373 results match your criteria Ambix[Journal]


Adulation or Adulteration? Representing Chemical Dyes in the Victorian Media.

Authors:
Carolyn Cobbold

Ambix 2019 Feb 13;66(1):23-50. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

a Cambridge University , Cambridge , UK.

This essay describes how the Victorian media reported on the transformation of coal tar into a synthetic palette of colours in the form of aniline and azo dyes. These dyes were the first of many new chemical substances including drugs, perfumes, and flavourings, which chemists began to synthesise and produce on an industrial scale from a waste product of the coal gas industry. Although intended for use in the textile industry, the new dyes soon began to be added to food, becoming one of the first examples of laboratory-created, industrially manufactured chemicals to permeate our daily life in unexpected ways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1574385DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Revisiting Isaac Newton's Index Chemicus: A Response to Richard S. Westfall.

Authors:
Meagan S Allen

Ambix 2019 Feb 5;66(1):72-81. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

a Indiana University , Bloomington , USA.

Previous attempts to date the five editions of Isaac Newton's Index Chemicus found in Keynes MS 30 (King's College Library, Cambridge University) have relied on an incomplete examination of the citations Newton provides for his references. This study shows that a full examination of all Newton's citations provides a more accurate method of dating, and thus pushes the timeline of production for all versions forward several years from the early 1680s to the early 1690s. It also proves that authors previously thought to be unimportant to Newton's late alchemical writings, such as Robert Boyle, played a larger role than once recognised. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1573523DOI Listing
February 2019

The Pocket Laboratory: The Blowpipe in Eighteenth-Century Swedish Chemistry.

Ambix 2019 Feb 5;66(1):1-22. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

a Department of History , Yale University , New Haven , CT , USA.

This article examines the role of the blowpipe in the discovery process of the disproportionately large number of new elements found by Swedish chem-ists during the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth. While individual chemists abroad used versions of the tool, in Sweden alone its use was ubiquitous across the chemical and mineralogical research community, and its consistently simple handheld design made basic dry chemical analysis quick, cheap, and portable. This shared use of the tool was crucial to the development of the mineral analysis projects that uncovered new substances, first by enabling the adoption of a system defining minerals by their chemical components and mineralogy by chemical analysis, and second by providing a simple and practical method for that analysis that facilitated collaboration across institutions, physical distance, and time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2019.1573497DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

For Science, King and Country: The Life and Legacy of Henry Moseley.

Authors:
Michael Jewess

Ambix 2018 Nov 22:1-3. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

a Harwell, Oxfordshire , England.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1548411DOI Listing
November 2018

Berthelot's Pathway from Synthesis to Thermochemistry.

Ambix 2019 Feb 3;66(1):51-71. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

a Lycée de l'Escaut , Valenciennes , France.

Why did Marcellin Berthelot turn away from his successful research in organic synthesis around 1864 to devote himself to the difficult and uncertain path of thermochemistry? Jean Jacques and others have argued that Berthelot's shift can be seen as a result of his flawed understanding of the emerging atomistically based theories of structural chemistry; a sense that he was being left behind by this field, it is maintained, led him to try something different. In contrast, I will argue that thermochemistry was a logical progression of Berthelot's overarching desire to predict chemical action, a great challenge in the middle of the nineteenth century. Berthelot hoped and expected that synthesis and chemical industry would transform the conditions of our existence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1537326DOI Listing
February 2019

The Measure of All Things. A History of Analytical Chemistry.

Authors:
William H Brock

Ambix 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

a Eastbourne , UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1534645DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Reading Newton in Early Modern Europe.

Ambix 2018 Oct 17:1-2. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

a University of Oxford.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1534334DOI Listing
October 2018

Lux in Tenebris: The Visual and the Symbolic in Western Esotericism.

Authors:
Didier Kahn

Ambix 2018 Oct 5. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

a CNRS, CELLF 16-18 , Paris.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1529899DOI Listing
October 2018

James Smithson on the Calamines: Chemical Combination in Crystals.

