13,924 results match your criteria Am. J. Epidemiol.[Journal]


Using cure models to estimate the serial interval of tuberculosis with limited follow-up.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Defined as the time between symptom onset of an infector and infectee pair, serial interval (SI) is commonly used to understand infectious diseases transmission. Slow progression to active disease, as well as the small percentage of individuals who will eventually develop active disease, complicate the estimation of the serial interval for tuberculosis (TB). In this paper, we showed via simulation studies that when there is credible information on the percentage of those who will develop TB disease following infection, a cure model, first introduced by Boag in 1949, should be used to estimate the SI for TB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa090DOI Listing

Longitudinal mediation analysis using natural effect models.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, Gent University, Krijslaan 281, Gent , Belgium, and Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Mediation analysis is concerned with the decomposition of the total effect of an exposure on an outcome into the indirect effect through a given mediator, and the remaining direct effect. This is ideally done using longitudinal measurements of the mediator, as these capture the mediator process more finely. However, longitudinal measurements pose challenges for mediation analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa092DOI Listing

Early Outpatient Treatment of Symptomatic, High-Risk Covid-19 Patients that Should be Ramped-Up Immediately as Key to the Pandemic Crisis.

Authors:
Harvey A Risch

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut.

More than 1.6 million Americans have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 and >10 times that number carry antibodies to it. High-risk patients presenting with progressing symptomatic disease have only hospitalization treatment with its high mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa093DOI Listing

Acculturation, Cognitive Performance and Decline, and Incident Dementia/CIND: The Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

US Latinos, a growing, aging population, are disproportionately burdened by cognitive decline and dementia. Modifiable risk factors are needed for interventions aimed at reducing risk. Broad sociocultural context may illuminate complex etiology among culturally diverse Latinos. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa088DOI Listing

Occupational noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma: A case-control study in Sweden.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

National Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology, Oslo, Norway.

It has been suggested that the association between self-reported occupational noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma (VS) found in several studies, represents recall bias. Therefore, we aim to study the relation in a large case-control study using occupational noise measurements. We performed a case-control study from Sweden of 1913 VS cases diagnosed in 1961-2009 and 9566 age- and sex-matched population controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa091DOI Listing

Evaluating A Key Instrumental Variable Assumption Using Randomization Tests.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Instrumental variable (IV) analyses are becoming common in health services research and epidemiology. Most IV analyses use naturally occurring instruments, such as distance to a hospital. In these analyses, investigators must assume the instrument is as-if randomly assigned. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa089DOI Listing

The peril of power: a tutorial on using simulation to better understand when and how we can estimate mediating effects.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Departments of Mental Health, Biostatistics, and Health Policy and Management, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa083DOI Listing

Reply to VanderWeele.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Departments of Mental Health, Biostatistics, and Health Policy and Management, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa082DOI Listing

Temporal Confounding in the Test Negative Design.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

In the test negative design, routine testing at healthcare facilities is leveraged to estimate the effectiveness of an intervention such as a vaccine. The odds of vaccination for individuals who test positive for a target pathogen is compared to the odds of vaccination for individuals who test negative for that pathogen, adjusting for key confounders. The design is rapidly growing in popularity, but many open questions remain about its properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa084DOI Listing

Frontiers of Power Assessment in Mediation Analysis.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Harvard University.

The development of tools for power and sample size calculations for mediation analysis has lagged far behind the development of methods. The paper by Rudolph et al. (1) is a helpful contribution in using simulations as a tool for power calculations for more complex methods and settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa081DOI Listing

Hidden Imputations and the Kaplan-Meier Estimator.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa086DOI Listing

Multiple Types of Perceived Job Discrimination and Sleep Health among Working Women: Findings from the Sister Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Intramural Program, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Job discrimination, a social stressor, may lead to sleep health disparities among workers; yet, limited research has examined this relationship and specific sources of job discrimination. We used a US sample of working women (n=26,085), participants of the Sister Study (2008-2016), to examine the associations of perceived job discrimination due to sex, race, age, health conditions, and/or sexual orientation with sleep health. Cross-sectionally, linear or logistic regression models revealed that each source of job discrimination was independently associated with different sleep problems after controlling for other sources of job discrimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa075DOI Listing

