13,629 results match your criteria Am. J. Epidemiol.[Journal]


Gender and Editorial Authorship in High Impact Epidemiology Journals.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Women comprise about half of senior epidemiologists, but little is known about whether they are also viewed as leaders (i.e., authorities) in the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz094DOI Listing

Performance of Matching Methods to Unmatched Ordinary Least Squares Regression Under Constant Effects.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Center for Population Health Sciences, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

Matching methods are assumed to reduce the likelihood of a biased inference compared to ordinary least squares regression. Using simulations, we compare inferences from propensity score matching, coarsened exact matching, and un-matched covariate-adjusted ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to identify which methods, in which scenarios, produced unbiased inferences at the expected type I error rate of 5%. We simulated multiple datasets and systematically varied common support, discontinuities in the exposure and / or outcome, exposure prevalence, and analytic model misspecification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz093DOI Listing

Assessing Zika Virus Transmission within Households during an Outbreak in Martinique, 2015-2016.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, Unité Mixte de Recherche 2000, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.

Since 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused large epidemics in the Americas. Households are natural targets for control interventions, but quantifying the contribution of household transmission to overall spread is needed to guide policy. Here, we developed a modelling framework to evaluate this contribution and key epidemic features of the ZIKV epidemic in Martinique in 2015-2016 from the joint analysis of a household transmission study (N=68 households), a study in symptomatic pregnant women (N=281) and seroprevalence surveys in blood donors (N=457). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/aje/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aje
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz091DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Maternal Cell Phone Use During Pregnancy, Pregnancy Duration And Fetal Growth In Four Birth Cohorts.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Previous studies evaluating potential effects of prenatal exposure to radiofrequency fields from cell phones on birth outcomes are inconsistent. We explored if maternal cell phone use was associated with pregnancy duration and fetal growth. We used information from 55,507 pregnant women and their children from Denmark (1996-2002), the Netherlands (2003-2004), Spain (2003-2008) and Korea (2006-2011). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz092DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

CP*Trends: An Online Tool to Compare Cohort and Period Trends Across Cancer Sites.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Division of Cancer Control and Populations sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.

Cohort or period components of trend can provide a rationale for new research or point to clues of effectiveness for control strategies. Graphical display of trends guides models that quantify the experience of a population. A method for smoothing rates by single years of age and year are developed and displayed to show the contribution of period and cohort on trend. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/aje/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aje
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz089DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Economic Downturns and Inequities in Birth Outcomes: Evidence From 149 Million US Births.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts.

Using birth certificate data for nearly all registered US births from 1976 to 2016 and monthly data on state unemployment rates, we reexamined the link between macroeconomic variation and birth outcomes. We hypothesized that economic downturns reduce exposure to work-related stressors and pollution while increasing exposure to socioeconomic stressors like job loss. Because of preexisting inequalities in health and other resources, we expected that less-educated mothers and black mothers would be more exposed to macroeconomic variation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz042DOI Listing
February 2019

THE AUTHORS REPLY.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

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https://academic.oup.com/aje/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aje
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz076DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Vaccines Using a Regression Discontinuity Design.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

The regression discontinuity design (RDD), first proposed in the educational psychology literature and popularized in econometrics in the 1960s, has only recently been applied to epidemiologic research. A critical aim of infectious disease epidemiologists and global health researchers is to evaluate disease prevention and control strategies, including the impact of vaccines and vaccination programs. RDDs have very rarely been used in this context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz043DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Estimation of Relative and Absolute Risks in a Competing-Risks Setting Using a Nested Case-Control Study Design: Example From the ProMort Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

In this paper, we describe the Prognostic Factors for Mortality in Prostate Cancer (ProMort) study and use it to demonstrate how the weighted likelihood method can be used in nested case-control studies to estimate both relative and absolute risks in the competing-risks setting. ProMort is a case-control study nested within the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden, comprising 1,710 men diagnosed with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer between 1998 and 2011 who died from prostate cancer (cases) and 1,710 matched controls. Cause-specific hazard ratios and cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for prostate cancer death were estimated in ProMort using weighted flexible parametric models and compared with the corresponding estimates from the NPCR cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz026DOI Listing
February 2019