Authors:
Stephen T Irish

Ambix 2018 Nov 17;65(4):373-397. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

a Independent scholar.

The three mineral species that constitute the common "calamines," or non-sulphurous ores of zinc, were first definitively identified in 1803 by the British chemist and mineralogist James Smithson. The present article proposes a close exegesis of Smithson's argument, which has not previously been studied in any detail. His reasoning integrated chemical, natural historical, and crystallographic considerations, and illustrates important features of the practice of mineral chemistry at this time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1520521DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Alchemical Patronage and the Making of an Adept: Letters of Michael Sendivogius to Emperor Rudolf II and His Chamberlain Hans Popp.

Ambix 2018 Nov 11;65(4):324-355. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

b Wolfson College, University of Oxford , UK.

Based on four extant letters the famous Polish alchemist Michael Sendivogius wrote to Emperor Rudolf II and his first chamberlain Hans Popp between 1597 and 1602, this paper adds to a growing body of revisionist scholarship on alchemy in Rudolfine Prague. Unlike most of his many rivals - including luminaries such as John Dee and Michael Maier - who hoped for the Emperor's patronage in vain, Sendivogius officially became a courtier at the imperial court in 1594. As such he was in the privileged position of having access to the Emperor and his close advisors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512776DOI Listing
November 2018

The Survival of the Frater Medicus? English Friars and Alchemy, ca. 1370-ca. 1425.

Ambix 2018 Aug 24;65(3):232-249. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

a King's College, University of Cambridge , UK.

This essay reinserts friars into the story of alchemy and medicine in late medieval England. Much of the evidence for the activity of friars, mostly Franciscans, is to be found in a Latin text compiled in 1416-1425, the Tabula medicine. Here friars appear as sources for remedies, and a significant number of these remedies are alchemical. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512780DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Alchemy and the Mendicant Orders of Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

Ambix 2018 Aug 24;65(3):201-209. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

c University of York , UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512778DOI Listing

The Chymical Capuchins of the Louvre: Seminal Principles and Charitable Vocations in France under Louis XIV.

Authors:
Justin Rivest

Ambix 2018 Aug 24;65(3):275-295. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

a University of Cambridge , UK.

This article explores the links between chymical medicine, charity, and vocation in the writings and careers of Henri Rousseau de Montbazon and Nicolas Aignan, known as "the Louvre Capuchins" (les capucins du Louvre) because they operated a royally sponsored medical laboratory at the Louvre from 1678 to 1679. It shows that Rousseau and Aignan's hybrid persona as chymical physicians and mendicant friars allowed them to leverage courtly values surrounding charitable poor relief into lucrative patronage under Louis XIV. Aignan in particular developed a detailed theological and natural philosophical defence of this identity, framing it as a recovery of the authentic vocation of the Christian priest-physician, a healer of bodies as well as souls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512781DOI Listing

Revisiting the Early History of Synthetic Polymers: Critiques and New Insights.

Authors:
Seth C Rasmussen

Ambix 2018 Nov 23;65(4):356-372. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

a North Dakota State University , Fargo , ND , USA.

This essay seeks to clarify existing confusion in terminology regarding the history of polymers, plastics, and macromolecules, and explores various factors that complicate the early history of macromolecules. It also suggests reasons why materials such as polyaniline, an early fully synthetic polymer that found widespread commercial application in dyes, have not previously been treated in accounts of polymer history. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00026980.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512775DOI Listing
November 2018
23 Reads

Books, Gold, and Elixir: Alchemy and Religious Orders in Early Modern Naples.

Ambix 2018 Aug 23;65(3):250-274. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

a University of Chichester , UK.

