20,865 results match your criteria Am. J. Clin. Nutr.[Journal]


Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and risk of hyperuricemia: a longitudinal analysis of the Health Workers Cohort Study participants in Mexico.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Research Center in Policy, Population, and Health, School of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: The elevated consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in Mexico is an important public health concern. However, the association between SSB consumption and hyperuricemia has been scarcely studied and not well documented.

Objectives: To prospectively evaluate the association between SSB consumption and risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa160DOI Listing

Best (but oft-forgotten) practices: sample size and power calculation for a dietary intervention trial with episodically consumed foods.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Dietary interventions often target foods that are underconsumed relative to dietary guidelines, such as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Because these foods are only consumed episodically for some participants, data from such a study often contains a disproportionally large number of zeros due to study participants who do not consume any of the target foods on the days that dietary intake is assessed, thus generating semicontinuous data. These zeros need to be properly accounted for when calculating sample sizes to ensure that the study is adequately powered to detect a meaningful intervention effect size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa176DOI Listing

Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of coronary heart disease: a pan-European cohort study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Background: High carbohydrate intake raises blood triglycerides, glucose, and insulin; reduces HDLs; and may increase risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiological studies indicate that high dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are associated with increased CHD risk.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary GI, GL, and available carbohydrates are associated with CHD risk in both sexes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa157DOI Listing

One-year changes in sugar-sweetened beverage consumers' purchases following implementation of a beverage tax: a longitudinal quasi-experiment.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Few longitudinal studies examine the response to beverage taxes, especially among regular sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers.

Objective: This study aimed to examine changes in objectively measured beverage purchases associated with the Philadelphia beverage tax on sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages.

Methods: A longitudinal quasi-experiment was conducted with adult sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers in Philadelphia (n = 306) and Baltimore (n = 297; a nontaxed comparison city). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa158DOI Listing

Whole grain and dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Whole grains and other foods containing fiber are thought to be inversely related to colorectal cancer (CRC). However, whether these associations reflect fiber or fiber source remains unclear.

Objectives: We evaluated associations of whole grain and dietary fiber intake with CRC risk in the large NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa161DOI Listing

Contrasting effects of viscous and particulate fibers on colonic fermentation in vitro and in vivo, and their impact on intestinal water studied by MRI in a randomized trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and the University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Background: Wheat bran, nopal, and psyllium are examples of particulate, viscous and particulate, and viscous fibers, respectively, with laxative properties yet contrasting fermentability.

Objectives: We assessed the fermentability of these fibers in vitro and their effects on intestinal function relevant to laxation in vivo using MRI.

Methods: Each fiber was predigested prior to measuring gas production in vitro during 48-h anaerobic incubation with healthy fecal samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa173DOI Listing

A healthy lifestyle pattern and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease: results from 2 prospective cohort studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Symptomatic gallstones cause high financial and disease burden for public health systems. The combined role of diet and other lifestyle factors has not been studied so far.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between an a priori defined healthy lifestyle score (HLS, including healthy diet, moderate alcohol and regular coffee intakes, never smoking, physical activity, and normal weight) and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease, and to estimate the proportion of cases potentially preventable by lifestyle modification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa154DOI Listing

Iron absorption during pregnancy is underestimated when iron utilization by the placenta and fetus is ignored.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Cornell, NY, USA.

Background: Maternal iron absorption during pregnancy can be evaluated using RBC incorporation of orally administered stable iron isotope. This approach underestimates true maternal absorption of iron as it does not account for absorbed iron that is transferred to the fetus or retained within the placenta.

Objective: Our objective was to re-evaluate maternal iron absorption after factoring in these losses and identify factors associated with iron partitioning between the maternal, neonatal, and placental compartments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa155DOI Listing

The protective association of linoleic acid against mortality might be under- or over-estimated.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul;112(1):237

Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa105DOI Listing

Reply to A Salari-Moghaddam et al.

Authors:
Jun Li Frank B Hu

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul;112(1):237-238

From the Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa106DOI Listing
July 2020
6.770 Impact Factor

Added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with increased postpartum weight gain and soluble fiber intake is associated with postpartum weight loss in Hispanic women from Southern California.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Pediatrics, The Saban Research Institute, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Obesity prevalence remains high in the United States, and there is an increased risk among women who do not lose their gestational weight gain during the postpartum period. Indicators of dietary carbohydrate quality including added sugar consumption, glycemic load, and glycemic index have been linked with weight gain, whereas fiber may protect against obesity. However, these dietary factors have not been examined during the postpartum period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa156DOI Listing

Cumulative soft drink consumption is associated with insulin resistance in Mexican adults.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Center for Research in Policies, Population and Health, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other cardiometabolic diseases. Recent studies suggest that soft drink consumption could increase IR. However, inconsistent findings have been observed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa169DOI Listing

