396 results match your criteria Ambix[Journal]


Partington Prize 2020.

Authors:

Ambix 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2020.1763694DOI Listing

An Alchemist in Greenland: Hans Egede (1686-1758) and Alchemical Practice in the Colony of Hope.

Authors:
Hilde Norrgrén

Ambix 2020 May 22;67(2):153-173. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Oslo University, Norway.

The article explores the practical and social circumstances of the alchemical experiments performed by the Norwegian priest and missionary Hans Egede (1686-1758) in the Colony of Hope in Greenland. Sources not previously used in connection with Egede's alchemy are used to investigate in which ways his situation in the colony affected alchemical practice. A lack of fuel is found to have been a main obstacle which may have limited the number of experiments that Egede was able to perform in Greenland. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2020.1747305DOI Listing

Values in the Development of Early Periodic Tables.

Ambix 2020 May 15;67(2):174-198. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Julius Lothar Meyer, John Newlands, and Dmitrii Mendeleev were amongst the discoverers of the periodic system of the elements. Although their systems are similar enough to be recognised as the precursors for the modern periodic system, they were also different. Here, I argue that many of their differences can be explained in terms of how the chemists emphasised different values in the process of developing their systems. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2020.1747325DOI Listing

A Matter of Philosophers and Spheres: Medieval Glosses on Artephius's .

Authors:
Nicola Polloni

Ambix 2020 May 14;67(2):135-152. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Institut für Philosophie, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The article examines the two Latin versions of Artephius's () that have been preserved in early modern collections of alchemical texts. A comparative analysis of the two versions shows that one of them has undergone a process of textual manipulation. In particular, an interpolation of short philosophical passages concerning the doctrine of prime matter has relevant interpretative implications. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2020.1747307DOI Listing

Alchemy and Chemical Medicines in Early Colonial Lima, Peru.

Authors:
Linda A Newson

Ambix 2020 May 14;67(2):107-134. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

School of Advanced Study, Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London, London, UK.

The article explores the use of minerals and the nature of chemical methods employed in Lima in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. It does so through examining the availability of mineral resources, including pre-European knowledge of their use, through surveying the books and equipment used by physicians and apothecaries, and finally by examining prescriptions for medicines that were used to treat patients. It concludes that minerals were probably more commonly employed in medicines in Lima than in Spain but suggests that their preparation and use at this time drew on Spain's alchemical tradition rather than on writings by Paracelsus and his followers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2020.1747306DOI Listing

Real or Fake? New Light on the Paracelsian .

Ambix 2020 Feb;67(1):4-29

University of Zurich, Switzerland.

So far it has never been clearly decided whether the treatise constitutes an authentic work by the physician and natural philosopher Theophrastus Bombast of Hohenheim, called Paracelsus (1493/94-1541) This article outlines the manuscript and printing traditions of , in which a recently discovered manuscript from 1571 is identified as the earliest source. The watermarks of this manuscript refer to the Tyrolean Inn Valley, where great alchemical expertise was available due to silver mining. A detailed examination of the content and style of the preface and the nine chapters indicates the involvement of at least three different authors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2020.1720339DOI Listing
February 2020

Paracelsus, a Transmutational Alchemist.

Authors:
Andrew Sparling

Ambix 2020 Feb;67(1):62-87

Independent scholar.

A scholarly consensus has long held that in redefining alchemy, Paracelsus rejected metallic transmutation. I show here, however, that for most of his career Paracelsus believed that it was possible to change one metal into another, and even late in his short life he did not break with that view. Furthermore, in certain places in his works he also represented himself, occasionally directly and more often obliquely, as a practical transmutationist. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2020.1720358DOI Listing
February 2020

The Homunculus and the Paracelsian .

Authors:
Amadeo Murase

Ambix 2020 Feb;67(1):47-61

European-American Culture Department, Seigakuin University, Saitama, Japan.

As William R. Newman has already shown, the alchemical homunculus described in the pseudo-Paracelsian writing was not the only kind of "homunculus" present in the works of (or attributed to) Paracelsus. Two other important kinds of "homunculi" indeed appeared in other treatises: one in and the other in both and the . Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2020.1720359DOI Listing
February 2020

Bad Chemistry: Basilisks and Women in Paracelsus and pseudo-Paracelsus.

Authors:
William R Newman

Ambix 2020 Feb;67(1):30-46

Indiana University, USA.