In the early modern period Naples was a European centre of learning where a number of scholars engaged with alchemy. Variously perceived as a legitimate scientific practice or as a mendacious trick for gullible minds, alchemy engaged Neapolitan scholars in an ongoing dispute that involved members of the clergy. In this article I consider convents as research centres mainly engaged with medical alchemy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512777DOI Listing

Between Aquinas and Eymerich: The Roman Inquisition's Use of Dominican Thought in the Censorship of Alchemy.

Authors:
Neil Tarrant

Ambix 2018 Aug 22;65(3):210-231. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

a University of York , UK.

In the latter half of the sixteenth century the Roman Inquisition developed criteria to prosecute a series of operative arts, including various forms of divination and magic. Its officials had little interest in alchemy. During that period the Roman Inquisition tried few people for practising alchemy, and it was rarely discussed in official documents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1512779DOI Listing

Boerhaave's Mineral Chemistry and Its Influence on Eighteenth-Century Pharmacy in the Netherlands and England.

Ambix 2018 Nov 11;65(4):303-323. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

a Utrecht University , The Netherlands.

In the eighteenth century, the use of mineral or fossil substances was relatively common in European medicine and pharmacy. However, this period also saw profound changes in ideas about the nomenclature, chemistry, and curative properties of minerals. Jonathan Simon has recently argued that an increasing orientation towards the mineral kingdom and the chemical transformation of minerals, and a rise in the number of mineral preparations demanded of the pharmacist, were characteristic for eighteenth-century chemistry within pharmacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1488099DOI Listing
November 2018

The Duke, the Soldier of Fortune, and a Rosicrucian Legacy: Exploring the Roles of Manuscripts in Early-Modern Alchemy.

Authors:
Mike A Zuber

Ambix 2018 May 19;65(2):122-142. Epub 2018 May 19.

a Wolfson College , University of Oxford , Oxford , UK.

By the time it was published in 1705, the Speculum Sapientiae claimed to have had a long history going back to 1672. However, the fact that exaggerated stories were commonplace in alchemical literature leads us to question its credibility. This paper explores the secret lives of this alchemical text prior to its print publication to clarify the roles of manuscripts in early-modern alchemy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1471778DOI Listing

Poisoned Wine: Regulation, Chemical Analyses, and Spanish-French Trade in the 1930s.

Ambix 2018 May 16;65(2):99-121. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

b Lopez Piñero Institute for the History of Medicine and Science , Universitat de València , Valencia , Spain.

This paper describes the resources, scientific spaces, and experts involved in the study of a mass poisoning caused by the drinking of arsenic-contaminated wine exported from Spain to France in 1932. Local and international periodicals record the poisoning of 300 French sailors, and stressed the commercial implications of the case. We discuss the reports prepared by different experts (mainly physicians, agricultural engineers, and customs chemists). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1452838DOI Listing

Chemical Industry, the Environment, and Russian Provincial Society: The Case of the Kokshan Chemical Works (1850-1925).

Ambix 2018 May 9;65(2):143-168. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

b The Russian Museum of Ethnography , Saint Petersburg , Russian Federation.

This article explores interactions between the chemical industry, the environment, and Russian provincial society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, using the example of the Kokshan chemical works, in the Elabuga District, Viatka Province, Russian Empire (today Mendeleevsk District, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation). The plant's location facilitated its rapid development due to a number of factors, including a cheap labour force, the availability of raw materials, and the absence of local competition. However, the factory's development came in conjunction with the deterioration of the environment and subsequent health problems for employees and the surrounding population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1451451DOI Listing

Robert Hare's Theory of Galvanism: A Study of Heat and Electricity in Early Nineteenth-Century American Chemistry.

Authors:
Amy Fisher

Ambix 2018 May 9;65(2):169-189. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

a University of Puget Sound , Tacoma , WA , USA.

As a professor of chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, Robert Hare actively shaped early American science. He participated in a large network of scholars, including Joseph Henry, François Arago, and Jacob Berzelius, and experimented with and wrote extensively about electricity and its associated chemical and thermal phenomena. In the early nineteenth century, prominent chemists such as Berzelius and Humphry Davy proclaimed that a revolution had occurred in chemistry through electrical research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2018.1452359DOI Listing

Paper Tools from the 1780s to the 1960s: Nomenclature, Classification, and Representations.