Associations Between Community Social Capital and Preservation of Functional Capacity in the Aftermath of a Major Disaster.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

The strength of social connections in the community ("social capital") is hypothesized to be a crucial ingredient in disaster resilience. We examined whether community-level social capital is correlated with the ability to maintain functional capacity among older residents who experienced the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. The baseline of our cohort (mean age 74 years) was established in 2010, seven months before the disaster in Iwanuma, a Japanese city located 80-km from the epicenter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa085DOI Listing

Life Course Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Risk of Dementia in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study (ARIC-NCS).

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

We examined associations of individual- and neighborhood-level life course socioeconomic-status (LC-SES) with incident dementia in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Individual- and neighborhood-level SES were assessed at three life epochs (childhood, young adulthood, midlife) via questionnaire (2001-02) and summarized into LC-SES scores. Dementia was ascertained through 2013 using cognitive exams, telephone interviews, and hospital and death certificate codes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa072DOI Listing

Few Losses to Follow-Up in a Sub-Saharan African Cancer Cohort via Active mHealth Follow-Up: the Prospective ABC-DO Breast Cancer Cohort.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Section of Environment and Radiation, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Accurate survival estimates are needed to guide cancer control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa, but previous studies were hampered by unknown biases due to excessive losses-to-follow-up (LTFU). In the African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes prospective breast cancer cohort, we implemented active mHealth follow-up, phoning each woman, or her next-of-kin (NOK), trimonthly on her mobile phone to update her vital status. Dates of every contact with women/NOK were analysed from diagnosis in 2014-2017 to the earliest of 1st September 2018, death or 3-years post-diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa070DOI Listing

The Association of Physical Activity with Cardiovascular Events and Mortality Mediated by Diabetes in Older Mexican Americans.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA.

Low physical activity (PA) among older adults increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality through metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. We aimed to elucidate the extent to which diabetes mediates the effect of non-occupational PA levels on CVD and mortality among older Mexican Americans. This study included 1,676 adults from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998-2007). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa068DOI Listing
May 2020
5.230 Impact Factor

A Snapshot of Doctoral Training in Epidemiology: Positioning us for the Future.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Division of Public Health Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri.

While epidemiology core competencies are established by the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health for masters-level trainees, no equivalent currently exists for the doctoral level. Thus, the objective of the Doctoral Education in Epidemiology Survey (2019) was to collect information on doctoral-level competencies in general epidemiology (PhD) degree programs and other pertinent information from accredited programs in the United States and Canada. Participants (doctoral program directors or knowledgeable representatives of the program) from 57 institutions were invited to respond to a 39-item survey (18 core competencies; 9 non-core or emerging topic-related competencies; and 12 program-related items). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa069DOI Listing

Making the best use of test kits for COVID-19.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Biostatistics and Computational Biology Branch MD A3-03 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences P.O. Box 12233 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa080DOI Listing

The Epidemiology of E-Cigarettes and Reproductive Health Begins.

Authors:
David A Savitz

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island.

The study by Harlow et al. (Am J Epidemiol. XXXX;XXX(XX):XXXX-XXXX) is among the first to tackle the complex subject of electronic cigarette use and reproductive health, focused on fecundity but pertinent to the full spectrum of reproductive health concerns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa066DOI Listing

Prenatal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis vaccination and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, California, U.S.