The basilisk of the pseudo-Paracelsian is the evil twin of the homunculus. Created from menstrual blood by artificial ectogenesis in an alchemical laboratory, the basilisk embodies the poisonous character traditionally ascribed to catamenial women, but magnified and concentrated by its mode of generation to the degree that it can kill by its glance alone. How does this remarkable thought experiment relate to other instances of the basilisk in the genuine and pseudonymous corpus of Paracelsus? The present paper outlines two primary uses which emerge repeatedly: first, in works other than the basilisk is used by Paracelsus and his imitators as a means of explaining action at a distance, especially in the case of plague. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2020.1720341DOI Listing
February 2020

Cross and Crucible: Alchemy in the Theology of Paracelsus.

Ambix 2020 Feb 24;67(1):88-99. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Paracelsus was not only a reformer of medicine with a preference for medical alchemy, but also emerged as a radical church reformer. However, he only rarely used the imagery of alchemy as a parable for theological salvation. Fire as the driving force for every alchemical process was also suitable as an image for the purification of souls. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2020.1723944DOI Listing
February 2020

Paracelsus, Forgeries and Transmutation: Introduction.

Ambix 2020 02 24;67(1):1-3. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

The Italian Academy for Advanced Studies, Columbia University, New York, USA.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2020.1721764DOI Listing
February 2020

Humphry Davy's Early Chemical Knowledge, Theory and Experiments: An Edition of His 1798 Manuscript, "An Essay on Heat and the Combinations of Light" from The Royal Institution of Cornwall, Courtney Library, MS DVY/2.

Ambix 2019 Nov 10;66(4):303-345. Epub 2019 Nov 10.

University College London, UK.

This paper publishes, for the first time, Humphry Davy's June 1798 "An Essay on Heat and the Combinations of Light" written in Penzance. It is the manuscript that he sent to Thomas Beddoes which secured for him the position of Superintendent of the Medical Pneumatic Institution in Bristol while aged only nineteen. It is thus a crucial document that increases our understanding about how Davy made that move from Cornwall to Bristol, without which it is highly unlikely that he would have followed the spectacular career trajectory that he did. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1684080DOI Listing
November 2019

Lothar Meyer's Pathway to Periodicity.

Authors:
Alan J Rocke

Ambix 2019 Nov 23;66(4):265-302. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Without dwelling on issues of priority regarding the discovery of the periodic system of the elements, this study offers a connected narrative regarding Lothar Meyer's investigative pathway from the spring and summer of 1856 until the end of 1869, in his gradually deepening understanding of periodic relationships among the elements. Dmitrii Mendeleev's route to periodicity has been the subject of extensive investigation and debate; by contrast, there is nothing in the literature that takes a similarly detailed look at Lothar Meyer's personal pathway to the periodic system. This study strives toward a deeper understanding of the history of the discovery of the archetypical symbol of chemistry as a whole, the periodic table; it concludes by offering a wider object lesson. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1677976DOI Listing
November 2019

New Studies on Humphry Davy: Introduction.

Ambix 2019 May-Aug;66(2-3):95-102. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

c Lancaster University , England.

This special issue of brings together eight new studies on Humphry Davy together with an appreciation of the life and work of David Knight, much of whose scholarship was devoted to understanding Davy. Taken together they provide a much richer and more nuanced account of aspects of Davy's life, showing how he and his work fitted into the very complex and difficult social, cultural and political contexts of the opening decades of the nineteenth century. Taking as our starting point Thomas Carlyle's 1829 critique of modern science, in this introduction we weld together the themes that emerge from these papers, many of which ground their results in the project to publish Davy's . Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1625238DOI Listing
June 2019
6 Reads

Sources and Resources for Davy: 1960 and Now.

Authors:
David Knight

Ambix 2019 May-Aug;66(2-3):239-245. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1622259DOI Listing
June 2019
2 Reads

New Light on John Davy.

Authors:
Andrew Lacey

Ambix 2019 May-Aug;66(2-3):195-213. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

a Lancaster University , England.

John Davy (1790-1868), the only brother of Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829), was an army doctor, serving overseas, in various posts, in Belgium, France, Ceylon, the Ionian Islands, Malta, and the West Indies. He was also a researcher, a writer in his own right, and the editor of his brother's works. This study, drawing principally on three unpublished manuscript sources recovered during work on the Davy Letters Project, examines a crucial, formative period in John Davy's life - the years 1808-1814 - and situates him in the cultures and networks, scientific and literary, of which he was part. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1620985DOI Listing
June 2019
2 Reads

David Marcus Knight (1936-2018): An Appreciation.