Ambix 2018 Feb 21;65(1):1-8. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

b Worcester Polytechnic Institute , USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1419651DOI Listing
February 2018

The Corundum Stone and Crystallographic Chemistry.

Authors:
Stephen T Irish

Ambix 2017 Nov 28;64(4):301-325. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

a History and Philosophy of Science , University of Cambridge , UK.

This article presents a detailed history and exegesis of the 1798 paper of Charles Greville and Jacques-Louis Count de Bournon, "On the Corundum Stone from Asia." This was the first published argument to establish that the mineral corundum was related to, or identical with, the ruby and the sapphire. It was also the first time that the science of crystallography, recently developed in France, was publically introduced to a British scientific audience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1413163DOI Listing
November 2017

The Future of the History of Chemistry.

Ambix 2017 Nov 15;64(4):295-300. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

a Princeton University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1434970DOI Listing
November 2017

Paper Tools and Periodic Tables: Newlands and Mendeleev Draw Grids.

Authors:
Michael D Gordin

Ambix 2018 Feb 19;65(1):30-51. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

a Princeton University , USA.

This essay elaborates on Ursula Klein's methodological concept of "paper tools" by drawing on several examples from the history of the periodic table. Moving from John A. R. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1418251DOI Listing
February 2018

Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry Award Scheme 2018.

Authors:

Ambix 2017 Nov 19;64(4):390-391. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1429138DOI Listing
November 2017

Translating Ancient Alchemy: Fragments of Graeco-Egyptian Alchemy in Arabic Compendia.

Authors:
Matteo Martelli

Ambix 2017 Nov 17;64(4):326-342. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

a University of Bologna , Italy.

Translation played a vital role in the development and transfer of alchemy in Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Since its origins in Graeco-Roman Egypt, alchemy was encapsulated in Greek texts which allegedly relied on Persian or Egyptian sources. Later, a variety of Greek and Byzantine writings were translated into Syriac and Arabic, and these translations were in turn fragmented and disseminated in later Arabic compendia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1412137DOI Listing
November 2017

The Chemical Club: An Early Nineteenth-Century Scientific Dining Club.

Authors:
Andrew Lacey

Ambix 2017 Aug;64(3):263-282

a Lancaster University , UK.

The Chemical Club (fl. 1806-1828) was a small scientific dining club in London. Among its members were Sir Humphry Davy, William Hyde Wollaston, and Alexander Marcet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1398855DOI Listing

The Alchemical Manuscripts of David Lindsay (1587-1641), Lord Lindsay of Balcarres.

Ambix 2017 Aug;64(3):234-262

a Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica (CSIC) , Madrid , Spain.

The private book collection of David Lindsay, First Lord Lindsay of Balcarres (1587-1641), was one of the largest in early modern Scotland. Despite being dispersed during the following three centuries, this collection still provides evidence for Lindsay's scientific interests and approach to the study of alchemy. In this paper we seek to partially reconstruct his library by describing and, where possible, identifying the sources of Lindsay's own transcriptions of alchemical texts, as well as works mentioned in a book-list written in his hand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1370875DOI Listing

A New Alchemical Poem Attributed to Khālid b. Yazīd (d. ca. 705).

Authors:
George Saliba

Ambix 2017 Aug;64(3):220-233

a Columbia University , New York , USA.

This paper deals primarily with the identification of an inaccurately catalogued alchemical poem attributed to the famous Umayyad prince Khālid b. Yazīd (d. 705), edited, translated, and commented upon here for the first time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1412133DOI Listing

Stoicism and Alchemy in Late Antiquity: Zosimus and the Concept of Pneuma.

