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    38 results match your criteria American Behavioral Scientist[Journal]

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    Effects of Disclosing Sponsored Content in Blogs: How the Use of Resistance Strategies Mediates Effects on Persuasion.
    Am Behav Sci 2016 11 22;60(12):1458-1474. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    Universitity of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    This article presents two studies examining the effects of disclosing online native advertising (i.e., sponsored content in blogs) on people's brand attitude and purchase intentions. Read More

    Environmental Stigma: Resident Responses to Living in a Contaminated Area.
    Am Behav Sci 2016 Oct 7;60(11):1322-1341. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    This article examined the extent to which residents living in the Midland-Saginaw-Bay City area in Eastern Michigan felt stigmatized due to industrial contamination. Seventy in-depth interviews were conducted with local residents, focusing on the extent to which they experienced three aspects of stigma-affective, cognitive, and behavioral. Results indicated that although some participants were not concerned with living in a contaminated community, local residents largely perceived dioxin as a risk to individual health and the local environment. Read More

    Social Disadvantage and Crime: A Criminological Puzzle.
    Am Behav Sci 2016 Sep 27;60(10):1232-1259. Epub 2016 Apr 27.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. Read More

    The Integration Paradox: Empiric Evidence From the Netherlands.
    Am Behav Sci 2016 May 26;60(5-6):583-596. Epub 2016 Feb 26.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    The integration paradox refers to the phenomenon of the more highly educated and structurally integrated immigrants turning away from the host society, rather than becoming more oriented toward it. This article provides an overview of the empirical evidence documenting this paradox in the Netherlands. In addition, the theoretical arguments and the available findings about the social psychological processes involved in this paradox are considered. Read More

    The Long Term Recovery of New Orleans' Population after Hurricane Katrina.
    Am Behav Sci 2015 Sep 17;59(10):1231-1245. Epub 2015 Jun 17.
    Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
    Hurricane Katrina created a catastrophe in the city of New Orleans when the storm surge caused the levee system to fail on August 29, 2005. The destruction of housing displaced hundreds of thousands of residents for varying lengths of time, often permanently. It also revealed gaps in our knowledge of how population is recovered after a disaster causes widespread destruction of urban infrastructure, housing and workplaces, and how mechanisms driving housing recovery often produce unequal social, spatial and temporal population recovery. Read More

    The effects of diversity and network ties on innovations: The emergence of a new scientific field.
    Am Behav Sci 2015 May 14;59(5):548-564. Epub 2014 Nov 14.
    Northwestern University.
    This study examines the influence of different types of diversity, both observable and unobservable, on the creation of innovative ideas. Our framework draws upon theory and research on information processing, social categorization, coordination, and homophily to posit the influence of cognitive, gender, and country diversity on innovation. Our longitudinal model is based on a unique dataset of 1,354 researchers who helped create the new scientific field of Oncofertility, by collaborating on 469 publications over a four-year period. Read More

    Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): Promoting Activity Space Approaches in Research on Place and Health.
    Am Behav Sci 2013 Aug;57(8):1057-1081
    Department of Biobehavioral Health and the Population Research Institute, Penn State.
    Exposure science has developed rapidly and there is an increasing call for greater precision in the measurement of individual exposures across space and time. Social science interest in an individual's environmental exposure, broadly conceived, has arguably been quite limited conceptually and methodologically. Indeed, we appear to lag behind our exposure science colleagues in our theories, data, and methods. Read More

    Racism and Health II: A Needed Research Agenda for Effective Interventions.
    Am Behav Sci 2013 Aug;57(8)
    Nursing and Health Studies Program, University of Washington Bothell, Bothell, WA.
    This article reviews the empirical evidence that suggests that there is a solid foundation for more systematic research attention to the ways in which interventions that seek to reduce the multiple dimensions of racism can improve health and reduce disparities in health. First, research reveals that policies and procedures that seek to reduce institutional racism by improving neighborhood and educational quality and enhancing access to additional income, employment opportunities and other desirable resources can improve health. Second, research is reviewed that shows that there is the potential to improve health through interventions that can reduce cultural racism at the societal and individual level. Read More

    Racism and Health I: Pathways and Scientific Evidence.
    Am Behav Sci 2013 Aug;57(8)
    Nursing and Health Studies Program, University of Washington Bothell, Bothell, WA.
    This article reviews the scientific research that indicates that despite marked declines in public support for negative racial attitudes in the United States, racism, in its multiple forms, remains embedded in American society. The focus of the article is on the review of empirical research that suggests that racism adversely affects the health of non-dominant racial populations in multiple ways. First, institutional racism developed policies and procedures that have reduced access to housing, neighborhood and educational quality, employment opportunities and other desirable resources in society. Read More

    Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities.
    Am Behav Sci 2013 Aug;57(8)
    University of Michigan.
    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. Read More

    Climate Change Denial Books and Conservative Think Tanks: Exploring the Connection.
    Am Behav Sci 2013 Jun;57(6):699-731
    Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.
    The conservative movement and especially its think tanks play a critical role in denying the reality and significance of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), especially by manufacturing uncertainty over climate science. Books denying AGW are a crucial means of attacking climate science and scientists, and we examine the links between conservative think tanks (CTTs) and 108 climate change denial books published through 2010. We find a strong link, albeit noticeably weaker for the growing number of self-published denial books. Read More

    Health Inequalities in Global Context.
    Am Behav Sci 2013 26;57(8):1014-1039. Epub 2013 Jun 26.
    Boston University.
    The existence of social inequalities in health is well established. One strand of research focuses on inequalities in health within a single country. A separate and newer strand of research focuses on the relationship between inequality and average population health across countries. Read More

    Measuring Children's Media Use in the Digital Age: Issues and Challenges.
    Am Behav Sci 2009 Apr;52(8):1152-1176
    In this new and rapidly changing era of digital technology, there is increasing consensus among media scholars that there is an urgent need to develop measurement approaches which more adequately capture media use The overarching goal of this paper is facilitate the development of measurement approaches appropriate for capturing children's media use in the digital age. The paper outlines various approaches to measurement, focusing mainly on those which have figured prominently in major existing studies of children's media use. We identify issues related to each technique, including advantages and disadvantages. Read More

    An Ecological Perspective on the Media and Youth Development.
    Am Behav Sci 2009 Apr;52(8):1186-1203
    The Pennsylvania State University.
    From an ecological perspective, daily activities are both a cause and a consequence of youth development. Research on youth activities directs attention to the processes through which daily activities may have an impact on youth, including: (a) providing chances to learn and practice skills; (b) serving as a forum for identity development; (c) affording opportunities to build social ties; (d) connecting youth to social institutions; and (e) keeping youth from engaging in other kinds of activities. Youth's daily activities, in turn, both influence and are influenced by the multi-layered ecology within which their lives are embedded, an ecology that ranges from the proximal contexts of everyday life (e. Read More

    The Effects of Peer Group Network Properties on Drug Use Among Homeless Youth.
    Am Behav Sci 2005 Apr;48(8):1102-1123
    University of California-Los Angeles.
    The authors examine how the properties of peer networks affect amphetamine, cocaine, and injection drug use over 3 months among newly homeless adolescents, aged 12 to 20 in Los Angeles (n = 217; 83% retention at 3 months) and Melbourne (n = 119; 72% retention at 3 months). Several hypotheses regarding the effects of social network properties on the peer influence process are developed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses show that higher concentrations of homeless peers in networks at recruitment were associated with increased likelihood of amphetamine and cocaine use at 3-month follow-up. Read More

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