Authors:
William H Brock

Ambix 2019 May-Aug;66(2-3):246-263. Epub 2019 May 30.

a University of Leicester , UK.

The article is a biography of the historian of science, David M. Knight. It contains reminiscences of the author's relations with Knight while he was a postgraduate at Oxford and thereby conveys an impression of the state of history of science in Britain in the 1960s. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1621499DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Humphry Davy: Analogy, Priority, and the "true philosopher".

Authors:
Sharon Ruston

Ambix 2019 May-Aug;66(2-3):121-139. Epub 2019 May 29.

a Lancaster University , UK.

This essay explores how Davy fashioned himself as, what he called in his poetry, a "true philosopher." He defined the "true philosopher" as someone who eschewed monetary gain for his scientific work, preferring instead to give knowledge freely for the public good, and as someone working at a higher level than the mere experimentalist. Specifically, Davy presented himself as using the method of analogy to reach his discoveries and emphasised that he understood the "principle" behind his findings. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1616947DOI Listing
May 2019
7 Reads

Constructing Humphry Davy's Biographical Image.

Ambix 2019 May-Aug;66(2-3):214-238. Epub 2019 May 29.

a The Royal Institution and University College London , England.

This paper, which is also a contribution to the somewhat understudied area of the history of biography, discusses a couple of short accounts of Humphry Davy's life and the three major biographies published in the years following his death. These were an "anti-biography" by John Ayrton Paris (1831) and two admiring biographies by Davy's younger brother John Davy (1836, 1858). By examining the processes surrounding their writing and publication, this study illustrates how Davy's biographical reputation was constructed, how his surviving manuscripts and related documents came to be collected and preserved and so help us understand the effects they continue to exert on Davy scholarship. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1620986DOI Listing
May 2019
9 Reads

The Partington Prize 2020.

Authors:

Ambix 2019 May-Aug;66(2-3):264. Epub 2019 May 29.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1620482DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Chivalrous Chemistry.

Ambix 2019 May-Aug;66(2-3):103-120. Epub 2019 May 23.

a Science Museum , London , UK.

In (1992), Jan Golinski argued that Humphry Davy's career was "substantially responsible" for allowing chemistry to emerge "with greatly enhanced esteem and respectability" from the "crisis" of the 1790s, when it had become associated with the radical politics of the chemists Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) and Thomas Beddoes (1760-1808). In this paper, I will flesh out the transformation noted by Golinski of chemistry into a respectable discipline under Davy's tenure at the Royal Institution. The dissociation of chemistry from radical politics was achieved through the influence of Davy's upper-class, female-audience at the Institution. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1616931DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

"The Fitness of Their Union": Travel and Health in the Letters of Humphry and Jane Davy.

Authors:
Jan Golinski

Ambix 2019 May-Aug;66(2-3):181-194. Epub 2019 May 23.

a University of New Hampshire , Durham , NH , USA.

The letters of Humphry Davy and his circle, to be published shortly, shed new light on his marriage to Jane Apreece. This paper examines the journeys undertaken by the couple, together and separately, with particular attention to the therapeutic benefits they sought from travel. I argue that their increasingly divergent itineraries reflected a growing understanding that Humphry and Jane had different humoral temperaments or constitutions, leading them to seek different climatic conditions to cure their ailments. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1616945DOI Listing
May 2019
17 Reads

Humphry Davy and the Problem of Analogy.

Authors:
Gregory Tate

Ambix 2019 May-Aug;66(2-3):140-157. Epub 2019 May 22.

a University of St Andrews , Scotland.

Analogy, the comparison of one set of relations to another, was essential to Humphry Davy's understanding of chemistry. Throughout his career, Davy used analogical reasoning to direct and to interpret his experimental analyses of the chemical reactions between substances. In his writing, he deployed analogies to organise and to explain his theories about the relations between physical processes and between the properties of different chemical elements and compounds. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00026980.2019.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1616944DOI Listing
May 2019
6 Reads

Davy Takes to the Hills: Dialogic Enquiry and the Aesthetics of the Prospect View.

Authors:
Tim Fulford

Ambix 2019 May-Aug;66(2-3):158-180. Epub 2019 May 15.

a De Montfort University , Leicester , England.