Ambix 2017 Aug;64(3):203-219

a De Wulf-Mansion Centre for Ancient, Medieval, and Renaissance Philosophy, KU Leuven , Leuven , Belgium.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, historians associated the alchemy of the third-century alchemist Zosimus of Panopolis with Platonism and Aristotelianism, explicating his theory of alchemical transmutation under the intellectual umbrella of these philosophical traditions. More recently, scholars of alchemy such as Christina Viano and William Newman have suggested a connection between Zosimean alchemy and Stoicism. Through a close reading of texts in Zosimus's corpus, this paper posits a Stoic interpretation of several aspects of Zosimean alchemy, focusing on the concepts of pneuma and tension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1412134DOI Listing

Delayed Reaction: The Tardy Embrace of Physical Organic Chemistry by the German Chemical Community.

Ambix 2018 Feb 12;65(1):52-75. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

a Worcester Polytechnic Institute , Worcester , MA , USA.

The emergence of physical organic chemistry, which focuses on the mechanisms and structures of organic reactions and molecules using the tools of physical chemistry, was a major development in twentieth-century chemistry. It first flourished in the interwar period, in the UK and then in the US. Germany, by contrast, did not embrace the field until almost a half century later. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1418709DOI Listing
February 2018

Paper Chemistry: François Dagognet and the Chemical Graph.

Ambix 2018 Feb 10;65(1):76-98. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

a Harvard University Center for the Environment , Cambridge , MA , USA.

In two books published in 1969 and 1973, the philosopher François Dagognet articulated a sharp contrast between the verbal and the visual in the history of chemical representation. Ursula Klein took up Dagognet's argument as both inspiration and foil in her account of Berzelian formulas as productive "paper tools." Building on Klein's work, I show how Dagognet portrayed chemical names and formulas not just as representations and paper tools, but as material abstractions that were objects of inquiry in themselves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1418232DOI Listing
February 2018

The Méthode de nomenclature chimique (1787): A Document of Transition.

Ambix 2018 Feb 10;65(1):9-29. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

a Max Planck Institute for the History of Science , Berlin , Germany.

The Méthode de nomenclature chimique, published by the Académie Royale des Sciences in 1787, is rightly praised as a landmark in the history of early modern chemistry. It is also - though less rightly - considered to be a fruit of Lavoisier's Chemical Revolution. In fact, main features of the Méthode's nomenclatural and classificatory proposal rest on fundamental chemical conceptions that were shared by adherents of the phlogistic chemical system as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1418233DOI Listing
February 2018

What History Tells Us about the Distinct Nature of Chemistry.

Authors:
Hasok Chang

Ambix 2017 Nov 8;64(4):360-374. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

a University of Cambridge , UK.

Attention to the history of chemistry can help us recognise the characteristics of chemistry that have helped to maintain it as a separate scientific discipline with a unique identity. Three such features are highlighted in this paper. First, chemistry has maintained a distinct type of theoretical thinking, independent from that of physics even in the era of quantum chemistry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1412135DOI Listing
November 2017

A Chemical Reaction to the Historiography of Biology.

Ambix 2017 Nov 8;64(4):343-359. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

a Princeton University , Princeton , NJ , USA.

This article examines the often-overlooked role of chemical ideas and practices in the history of modern biology. The first section analyses how the conventional histories of the life sciences have, through the twentieth century, come to focus nearly exclusively on evolutionary theory and genetics, and why this storyline is inadequate. The second section elaborates on what the restricted neo-Darwinian history of biology misses, noting a variety of episodes in the history of biology that relied on developments in - or tools from - chemistry, including an example from the author's own work. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1412136DOI Listing
November 2017

The Hermetic Frontispiece: Contextualising John Dee's Hieroglyphic Monad.

Authors:
Peter J Forshaw

Ambix 2017 May 21;64(2):115-139. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

a University of Amsterdam , Netherlands.

