitalization. Read More

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April 2018
15 Reads

Advertising and Risk Selection in Health Insurance Markets.

Am Econ Rev 2018 Mar;108(3):828-67

Research and Statistics, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 20th and C Street NW, Washington, DC 20551

This paper studies the impact of advertising as a channel for risk selection in Medicare Advantage. We provide evidence that insurer advertising is responsive to the gains from risk selection. Then we develop and estimate an equilibrium model of Medicare Advantage with advertising, allowing rich individual heterogeneity. Read More

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The Economic Consequences of Hospital Admissions.

Am Econ Rev 2018 Feb;108(2):308-52

Department of Economics, Northwestern University, 2211 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208

We use an event study approach to examine the economic consequences of hospital admissions for adults in two datasets: survey data from the Health and Retirement Study, and hospitalization data linked to credit reports. For non-elderly adults with health insurance, hospital admissions increase out-of-pocket medical spending, unpaid medical bills, and bankruptcy, and reduce earnings, income, access to credit, and consumer borrowing. The earnings decline is substantial compared to the out-of-pocket spending increase, and is minimally insured prior to age-eligibility for Social Security Retirement Income. Read More

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February 2018
1 Read

The Welfare Cost of Perceived Policy Uncertainty: Evidence from Social Security.

Am Econ Rev 2018 Feb;108(2):275-307

Dartmouth College, 6106 Rockefeller Hall, Hanover, NH 03755

Policy uncertainty reduces individual welfare when individuals have limited opportunities to mitigate or insure against the resulting consumption fluctuations. We field an original survey to measure the degree of perceived policy uncertainty in Social Security benefits and to estimate the impact of this uncertainty on individual welfare. Our central estimates show that on average individuals are willing to forgo 6 percent of the benefits they are supposed to get under current law to remove the policy uncertainty associated with their future Social Security benefits. Read More

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February 2018

Immigration Restrictions as Active Labor Market Policy: Evidence from the Mexican Exclusion.

Am Econ Rev 2018 Jun;108(6):1468-1487

Princeton University, Office of Population Research, Wallace Hall 2 floor, Princeton, NJ 08540 USA.

An important class of active labor market policy has received little impact evaluation: immigration barriers intended to raise wages and employment by shrinking labor supply. Theories of endogenous technical advance raise the possibility of limited or even perverse impact. We study a natural policy experiment: the exclusion of almost half a million Mexican '' farm workers from the United States to improve farm labor market conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.20170765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6040835PMC

Challenges in Constructing a Survey-Based Well-Being Index.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):81-85

Department of Economics, University of Colorado Boulder, 256 UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309-0256.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.p20171099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5901737PMC
May 2017
5 Reads

How Does Household Income Affect Child Personality Traits and Behaviors?

Am Econ Rev 2018 Mar;108(3):775-827

The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School, 100 International Drive, Baltimore, MD 21202.

We examine the effects of a quasi-experimental unconditional household income transfer on child emotional and behavioral health and personality traits. Using longitudinal data, we find that there are large beneficial effects on children's emotional and behavioral health and personality traits during adolescence. We find evidence that these effects are most pronounced for children who start out with the lowest initial endowments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.20160133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5860688PMC

Why Are Indian Children So Short? The Role of Birth Order and Son Preference.

Am Econ Rev 2017 Sep;107(9):2600-29

Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

Child stunting in India exceeds that in poorer regions like sub-Saharan Africa. Data on over 168,000 children show that, relative to Africa, India's height disadvantage increases sharply with birth order. We posit that India’s steep birth order gradient is due to favoritism toward eldest sons, which affects parents' fertility decisions and resource allocation across children. Read More

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September 2017
1 Read

Can Women Have Children and a Career? IV Evidence from IVF Treatments.