As prenatal vaccinations become more prevalent, it is important to assess potential safety events. This study investigates the association between prenatal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk in offspring. Retrospective cohort study of mother-child pairs born 1/1/2011-12/31/2014 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa074DOI Listing

E-cigarettes and Fecundability: Results from a Prospective Preconception Cohort Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Although e-cigarette aerosol contains similar toxicants to combustible cigarettes, few studies have examined the association between e-cigarettes and fecundability. We assessed the association between e-cigarettes and fecundability, overall and by combustible cigarette smoking history, in a cohort of 4,586 North American women (21-45 years) enrolled 2017-2020 in Pregnancy Study Online (PRESTO), a web-based prospective preconception study. Women reported current and former e-cigarette use, and completed bimonthly follow-up questionnaires until self-reported pregnancy or censoring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa067DOI Listing

What Happens to Your Manuscript: Characteristics of Papers Published in Volume 188.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

American Journal of Epidemiology, 111 Market Place, Suite 850, Baltimore, MD 21202.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa076DOI Listing

Standardizing Discrete Time Hazard Ratios with a Disease Risk Score.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 29. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

The disease risk score (DRS) can be used to summarize a potentially large vector of covariates with a single variable. The DRS can be used to control for confounding by the covariates that went into estimation of the DRS and obtain a standardized estimate of an exposure's effect on disease. However, to-date, literature on the DRS has not addressed analyses that focus on estimation of survival or hazard functions, which are common in epidemiological analyses of cohort data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa061DOI Listing

Cardiotoxicity of Sequential Aromatase Inhibitors Use in Women with Breast Cancer.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada.

The association between aromatase inhibitors and cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. While some observational studies have assessed their cardiovascular safety as up-front treatments, their cardiotoxic effects as sequential treatments with tamoxifen remains unknown. Thus, we conducted a population-based cohort study using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics and Office for National Statistics databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa065DOI Listing

History of Early Childhood Infections and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Children in a U.S. Integrated Health Care System.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 23. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Center for Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Preventative Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Surrogate measures of infectious exposures have been consistently associated with lower childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk. However, recent reports have suggested that physician-diagnosed early life infections increase ALL risk, thereby raising the possibility that stronger responses to infections may promote risk. We examined whether medically diagnosed infections were related to childhood ALL risk in an integrated health care system in the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa062DOI Listing

Invited Commentary for: Dual Outcome Intention-to-treat Analyses in the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Hormone Therapy Trials.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Statistics and Operation Research, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

In almost all clinical settings patients are at risk for multiple potential events and must weigh the potential benefits and harms across these events when making decisions. As researchers seek to build an evidence base to inform these decisions, they must contend with a choice as to how they will handle the different events. One approach, arguably the standard approach in the literature, is to consider the events individually by conducting analyses and publishing results for each one-at-a-time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa031DOI Listing

Dual Outcome Intention-to-treat Analyses in the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Hormone Therapy Trials.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Dual outcome intention-to-treat hazard rate analyses have potential to complement single outcome analyses for the evaluation of treatments or exposures in relation to multivariate time-to-response outcomes. Here we consider pairs formed from important clinical outcomes for further insight into menopausal hormone therapy influences on chronic disease. The Women's Health Initiative randomized, placebo controlled, hormone therapy trials (1993 to present, at 40 U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa033DOI Listing

Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality in Male Twins with Discordant Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Unit of Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Whether genetic and familial factors influence the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unknown. Two cohorts were formed based on 1,212,295, 18-year-old men that conscripted for military service in Sweden 1972-1996. The first comprised 4,260 twin pairs where twins in each pair had different CRF (≥1 Watt). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa060DOI Listing

A Dyadic Growth Modeling Approach to Examine Associations Between Weight Gain and Lung Function Decline: The NHLBI Pooled Cohorts Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

The relationship between body weight and lung function is complex. Using a dyadic multilevel linear modeling approach, treating body mass index (BMI) and lung function as paired, within-person outcomes, we test the hypothesis that individuals with more rapid increase in BMI exhibit more rapid decline in lung function: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and their ratio (FEV1/FVC). Models included random intercepts and slopes and were adjusted for socio-demographic and smoking-related factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa059DOI Listing

The Association of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure During Pregnancy with Blood Glucose Levels and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk: A Prospective Cohort Study in Wuhan, China.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Ministry of Education Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Previous studies have drawn inconsistent conclusions regarding the relationship between relatively low fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk, while the association between high PM2.5 exposure and GDM risk has not been well studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa056DOI Listing
April 2020
5.230 Impact Factor