One-Carbon Cofactor Intake and Risk of Neural Tube Defects Among Women Who Meet Folic Acid Recommendations: A Multicenter Case-Control Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

We aimed to investigate associations between individual and concurrent (≥2) intakes of one-carbon cofactors vitamins B6 and B12, choline, betaine, and methionine and neural tube defect (NTD) outcomes among mothers meeting the folic acid recommendations. In the Slone Birth Defects Study (case-control design; North America, 1998-2015), mothers of 164 NTD cases and 2,831 nonmalformed controls completed food frequency questionnaires and structured interviews. Estimated intakes of one-carbon cofactors were dichotomized (high vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz040DOI Listing
February 2019

Determinants of transmission risk during the late stage of the West African Ebola epidemic.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK.

Understanding risk factors for Ebola transmission is key for effective prediction and design of interventions. We used data on 860 cases in 129 chains of transmission from the latter half of the 2013-16 Ebola outbreak in Guinea. Using negative binomial regression, we determined characteristics associated with the number of secondary cases resulting from each infected individual. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/aje/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aje
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz090DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Alcohol and DNA Methylation: An Epigenome-Wide Association Study in Blood and Normal Breast Tissue.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

The biological mechanisms driving associations between alcohol consumption and chronic diseases might include epigenetic modification of DNA methylation. We explored the hypothesis that alcohol consumption is associated with methylation in an epigenome-wide association study of blood and normal breast tissue DNA. Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina Inc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz032DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Ethnic-specific cardiac Troponin T acute mental stress responses and ethnic-specific RaVL cut-points: The SABPA study.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Hypertension in Africa Research Team (HART), Faculty of Health Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Acute mental stressor induced cardiac stress responses may contribute to excessive myocardial strain and resultant cardiovascular episode risk. Ethnic-specific acute cardiac stress (cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide), related to hemodynamic activity, were assessed. The prospective Sympathetic Activity and ambulatory blood pressure in Africans (SABPA) study, conducted during 2007-2008, North-West, South Africa, was investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz082DOI Listing
March 2019
5.230 Impact Factor

Extended Mortality Follow-up of a Cohort of 25,460 Workers Exposed to Acrylonitrile.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland.

We extended the mortality follow-up of a cohort of 25,460 workers employed at eight acrylonitrile (AN)-producing facilities in the United States by 21 years. Based on 8,124 deaths and 1,023,922 person-years of follow-up, we evaluated the relationship between occupational AN exposure and mortality. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) based on deaths through December 31, 2011 were calculated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz086DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Restriction of Pharmacoepidemiologic Cohorts to Initiators of Unrelated Preventive Drug Classes to Reduce Confounding by Frailty in Older Adults.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Non-experimental studies of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in older adults have reported 40-60% reductions in all-cause mortality associated with vaccination, potentially due to confounding by frailty. We restricted our cohort to initiators of preventive drug classes (statins, antiglaucoma drugs, and beta-blockers) as an approach to reduce confounding by frailty by excluding frail older adults who would not initiate these drugs. Using a random 20% sample of U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz083DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Cancer Survivorship and Subclinical Myocardial Damage: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Cancer survivors may have an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) resulting from toxicities of cancer therapies and high burden of CVD risk factors. We sought to evaluate the association of cancer survivorship with subclinical myocardial damage, as assessed by elevated high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T (hs-cTnT). We included 3,512 participants of the ARIC Study who attended Visit 5 (2011-2013) and were free of CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, or stroke). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz088DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
5.230 Impact Factor

From Epidemiological Knowledge to Improved Health: A Vision for Translational Epidemiology.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore Maryland.

Epidemiology should aim to improve population health; however, no consensus exists regarding the activities and skills that should be prioritized to achieve this goal. We performed a scoping review of articles addressing the translation of epidemiological knowledge into improved population health outcomes. We identified five themes in the translational epidemiology literature: foundations of epidemiological thinking, evidence-based public health or medicine, epidemiological education, implementation science, and community-engaged research (including literature on community-based participatory research). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz085DOI Listing

Qatar Biobank Cohort Study: Study Design and First Results.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Qatar Biobank for Medical Research, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science, and Community, Doha, Qatar.