This essay examines the elaborate title pages of some of alchemist, astrologer, and bibliophile John Dee's publications with a focus on the two best known works that feature his famous Hieroglyphic Monad, the Propaedeumata Aphoristica (1558) and Monas Hieroglyphica (1564). The aim is to cast light on its context, identify sources for some textual influences in the works, unpack the visual symbolism in the two "monadic" title pages in relation to the two complementary sciences of "superior" and "inferior" astronomy, speculate on some of the more enigmatic details, and conclude with a brief discussion of a possible astrological significance to the dates of composition of the Monas Hieroglyphica. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1353247DOI Listing
May 2017
1 Read

The Royal Typographer and the Alchemist: John Dee, Willem Silvius, and the Diagrammatic Alchemy of the Monas Hieroglyphica.

Authors:
Stephen Clucas

Ambix 2017 May 10;64(2):140-156. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

a Birkbeck, University of London , UK.

John Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica (1564) was a work which involved a close collaboration between its author and his "singular friend" the Antwerp printer Willem Silvius, in whose house Dee was living whilst he composed the work and saw it through the press. This article considers the reasons why Dee chose to collaborate with Silvius, and the importance of the intellectual culture - and the print trade - of the Low Countries to the development of Dee's outlook. Dee's Monas was probably the first alchemical work which focused exclusively on the diagrammatic representation of the alchemical process, combining diagrams, cosmological schemes, and various forms of tabular grid. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1356972DOI Listing
May 2017
3 Reads

Willem Silvius: "Typographical Parent" of John Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica.

Authors:
Manuel Mertens

Ambix 2017 May 6;64(2):175-189. Epub 2017 Aug 6.

a Independent Scholar , Brasschaat , Belgium.

The late Lode Van den Branden spend thirteen years systematically searching the archives for documents related to the Antwerp book trade of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, discovering new information on booksellers, printers, compositors, proof-readers, engravers, type cutters, type founders, and bookbinders. A great part of this material, now in the Royal Library of Belgium in Brussels, has yet to be studied, including his work on Willem Silvius. Guided by Van den Branden's findings, this article focuses on the period 1562-1567 in order to contextualise the collaboration between Silvius and John Dee in January 1564 which resulted in the Monas Hieroglyphica. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1355594DOI Listing
May 2017
1 Read

John Dee, Alchemy, and Print Culture.

Authors:
Stephen Clucas

Ambix 2017 May 7;64(2):107-114. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

a Birkbeck, University of London , UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1356632DOI Listing

The Ideal of a Knowledge Society in Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica (1564) and Other Productions by Willem Silvius.

Ambix 2017 May 6;64(2):157-174. Epub 2017 Aug 6.

a Ghent University , Belgium.

It is well known that John Dee presented the Monas Hieroglyphica (1564) as the basis for a wholesale transformation of early modern knowledge culture - a claim that raises obvious issues of epistemic credibility. This paper discusses the social techniques that Dee proposed as a solution to these issues. First, our reconstruction of the "socio-epistemic imaginary" that Dee conveyed in the Monas shows how the marriage between a traditional rhetoric of secrecy and a courtly politicising of natural philosophy allowed Dee to invent social distinctions between credible and false purveyors of true knowledge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1353230DOI Listing
May 2017
1 Read

Globalising Synthetic Nitrogen: The Interwar Inauguration of a New Industry.

Authors:
Anthony S Travis

Ambix 2017 Feb 22;64(1):1-28. Epub 2017 May 22.

a Sidney M. Edelstein Center , The Hebrew University of Jerusalem , Israel.

The most spectacular development in industrial chemistry during the early twentieth century concerned the capture of atmospheric nitrogen by the Haber-Bosch high-pressure ammonia process at the German chemical enterprise Badische Anilin- & Soda-Fabrik (BASF), of Ludwigshafen. This firm, confident that its complex process could not be readily imitated, set out to dominate the global nitrogen fertiliser market. The response was the emergence of rival high-pressure ammonia processes in Western Europe, the United States, and Japan during the 1920s. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1325585DOI Listing
February 2017
1 Read

Private Philanthropy and Basic Research in Mid-Twentieth Century America: The Hickrill Chemical Research Foundation.