I discuss some of the versions of scientific enquiry used and promoted by Davy, arguing that his self-fashioning as a "genius" and "hero of science" in the years 1801-1820, paralleling the self-fashioning of his friend Wordsworth, created a public persona that tended to occlude a practice of group enquiry to which, however, he publicly returned in his last years - significantly revising it so that it became a dialogic form of writing. This form, I suggest, construed knowledge not as the production of facts - or elements - by inductive method and controlled experiment, but as a conversational process between trusted peers, in which it is not just possible but fundamental to express doubt. Requiring no absolute commitment to a single view, dialogic exploration embraced uncertainty to engender new questions and ambivalence to generate new modes of enquiry. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1616946DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry Award Scheme 2019.

Authors:

Ambix 2019 Feb;66(1):93-94

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1550037DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Adulation or Adulteration? Representing Chemical Dyes in the Victorian Media.

Authors:
Carolyn Cobbold

Ambix 2019 Feb 13;66(1):23-50. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

a Cambridge University , Cambridge , UK.

This essay describes how the Victorian media reported on the transformation of coal tar into a synthetic palette of colours in the form of aniline and azo dyes. These dyes were the first of many new chemical substances including drugs, perfumes, and flavourings, which chemists began to synthesise and produce on an industrial scale from a waste product of the coal gas industry. Although intended for use in the textile industry, the new dyes soon began to be added to food, becoming one of the first examples of laboratory-created, industrially manufactured chemicals to permeate our daily life in unexpected ways. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1574385DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Revisiting Isaac Newton's Index Chemicus: A Response to Richard S. Westfall.

Authors:
Meagan S Allen

Ambix 2019 Feb 5;66(1):72-81. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

a Indiana University , Bloomington , USA.

Previous attempts to date the five editions of Isaac Newton's Index Chemicus found in Keynes MS 30 (King's College Library, Cambridge University) have relied on an incomplete examination of the citations Newton provides for his references. This study shows that a full examination of all Newton's citations provides a more accurate method of dating, and thus pushes the timeline of production for all versions forward several years from the early 1680s to the early 1690s. It also proves that authors previously thought to be unimportant to Newton's late alchemical writings, such as Robert Boyle, played a larger role than once recognised. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1573523DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

The Pocket Laboratory: The Blowpipe in Eighteenth-Century Swedish Chemistry.

Ambix 2019 Feb 5;66(1):1-22. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

a Department of History , Yale University , New Haven , CT , USA.

This article examines the role of the blowpipe in the discovery process of the disproportionately large number of new elements found by Swedish chem-ists during the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth. While individual chemists abroad used versions of the tool, in Sweden alone its use was ubiquitous across the chemical and mineralogical research community, and its consistently simple handheld design made basic dry chemical analysis quick, cheap, and portable. This shared use of the tool was crucial to the development of the mineral analysis projects that uncovered new substances, first by enabling the adoption of a system defining minerals by their chemical components and mineralogy by chemical analysis, and second by providing a simple and practical method for that analysis that facilitated collaboration across institutions, physical distance, and time. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1573497DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

For Science, King and Country: The Life and Legacy of Henry Moseley.

Authors:
Michael Jewess

Ambix 2018 Nov 22:1-3. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

a Harwell, Oxfordshire , England.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1548411DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Berthelot's Pathway from Synthesis to Thermochemistry.

Ambix 2019 Feb 3;66(1):51-71. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

a Lycée de l'Escaut , Valenciennes , France.

Why did Marcellin Berthelot turn away from his successful research in organic synthesis around 1864 to devote himself to the difficult and uncertain path of thermochemistry? Jean Jacques and others have argued that Berthelot's shift can be seen as a result of his flawed understanding of the emerging atomistically based theories of structural chemistry; a sense that he was being left behind by this field, it is maintained, led him to try something different. In contrast, I will argue that thermochemistry was a logical progression of Berthelot's overarching desire to predict chemical action, a great challenge in the middle of the nineteenth century. Berthelot hoped and expected that synthesis and chemical industry would transform the conditions of our existence. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1537326DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

The Measure of All Things. A History of Analytical Chemistry.

Authors:
William H Brock

Ambix 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

a Eastbourne , UK.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1534645DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Reading Newton in Early Modern Europe.

Ambix 2018 Oct 17:1-2. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

a University of Oxford.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1534334DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Lux in Tenebris: The Visual and the Symbolic in Western Esotericism.

Authors:
Didier Kahn

Ambix 2018 Oct 5. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

a CNRS, CELLF 16-18 , Paris.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1529899DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

James Smithson on the Calamines: Chemical Combination in Crystals.

Authors:
Stephen T Irish

Ambix 2018 Nov 17;65(4):373-397. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

a Independent scholar.