The authors describe the design, implementation and results of Qatar Biobank (QBB) for the first 10,000 participants. QBB is a prospective population-based cohort study in Qatar, established in 2012. QBB's primary goal was to establish a cohort accessible to the local and international scientific community providing adequate health data and biological samples enabling evidence-based research. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/aje/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aje
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz084DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (e-mail:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz075DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
5.230 Impact Factor

Use of Negative Control Exposure Analysis to Evaluate Confounding: An Example of Acetaminophen Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Nurses' Health Study II.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Apr;188(4):768-775

Department of Environmental Health, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Frequent maternal use of acetaminophen in pregnancy has been linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but concerns regarding uncontrolled confounding remain. In this article, we illustrate use of the negative control exposure (NCE) approach to evaluate uncontrolled confounding bias in observational studies on pregnancy drug safety and explain the causal assumptions behind the method. We conducted an NCE analysis and evaluated the associations between maternal acetaminophen use during different exposure periods and ADHD among 8,856 children born in 1993-2005 to women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438812PMC
April 2019
1 Read

2018 Articles of the Year, Reviewers of the Year, and Figure of the Year.

Authors:

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Apr;188(4):619-620

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz046DOI Listing

A Note From the Editors.

Authors:

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz053DOI Listing

A Look at Propensity Score Calibration's Unique Identifiability.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz072DOI Listing

Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study of Men.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Unit of Cardiovascular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Studies indicate an inverse association between moderate alcohol consumption and chronic inflammatory diseases; however, the association between alcohol consumption and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) incidence has not been widely studied. We investigated the associations of total alcohol consumption and intake of specific alcoholic beverages with risk of COPD in a population-based prospective cohort study, the Cohort of Swedish Men (n = 44,254). Alcohol consumption was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in 1997. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz020DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Utility of Spatial Point-Pattern Analysis Using Residential and Workplace Geospatial Information to Localize Potential Outbreak Sources.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.

Identifying the source of an outbreak facilitates its control. Spatial methods are not optimally used in outbreak investigation, due to a mix of the complexities involved (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy290DOI Listing

RE: "AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS AND EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST IN A DANISH COHORT".

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.

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https://academic.oup.com/aje/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aje
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz024DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

EPIDEMIOLOGY AT THE HEART OF POPULATION HEALTH SCIENCE.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY.

Epidemiology has long been concerned with understanding the causes of health and disease states so that we can improve the health of populations. However, despite broad agreement on this definition of the field, we continue to debate certain core goals of epidemiology: whether epidemiology is a pragmatic science or not, which methods constitute epidemiologic methods, and what our gold standard thinking should be to understand causation. We suggest that recognizing epidemiology as the quantitative heart of population health science can push these tensions aside and allow us to focus our science on the health of populations and on the processes that shape that health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy222DOI Listing

Post-"Modern Epidemiology": when methods meet matter.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, UK.

In the last third of the 20th century aetiological epidemiology within high-income country academia shifted its primary concern from attempting to tackle the apparent epidemic of "non-communicable disease" to an increasing focus on developing statistical and causal inference methodologies. This move was mutually constitutive with the failure of applied epidemiology to make major progress, with many of the advances in understanding the causes of "non-communicable diseases" coming from outside the discipline, whilst ironically revealing the infectious origins of several major conditions. Conversely, there were many examples of epidemiological studies promoting ineffective interventions, and little evident attempt to account for such failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz064DOI Listing

Applied Epidemiology Training Needs for the Modern Epidemiologist.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Emergency Response and Recovery Branch, Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Applied epidemiology training occurs throughout an epidemiologist's career, beginning with academic instruction before workforce entry, continuing as professional development while working, and culminating with mentoring the next generation. Epidemiologists need ongoing training on advancements and relevant topics (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz052DOI Listing

On Being an Epidemiologist.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

This commentary addresses being an epidemiologist at a time when the field of epidemiology again faces a paradigm shift as the tools for research on human health draw increasingly on emerging technologies-various omics and new methods for collecting individual data at high intensity-and on new methods for carrying out research through administrative and healthcare data bases linked to biobanks. At the same time, epidemiologists in public health practice continue to face the usual array of challenges, but with the threat of global issues as well. The profession of epidemiologist is not monolithic, but embraces a broad range of activities and professional venues, reflecting the many contexts where epidemiologists do their work, the nature of the problems addressed, and the span and application of their findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy279DOI Listing

Emerging Challenges and Opportunities in Infectious Disease Epidemiology.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California.