Integrating sleep, physical activity, and diet quality to estimate all-cause mortality risk: a combined compositional clustering and survival analysis of the NHANES 2005-2006 cycle.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

School of Health and Life Science, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

We aimed to compare all-cause mortality risk across clusters of adults 50+ (n = 1,035) with common lifestyle behaviors patterns in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2006). Log-ratio coordinates of 24h movement pattern and z-scores of diet quality were used as input into a model-based clustering analysis. A Cox regression model was fitted to ascertain the all-cause mortality risk associated with each cluster. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa057DOI Listing

The Relative Contribution of Socioeconomic and Genetic Factors to Variation in Body Mass Index among Young Adults.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, MA, USA.

In light of recent findings on the small proportion of variance in body mass index (BMI) explained by shared environment, and growing interests in the role of genetic susceptibility, we assess the relative contribution of socioeconomic status (SES) and genome-wide polygenic score for BMI to explaining variation in BMI. Our final analytic sample included 4,918 white and 1,546 black individuals from the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Wave IV (2007-2008) who had complete measures on BMI, demographics, SES, genetic data, and health behaviors. We employed ordinary least-squares regression to assess variation in log(BMI) as a function of the aforementioned predictors, independently and mutually adjusted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa058DOI Listing

To what extent is the association between race and fetal growth restriction explained by adequacy of prenatal care? A mediation analysis of a retrospective cohort.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Race is associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small-for-gestational age (SGA). We evaluated the extent to which this association is mediated by adequacy of prenatal care (PNC). A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the United States' National Center for Health Statistics Natality Files for the years 2011-2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa054DOI Listing

Multilevel Regression and Poststratification Versus Survey Sample Weighting for Estimating Population Quantities in Large Population Health Studies.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Asthma has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes in childhood, but the reasons are unclear. We examined whether the use of antiasthmatic drugs was associated with the development of type 1 diabetes in childhood in a nationwide, register-based case-cohort study. We identified all children who were born 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa053DOI Listing

RETRACTION: "TOENAIL-BASED METAL CONCENTRATIONS AND YOUNG-ONSET BREAST CANCER".

Authors:

Am J Epidemiol 2020 01;189(1):79

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz235DOI Listing
January 2020

Editorial Consultants.

Authors:

Am J Epidemiol 2020 01;189(1):i-iii

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa040DOI Listing
January 2020

Toenail-Based Metal Concentrations and Young-Onset Breast Cancer.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 11;188(4):34-43

Biostatistics and Computational Biology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Several metals have carcinogenic properties, but their associations with breast cancer are not established. We studied cadmium, a metalloestrogen, and 9 other metals-arsenic, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, molybdenum, lead, tin, and vanadium--in relation to young-onset breast cancer (diagnosis age <50 years), which tends to be more aggressive than and have a different risk profile from later-onset disease. Recent metal exposure was measured by assessing element concentrations, via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, in toenail clippings of 1,217 disease-discordant sister pairs in the US-based Sister (2003-2009) and Two Sister (2008-2010) studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa035DOI Listing
November 2019

Cadmium Exposure and Ovarian Reserve in Women Ages 35-49 Years: The Impact on Results of Creatinine Adjustment Approach to Correct for Urinary Dilution.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 3. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Cadmium is ovarian toxic in animal studies, but its association with diminished ovarian reserve in women is not established. We investigated urinary cadmium, a biomarker of long-term exposure, in relation to diminished ovarian reserve, as indicated by elevated serum follicle stimulating hormone concentrations (≥10 IU/L), in women ages 35-49 (unweighted n=1,681). Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-94, we conducted Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa037DOI Listing

Linking Job Security and Mental Health: Challenges and Future Directions.

Authors:
Sarah Burgard

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 3. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Sociology, University of Michigan.