Am Econ Rev 2017 Jun;107(6):1611-37

Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF (in vitro fertilization) induced fertility variation among childless women to estimate the causal effect of having children on their career. For this purpose, we use administrative data on IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of IVF success do not depend on labor market histories, IVF treatment success provides a plausible instrument for childbearing. Read More

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June 2017
1 Read

Teenage Motherhood and Sibling Outcomes.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):633-7

School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

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Does Public Assistance Reduce Recidivism?

Authors:
Crystal S Yang

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):551-5

Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA.

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Excess Male Infant Mortality: The Gene-Institution Interactions.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):541-5

Statistics Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A OT6, Canada.

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How Children with Mental Disabilities Affect Household Investment Decisions.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):536-40

University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.

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Disease and Gender Gaps in Human Capital Investment: Evidence from Niger’s 1986 Meningitis Epidemic.

Am Econ Rev 2017 05;107(5):530-5

Columbia University, New York, NY.

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The Impact of Indonesian Forest Fires on Singaporean Pollution and Health.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):526-9

Department of Economics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

Between 1990 and 2015, Indonesia lost nearly 25 percent of its forests, largely due to intentional burning to clear land for cultivation of palm oil and timber plantations.1 The neighboring "victim countries" experienced severe deteriorations in air quality as a result of these fires. For example, Singapore experienced record air pollution levels in June of 2013 and again in September of 2015 as a result of the Indonesian forest fires. Read More

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May 2017
2 Reads

Shale Gas Development and Drinking Water Quality.

Authors:
Elaine Hill Lala Ma

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):522-5

Department of Economics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

The extent of environmental externalities associated with shale gas development (SGD) is important for welfare considerations and, to date, remains uncertain (Mason, Muehlenbachs, and Olmstead 2015; Hausman and Kellogg 2015). This paper takes a first step to address this gap in the literature. Our study examines whether shale gas development systematically impacts public drinking water quality in Pennsylvania, an area that has been an important part of the recent shale gas boom. Read More

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Does Forest Loss Increase Human Disease? Evidence from Nigeria.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):516-21

Department of Economics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT.

It is estimated that about one quarter of the global disease burden in terms of healthy life years lost and about one quarter of all premature deaths can be attributed to modifiable environmental factors (Pruss-Ustun and Corvalan 2006). Three infectious diseases--diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria--account for the largest absolute burden in developing countries with children facing the greatest impacts. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the health burden of air and water pollution, as well as important productivity and income effects (see, for example, reviews of the literature in Pattanayak and Pfaff 2009 and Greenstone and Jack 2016). Read More

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May 2017
1 Read

Traditional Beliefs and Learning about Maternal Risk in Zambia.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):511-5

Aix-Marseille School of Economics, Aix-Marseille University, Centrale Marseille, Chemin du Château Lafarge, 13290 Les Milles FR, CNRS and EHESS.

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Personality Traits and Performance Contracts: Evidence from a Field Experiment among Maternity Care Providers in India.

Am Econ Rev 2017 05;107(5):506-10

Department of Economics, University College London, London.

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May 2017
5 Reads

Precommitment, Cash Transfers, and Timely Arrival for Birth: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Nairobi Kenya.

Am Econ Rev 2017 05;107(5):501-5

Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

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Mothers Care More, But Fathers Decide: Educating Parents about Child Health in Uganda.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):496-500

Department of Economics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

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Wearable Technologies and Health Behaviors: New Data and New Methods to Understand Population Health.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):481-5

Haas School, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

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The Role of Marriage in Fighting HIV: A Quantitative Illustration for Malawi.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):158-62

Department of Economics, University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.

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May 2017
1 Read

Repugnance Management and Transactions in the Body.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):86-90

Duke University School of Law, Durham, NC.

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Reducing Crime and Violence: Experimental Evidence from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Liberia.

Am Econ Rev 2017 Apr;107(4):1165-1206

Clinical Psychology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.

We show that a number of noncognitive skills and preferences, including patience and identity, are malleable in adults, and that investments in them reduce crime and violence. We recruited criminally engaged men and randomized one-half to eight weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy designed to foster self-regulation, patience, and a noncriminal identity and lifestyle. We also randomized $200 grants. Read More

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April 2017
1 Read

A Structural Model of the Retail Market for Illicit Drugs.