Much of the intellectual tradition of modern epidemiology stems from efforts to understand and combat chronic diseases persisting through the 20th century epidemiologic transition of countries such as the United States and United Kingdom. Following decades of relative obscurity, infectious disease epidemiology has undergone an intellectual rebirth in recent years amid increasing recognition of the threat posed by both new and familiar pathogens. Here we review the emerging coalescence of infectious disease epidemiology around a core set of study designs and statistical methods bearing little resemblance to the chronic disease epidemiology toolkit. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/aje/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aje
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy264DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

A Future for Observational Epidemiology: Clarity, Credibility, Transparency.

Authors:
Sam Harper

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health, McGill University.

Observational studies are ambiguous, difficult, and necessary for epidemiology. Presently there are concerns that the evidence produced by most observational studies in epidemiology is not credible and contributes to research waste. I argue that observational epidemiology could be improved by focusing greater attention on: 1) defining questions that make clear whether the inferential goal is descriptive or causal; 2) greater utilization of quantitative bias analysis and alternative research designs that aim to decrease the strength of assumptions needed to estimate causal effects; and 3) promoting, experimenting, and perhaps institutionalizing reproducible research standards as well as replication studies to evaluate the fragility of study findings in epidemiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy280DOI Listing

Epidemiologists of the Future: Data Collector or Scientist?

Authors:
Lewis H Kuller

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. It is a biological science that includes expertise in many disciplines in both social and behavioral sciences. Epidemiology is also a key component of preventive medicine and public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy221DOI Listing

Signals Among Signals: Prioritizing Non-genetic Associations in Massive Datasets.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Massive datasets are often regarded as a panacea to the underpowered studies of the past. At the same time, it is becoming clear that in many of these datasets where thousands of variables are measured across hundreds of thousands or millions of individuals, almost any desired relationship can be inferred with a suitable combination of covariates or analytic choices. Inspired by the Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analysis paradigm that has transformed human genetics, "X-Wide Association Studies" or "XWASs" have emerged as a popular approach to systematically analyze non-genetic datasets and guard against false positives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz031DOI Listing
March 2019
5.230 Impact Factor

The future of climate epidemiology: Opportunities for advancing health research in the context of climate change.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

In the coming decades, climate change is expected to dramatically affect communities worldwide, altering the patterns of many ambient exposures and disasters, including extreme temperatures, heat waves, wildfires, droughts, and floods. These exposures in turn can affect risks for a variety of human diseases and health outcomes. Climate epidemiology plays an important role in informing policy related to climate change and its threats to public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz034DOI Listing

Epidemiology: Back to the Future.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Center for Perinatal Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

In 2018 the Society for Epidemiologic Research (SER) and the its partner journal, the American Journal of Epidemiology (AJE), assembled a working group to develop a set of papers devoted to the "future of epidemiology". These 14 papers covered a wide range of topic areas and perspectives - from thoughts on our profession, teaching, methods, to critical areas of substantive research. The papers considered current challenges and future opportunities for research and education. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz045DOI Listing

Systems modeling to advance the promise of data science in epidemiology.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York.

Systems science models use computer-based algorithms to model dynamic interactions between study units within and across levels, and are characterized by non-linear and feedback processes. They are particularly valuable approaches to complement the traditional epidemiologic toolbox in cases when real data is not available, and in cases when traditional epidemiologic methods are limited by issues such as interference, spatial dependence, and dynamic feedback processes. This commentary proposes two key contributions that systems models can make to epidemiology: (1) by testing assumptions about underlying mechanisms that give rise to population distributions of disease; and (2) by helping us identify the types of interventions that have the greatest potential to reduce population rates of disease in the future, or in new sites where they have not yet been implemented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy262DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Challenges and Opportunities for Using Big Health Care Data to Advance Medical Science and Public Health.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Biostatistics Unit, Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, Washington.