The three mineral species that constitute the common "calamines," or non-sulphurous ores of zinc, were first definitively identified in 1803 by the British chemist and mineralogist James Smithson. The present article proposes a close exegesis of Smithson's argument, which has not previously been studied in any detail. His reasoning integrated chemical, natural historical, and crystallographic considerations, and illustrates important features of the practice of mineral chemistry at this time. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1520521DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Alchemical Patronage and the Making of an Adept: Letters of Michael Sendivogius to Emperor Rudolf II and His Chamberlain Hans Popp.

Ambix 2018 Nov 11;65(4):324-355. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

b Wolfson College, University of Oxford , UK.

Based on four extant letters the famous Polish alchemist Michael Sendivogius wrote to Emperor Rudolf II and his first chamberlain Hans Popp between 1597 and 1602, this paper adds to a growing body of revisionist scholarship on alchemy in Rudolfine Prague. Unlike most of his many rivals - including luminaries such as John Dee and Michael Maier - who hoped for the Emperor's patronage in vain, Sendivogius officially became a courtier at the imperial court in 1594. As such he was in the privileged position of having access to the Emperor and his close advisors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512776DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

The Survival of the Frater Medicus? English Friars and Alchemy, ca. 1370-ca. 1425.

Ambix 2018 Aug 24;65(3):232-249. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

a King's College, University of Cambridge , UK.

This essay reinserts friars into the story of alchemy and medicine in late medieval England. Much of the evidence for the activity of friars, mostly Franciscans, is to be found in a Latin text compiled in 1416-1425, the Tabula medicine. Here friars appear as sources for remedies, and a significant number of these remedies are alchemical. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512780DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Alchemy and the Mendicant Orders of Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

Ambix 2018 Aug 24;65(3):201-209. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

c University of York , UK.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512778DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

The Chymical Capuchins of the Louvre: Seminal Principles and Charitable Vocations in France under Louis XIV.

Authors:
Justin Rivest

Ambix 2018 Aug 24;65(3):275-295. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

a University of Cambridge , UK.

This article explores the links between chymical medicine, charity, and vocation in the writings and careers of Henri Rousseau de Montbazon and Nicolas Aignan, known as "the Louvre Capuchins" (les capucins du Louvre) because they operated a royally sponsored medical laboratory at the Louvre from 1678 to 1679. It shows that Rousseau and Aignan's hybrid persona as chymical physicians and mendicant friars allowed them to leverage courtly values surrounding charitable poor relief into lucrative patronage under Louis XIV. Aignan in particular developed a detailed theological and natural philosophical defence of this identity, framing it as a recovery of the authentic vocation of the Christian priest-physician, a healer of bodies as well as souls. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512781DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Revisiting the Early History of Synthetic Polymers: Critiques and New Insights.

Authors:
Seth C Rasmussen

Ambix 2018 Nov 23;65(4):356-372. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

a North Dakota State University , Fargo , ND , USA.

This essay seeks to clarify existing confusion in terminology regarding the history of polymers, plastics, and macromolecules, and explores various factors that complicate the early history of macromolecules. It also suggests reasons why materials such as polyaniline, an early fully synthetic polymer that found widespread commercial application in dyes, have not previously been treated in accounts of polymer history. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00026980.2018.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512775DOI Listing
November 2018
25 Reads

Books, Gold, and Elixir: Alchemy and Religious Orders in Early Modern Naples.

Ambix 2018 Aug 23;65(3):250-274. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

a University of Chichester , UK.

In the early modern period Naples was a European centre of learning where a number of scholars engaged with alchemy. Variously perceived as a legitimate scientific practice or as a mendacious trick for gullible minds, alchemy engaged Neapolitan scholars in an ongoing dispute that involved members of the clergy. In this article I consider convents as research centres mainly engaged with medical alchemy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512777DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

Between Aquinas and Eymerich: The Roman Inquisition's Use of Dominican Thought in the Censorship of Alchemy.

Authors:
Neil Tarrant

Ambix 2018 Aug 22;65(3):210-231. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

a University of York , UK.

In the latter half of the sixteenth century the Roman Inquisition developed criteria to prosecute a series of operative arts, including various forms of divination and magic. Its officials had little interest in alchemy. During that period the Roman Inquisition tried few people for practising alchemy, and it was rarely discussed in official documents. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512779DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Boerhaave's Mineral Chemistry and Its Influence on Eighteenth-Century Pharmacy in the Netherlands and England.

Ambix 2018 Nov 11;65(4):303-323. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

a Utrecht University , The Netherlands.