Ambix 2017 Feb 24;64(1):66-94. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

b Worcester Polytechnic Institute , MA , USA.

The Hickrill Chemical Research Foundation, located north of New York City on the estate of its patrons, Sylvan and Ruth Alice Norman Weil, had a short (1948-59) but productive life. Ruth Alice Weil received a Ph.D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1305150DOI Listing
February 2017

British School Chemistry Laboratories, 1830-1920.

Authors:
W H Brock

Ambix 2017 Feb 5;64(1):43-65. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

a University of Leicester , UK.

The essay examines the British secondary school as a chemical site in the nineteenth century up until the 1920s. It sketches how chemistry became part of the secondary school curriculum in the mid-nineteenth century, discusses how school laboratories were designed, and examines to what extent school laboratories provided opportunities for original research by schoolmasters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1285853DOI Listing
February 2017

Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry Award Scheme 2017.

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Ambix 2017 Apr 5. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1310445DOI Listing

A Previously Unknown Path to Corpuscularism in the Seventeenth Century: Santorio's Marginalia to the Commentaria in Primam Fen Primi Libri Canonis Avicennae (1625).

Authors:
Fabrizio Bigotti

Ambix 2017 Feb 28;64(1):29-42. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

a University of Exeter , UK.

This paper presents some of Santorio's marginalia to his Commentaria in primam fen primi libri Canonis Avicennae (Venice, 1625), which I identified in the Sloane Collection of the British Library in 2016, as well as the evidence for their authorship. The name of the Venetian physician Santorio Santori (1561-1636) is linked with the introduction of quantification in medicine and with the invention of precision instruments that, displayed for the first time in this work, laid down the foundations for what we today understand as evidence-based medicine. But Santorio's monumentale opus also contains evidence of many quantified experiments and displays his ideas on mixtures, structure of matter and corpuscles, which are in many cases clarified and completed by the new marginalia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2017.1287550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5470109PMC
February 2017

Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry Award Scheme 2017.

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Ambix 2016 Nov 6;63(4):362. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2016.1283131DOI Listing
November 2016

Descartes, Cardiac Heat, and Alchemy.

Authors:
Dorothea Heitsch

Ambix 2016 Nov 30;63(4):285-303. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

a University of North Carolina , Chapel Hill , NC , USA.

René Descartes (1596-1650) insisted on a heat and light theory to explain cardiac movement, and used concepts such as distillation of the vital spirits, fermentation in the digestive process, and fermentation in the circulation of the blood. I argue that his theory of the body as a heat-exchange system was based on alchemical and natural philosophical notions of fire and light expounded by precursors and contemporaries who included Jean D'Espagnet, Jean Fernel, Jan Baptist van Helmont, and Andreas Libavius. Descartes endeavoured to mechanise their approaches, creating a theory in which fire and heat, a legacy from thermal explanations of physiology, were transformed into alchemical fire, and then into mechanistic or physicalist heat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2016.1279401DOI Listing
November 2016
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Alchemy, Prophecy, and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Iberia: Anselmo Castelo Branco's Critique of Benito Feijoo.

Ambix 2016 Nov 30;63(4):304-325. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

a Independent scholar , Haarlem , The Netherlands.

The Benedictine monk Benito Jerónimo Feijoo (1676-1764) is now considered one of the major figures of the Spanish and Iberian Enlightenment. However his work, both in Spain and in Portugal, was far from being universally acclaimed. His critical approach to the subject of alchemy in his essay "Piedra Filosofal," published in the third volume of his magisterial Teatro Crítico Universal (1726-1739), sparked an unexpected response from the Portuguese alchemist Anselmo Castelo Branco, who sought to refute Feijoo's claims in his own work, the Ennoea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00026980.2016.1283148DOI Listing
November 2016
4 Reads