Am Econ Rev 2017 Mar;107(3):858-96

Department of Economics, London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom.

We estimate a model of illicit drugs markets using data on purchases of crack cocaine. Buyers are searching for high-quality drugs, but they determine drugs' quality (i.e. Read More

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March 2017
3 Reads

Detecting Potential Overbilling in Medicare Reimbursement via Hours Worked.

Am Econ Rev 2017 Feb;107(2):562-91

Department of Economics and Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

We propose a novel and easy-to-implement approach to detect potential overbilling based on the hours worked implied by the service codes which physicians submit to Medicare. Using the Medicare Part B Fee- for-Service (FFS) Physician Utilization and Payment Data in 2012 and 2013 released by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, we construct estimates for physicians' hours spent on Medicare beneficiaries. We find that about 2,300 physicians, representing about 3 percent of those with 20 or more hours of Medicare Part B FFS services, have billed Medicare over 100 hours per week. Read More

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February 2017

Disability Insurance and the Dynamics of the Incentive Insurance Trade-Off.

Am Econ Rev 2018 Oct;105(10):2986-3029

Department of Economics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

We provide a life-cycle framework for comparing insurance and disincentive effects of disability benefits. The risks that individuals face and the parameters of the Disability Insurance (DI ) program are estimated from consumption, health, disability insurance, and wage data. We characterize the effects of disability insurance and study how policy reforms impact behavior and welfare. Read More

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October 2018

The Economic Consequences of Hospital Admissions.

Am Econ Rev 2018 Feb;102(2):308-352

Department of Economics, Northwestern, 2211 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208, and NBER.

We use an event study approach to examine the economic consequences of hospital admissions for adults in two datasets: survey data from the Health and Retirement Study, and hospitalization data linked to credit reports. For non-elderly adults with health insurance, hospital admissions increase out-of-pocket medical spending, unpaid medical bills and bankruptcy, and reduce earnings, income, access to credit and consumer borrowing. The earnings decline is substantial compared to the out-of-pocket spending increase, and is minimally insured prior to age-eligibility for Social Security Retirement Income. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.20161038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5809140PMC
February 2018
1 Read

Shale Gas Development and Drinking Water Quality.

Authors:
Elaine Hill Lala Ma

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):522-525

Department of Economics, University of Kentucky Business and Economics Building, Lexington, Kentucky United States 40506.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.p20171133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5804812PMC

Abducting Economics.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):298-302

University of Florida, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100009, Gainesville, FL 32610-0009.

Abduction is the process of generating and choosing models, hypotheses and data analyzed in response to surprising findings. All good empirical economists abduct. Explanations usually evolve as studies evolve. Read More

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http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/10.1257/aer.p20171118
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.p20171118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5804814PMC
May 2017
14 Reads

Choice Inconsistencies among the Elderly: Evidence from Plan Choice in the Medicare Part D Program: Reply.

Am Econ Rev 2017 Dec;106(12):3962-3987

MIT and NBER, MIT Department of Economics, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Bldg. E52-434, Cambridge, MA 02139.

We explore the in- and out- of sample robustness of tests for choice inconsistencies based on parameter restrictions in parametric models, focusing on tests proposed by Ketcham, Kuminoff and Powers (KKP). We argue that their non-parametric alternatives are inherently conservative with respect to detecting mistakes. We then show that our parametric model is robust to KKP's suggested specification checks, and that comprehensive goodness of fit measures perform better with our model than the expected utility model. Read More

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http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/10.1257/aer.20151318
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.20151318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5695563PMC
December 2017
3 Reads

Consumption Smoothing and Frequency of Benefit Payments of Cash Transfer Programs.

Am Econ Rev 2017 May;107(5):430-435

Center for Economic and Social Research, USC, 1909 K Street NW, Suite 530, Washington, DC 20006.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.p20171147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5684884PMC
May 2017
1 Read