In the eighteenth century, the use of mineral or fossil substances was relatively common in European medicine and pharmacy. However, this period also saw profound changes in ideas about the nomenclature, chemistry, and curative properties of minerals. Jonathan Simon has recently argued that an increasing orientation towards the mineral kingdom and the chemical transformation of minerals, and a rise in the number of mineral preparations demanded of the pharmacist, were characteristic for eighteenth-century chemistry within pharmacy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1488099DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

The Duke, the Soldier of Fortune, and a Rosicrucian Legacy: Exploring the Roles of Manuscripts in Early-Modern Alchemy.

Authors:
Mike A Zuber

Ambix 2018 May 19;65(2):122-142. Epub 2018 May 19.

a Wolfson College , University of Oxford , Oxford , UK.

By the time it was published in 1705, the Speculum Sapientiae claimed to have had a long history going back to 1672. However, the fact that exaggerated stories were commonplace in alchemical literature leads us to question its credibility. This paper explores the secret lives of this alchemical text prior to its print publication to clarify the roles of manuscripts in early-modern alchemy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1471778DOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

Poisoned Wine: Regulation, Chemical Analyses, and Spanish-French Trade in the 1930s.

Ambix 2018 May 16;65(2):99-121. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

b Lopez Piñero Institute for the History of Medicine and Science , Universitat de València , Valencia , Spain.

This paper describes the resources, scientific spaces, and experts involved in the study of a mass poisoning caused by the drinking of arsenic-contaminated wine exported from Spain to France in 1932. Local and international periodicals record the poisoning of 300 French sailors, and stressed the commercial implications of the case. We discuss the reports prepared by different experts (mainly physicians, agricultural engineers, and customs chemists). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1452838DOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

Chemical Industry, the Environment, and Russian Provincial Society: The Case of the Kokshan Chemical Works (1850-1925).

Ambix 2018 May 9;65(2):143-168. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

b The Russian Museum of Ethnography , Saint Petersburg , Russian Federation.

This article explores interactions between the chemical industry, the environment, and Russian provincial society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, using the example of the Kokshan chemical works, in the Elabuga District, Viatka Province, Russian Empire (today Mendeleevsk District, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation). The plant's location facilitated its rapid development due to a number of factors, including a cheap labour force, the availability of raw materials, and the absence of local competition. However, the factory's development came in conjunction with the deterioration of the environment and subsequent health problems for employees and the surrounding population. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1451451DOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

Robert Hare's Theory of Galvanism: A Study of Heat and Electricity in Early Nineteenth-Century American Chemistry.

Authors:
Amy Fisher

Ambix 2018 May 9;65(2):169-189. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

a University of Puget Sound , Tacoma , WA , USA.

As a professor of chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, Robert Hare actively shaped early American science. He participated in a large network of scholars, including Joseph Henry, François Arago, and Jacob Berzelius, and experimented with and wrote extensively about electricity and its associated chemical and thermal phenomena. In the early nineteenth century, prominent chemists such as Berzelius and Humphry Davy proclaimed that a revolution had occurred in chemistry through electrical research. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1452359DOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

Paper Tools from the 1780s to the 1960s: Nomenclature, Classification, and Representations.

Ambix 2018 Feb 21;65(1):1-8. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

b Worcester Polytechnic Institute , USA.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1419651DOI Listing
February 2018
3 Reads

The Corundum Stone and Crystallographic Chemistry.

Authors:
Stephen T Irish

Ambix 2017 Nov 28;64(4):301-325. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

a History and Philosophy of Science , University of Cambridge , UK.

This article presents a detailed history and exegesis of the 1798 paper of Charles Greville and Jacques-Louis Count de Bournon, "On the Corundum Stone from Asia." This was the first published argument to establish that the mineral corundum was related to, or identical with, the ruby and the sapphire. It was also the first time that the science of crystallography, recently developed in France, was publically introduced to a British scientific audience. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1413163DOI Listing
November 2017
2 Reads

The Future of the History of Chemistry.

Ambix 2017 Nov 15;64(4):295-300. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

a Princeton University.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1434970DOI Listing
November 2017
2 Reads

Paper Tools and Periodic Tables: Newlands and Mendeleev Draw Grids.

Authors:
Michael D Gordin

Ambix 2018 Feb 19;65(1):30-51. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

a Princeton University , USA.

This essay elaborates on Ursula Klein's methodological concept of "paper tools" by drawing on several examples from the history of the periodic table. Moving from John A. R. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1418251DOI Listing
February 2018
4 Reads