Methodological advancements in epidemiology, biostatistics, and data science have strengthened the research world's ability to use data captured from electronic health records (EHRs) to address pressing medical questions, but gaps remain. We describe methods investments that are needed to curate EHR data toward research quality and to integrate complementary data sources when EHR data alone are insufficient for research goals. We highlight new methods and future directions for improving the integrity of medical evidence generated from pragmatic trials, observational studies, and predictive modeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy292DOI Listing

The Unique Space of Epidemiology: Drawing on the Past to Project into the Future.

Authors:
Ana V Diez Roux

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Urban Health Collaborative, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA.

Epidemiology has always filled a unique space. It lies squarely at the intersection of the social and biological sciences as well as at the intersection of knowledge generation and the translation of that knowledge into actions. Today new data sources, new methods, and continued population health problems create opportunities and challenges for epidemiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz001DOI Listing

Applying the E-value to Assess the Robustness of Epidemiologic Fields of Inquiry to Unmeasured Confounding.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

We explored the use of the E-value to gauge the robustness of fields of epidemiological inquiry to unmeasured confounding. We surveyed nutrition and air pollution studies that found statistically significant associations between exposures and incident outcomes. For 100 studies in each field, we extracted adjusted relative effect estimates and associated confidence intervals (95% CI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz063DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Maternal Gestational Weight Gain, Obesity, and the Timing of Pubertal Onset in Daughters.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, CA.

Early puberty is associated with adverse health outcomes, but little is known regarding early life determinants influencing pubertal timing. We examined the associations between maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and the timing of the onset of breast development (thelarche) and pubic hair development (pubarche) in a cohort of 2,070 girls born in a Kaiser Permanente Northern California facility between 2005-06. Using Weibull regression models accommodating interval censoring, and adjusting for important confounders, we found that excessive GWG was associated with increased risk of early thelarche (hazard ratio [HR]: 1. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/aje/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aje
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz068DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Relationships Between Cadmium, Lead and Mercury Levels and Albuminuria: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Database 2009-2012.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Neonatology, The Children Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China.

This cross-sectional study evaluated associations between cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) and the presence of albuminuria in US adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012. A total of 2,926 adults aged ≥20 years were included, representing a population-based sample of 18,264,307 persons. Data for blood and urinary levels of Cd, Pb, Hg, and urinary albumin (albuminuria measured as albumin-to-creatinine ratio [ACR]) were obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz070DOI Listing
March 2019
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Long-term Associations Between Disaster Experiences and Cardiometabolic Risk: A Natural Experiment From the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

This study investigated the association between disaster experience and cardiometabolic risks of survivors 2.5 years after the disaster onset, adjusting for health information pre-dating disaster using natural experiment data stemming from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. We used data from a cohort of adults aged 65 years or older in Iwanuma city of Japan located 80 km west of the earthquake epicenter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz065DOI Listing
March 2019
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Estimating the Effect of Preventive Services with Databases of Administrative Claims: Reasons to Be Concerned.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz049DOI Listing

Author Replies.

Authors:
Noel S Weiss

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz050DOI Listing

Within-Person Associations Between Financial Hardship and Cognitive Performance in the PATH Through Life.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Centre for Research on Ageing Health and Wellbeing, Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

The aim of this study was to investigate the within-person associations between the experience of financial hardship and cognitive performance throughout adulthood. Three waves of data provided by 6,343 participants (49% men) were analyzed from a representative community based sample from Canberra, Australia (2003-2015). The outcome was a composite measure reflecting fluid cognitive abilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz051DOI Listing

The Future of Observational Epidemiology: Improving Data and Design to Align With Population Health.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Improvements in data resources and computational power provide important opportunities to ensure the continued relevance and growth of observational epidemiology. To achieve that promise, rigorous statistical analyses are important but not sufficient. We must prioritize articulating relevant research questions and developing strong study designs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz030DOI Listing

Reproductive Factors and Mammographic Density: Associations Among 24,840 Women and Comparison of Studies Using Digitized Film-Screen Mammography and Full-Field Digital Mammography.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California.

Breast density is a modifiable factor that is strongly associated with breast cancer risk. We sought to understand the influence of newer technologies of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) on breast density research and to determine whether results are comparable across studies using FFDM and previous studies using traditional film-screen mammography. We studied 24,840 screening-age (40-74 years) non-Hispanic white women who were participants in the Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health of Kaiser Permanente Northern California and underwent screening mammography with either Hologic (Hologic, Inc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz033DOI Listing