Research in the social and health sciences has linked job insecurity to poorer mental health, but relies on observational data and faces challenges of causal inference. In this issue of the Journal, LaMontagne et al. (Am J Epidemiol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa039DOI Listing

Changes in job security and mental health: An analysis of 14 annual waves of an Australian working population panel survey.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 3. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Centre for Health Equity, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC AUSTRALIA.

We examined whether job security improvements were associated with improvements in mental health in a large Australian nationally representative panel study. We used both within-person fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) regression to analyse data from 14 annual waves covering the calendar period of 2002-2015 (19,169 persons, 106,942 observations). Mental Health Inventory-5 scores were modeled in relation to self-reported job security (categorical, quintiles), adjusting for age, year, education, and job change in the past year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa038DOI Listing

Theoretical considerations and real-world challenges for research of proxy exposures and ovarian reserve.

Authors:
Brian W Whitcomb

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 3. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

In this issue of the Journal, Upson et al. assess urinary cadmium as a potential environmental influence of ovarian reserve, as measured using serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), in data from 1,681 women and compare three methods for modeling urinary proxy exposures - standardization, covariate adjustment (CA) and covariate adjusted standardization (CAS). Observing positive associations in all three approaches, but higher magnitude of estimates using CA compared to standardization and CAS - proposed to be the result of collider-stratification bias - the authors conclude that cadmium may affect ovarian aging, and recommend careful consideration of modeling approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa036DOI Listing

Burden of Peripheral Artery Disease on Mortality and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 3. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Family Medicine and Public, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

Using one value for an individual's ankle brachial index (ABI) may inadequately quantify the risk for mortality and cardiovascular (CVD) events. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2015), 6,527 racial/ethnically diverse adults (62±10 years) free of known CVD had ABI assessment of their bilateral dorsalis pedis/posterior tibial arteries (4-vessels total) and followed for total mortality, incident CVD events/mortality. Individuals were classified into 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 -vessel PAD (ABI ≤0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa051DOI Listing

The Young Finns Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 3. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Centre for Population Health Research, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.

Acknowledging the lack of previous knowledge, we studied whether childhood/adolescent exposure to parental smoking associates with midlife cognitive function leveraging the data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. A population-based cohort of 3,596 children/adolescents aged 3-18 years was followed-up between 1980-2011. Cognitive testing was performed in 2011 on 2,026 participants aged 34-49 years using a computerized test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa052DOI Listing

Measuring the Magnitude of Health Inequality between Two Population Subgroup Proportions.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 3. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Division of Analysis and Epidemiology, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland.

The paper evaluates 11 measures of inequality d(p1,p2) between two proportions p1 and p2, some of which are new to the health disparities literature. These measures are selected because they are continuous, nonnegative, equal to zero if and only if |p1-p2|=0, and maximal when |p1-p2|=1. They are also symmetric [d(p1,p2)=d(p2,p1)] and complement-invariant [d(p1,p2)=d(1-p2,1-p1)]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa050DOI Listing

Modeling Missing Cases and Transmission Links in Networks of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 3. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Transmission patterns of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) remain poorly understood, despite over half a million incident cases in 2017. Modeling TB transmission networks can provide insight into drivers of transmission, but incomplete sampling of TB cases can pose challenges for inference from individual epidemiologic and molecular data. We assessed the effect of missing cases on a transmission network inferred from Mycobacterium tuberculosis sequencing data on extensively drug-resistant TB cases in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa diagnosed in 2011-2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa028DOI Listing
April 2020
5.230 Impact Factor

The contribution of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage on depressive symptoms over the adult lifetime: a 32-year prospective cohort study.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Apr 2. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Centre for Population Health Research, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital.

The association between socioeconomic disadvantage and increased risk of depressive symptoms in adulthood is well established. We tested A the contribution of early exposure to neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage on later depressive symptoms throughout life, B the persistence of the potential association of early exposure with depressive symptoms, and C the contribution of other known risk factors to the association. Data were collected from a prospective, population-based Young Finns Study 32 year follow -up study that included participants aged 3 to 18 years at baseline 1980. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa026DOI Listing