Reply to LA Seale et al.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa178DOI Listing

A role for selenium-dependent GPX1 in SARS-CoV-2 virulence.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337667PMC

Absence of evidence is no evidence for absence of the phenomenon.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa165DOI Listing

COVID-19 pandemic and mitigation strategies: implications for maternal and child health and nutrition.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to ravage health and economic metrics globally, including progress in maternal and child nutrition. Although there has been focus on rising rates of childhood wasting in the short term, maternal and child undernutrition rates are also likely to increase as a consequence of COVID-19 and its impacts on poverty, coverage of essential interventions, and access to appropriate nutritious foods. Key sectors at particular risk of collapse or reduced efficiency in the wake of COVID-19 include food systems, incomes, and social protection, health care services for women and children, and services and access to clean water and sanitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337702PMC
June 2020
6.770 Impact Factor

Limiting deconditioned muscle atrophy and strength loss with appropriate nutrition: can it be done?

Authors:
D Joe Millward

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa150DOI Listing

Exploring the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on surrogate biomarkers of cholesterol absorption and endogenous synthesis in patients with type 2 diabetes-randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Inverse associations have been reported between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and circulating cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. Postulated mechanisms include reduced bioavailability of intestinal cholesterol and alterations in endogenous cholesterol synthesis.

Objective: To explore the effect of daily supplementation with 4000 IU/d vitamin D3 for 24 wk on surrogate biomarkers of cholesterol absorption (campesterol and β-sitosterol) and endogenous synthesis (lathosterol and desmosterol). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa149DOI Listing

A novel botanical formula improves eye fatigue and dry eye: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Nutrilite Health Institute, Shanghai, China.

Background: With the frequent use of video display units, eye fatigue is becoming more common globally. An alternative nutritional strategy is needed to prevent the aggravation of eye fatigue symptoms.

Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the protective effect of a novel botanical combination of lutein ester, zeaxanthin, and extracts of blackcurrant, chrysanthemum, and goji berry on adults with eye fatigue in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa139DOI Listing
June 2020
6.770 Impact Factor

Effect of daily 2000 IU versus 800 IU vitamin D on blood pressure among adults age 60 years and older: a randomized clinical trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Geriatrics and Aging Research, University Hospital Zurich and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Observational studies report higher blood pressure (BP) among individuals with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Whether dosage of vitamin D supplementation has a differential effect on BP control remains unclear.

Objective: The study aimed to determine if daily vitamin D supplementation with 2000 IU is more effective than 800 IU for BP control among older adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa145DOI Listing

Effects of a modestly lower carbohydrate diet in gestational diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Lower carbohydrate diets have the potential to improve glycemia but may increase ketonemia in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). We hypothesized that modestly lower carbohydrate intake would not increase ketonemia.

Objective: To compare blood ketone concentration, risk of ketonemia, and pregnancy outcomes in women with GDM randomly assigned to a lower carbohydrate diet or routine care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa137DOI Listing

Weight suppression increases odds for future onset of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and purging disorder, but not binge eating disorder.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 13. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Saint Michael's College, Colchester, VT, USA.

Background: Eating disorders affect 13% of females and contribute to functional impairment and mortality, but few studies have identified risk factors that prospectively correlate with future onset of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD). Identifying risk factors specific to each eating disorder is critical for advancing etiologic knowledge and designing effective prevention programs.

Objectives: This study examined whether weight suppression (the difference between a person's highest past weight at their adult height and their current weight) correlates with future onset of AN, BN, BED, and PD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa146DOI Listing

Effects of oily fish intake on cognitive and socioemotional function in healthy 8-9-year-old children: the FiSK Junior randomized trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul;112(1):74-83

Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Long-chain n-3 PUFAs (n-3 LCPUFAs) accrete in the brain during childhood and affect brain development. Randomized trials in children show inconsistent effects of n-3 LCPUFAs on cognitive and socioemotional function, and few have investigated effects of fish per se.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on overall and domain-specific cognitive and socioemotional scores and explore sex differences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa050DOI Listing

Effect of dairy consumption and its fat content on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend the consumption of 3 servings/d of low-fat/nonfat dairy. The effects of higher dairy consumption and its fat content are unknown in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Objective: Evaluate the impact of higher consumption of high- compared with low-fat dairy on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa138DOI Listing
June 2020
6.770 Impact Factor

Sex-and race-specific associations of protein intake with change in muscle mass and physical function in older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul;112(1):84-95

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, Vrije University Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Protein intake recommendations advise ≥0.8 g/kg body weight (BW)/d, whereas experts propose a higher intake for older adults (1.0-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa099DOI Listing

A prospective study of yogurt and other dairy consumption in relation to incidence of type 2 diabetes among black women in the USA.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Yogurt consumption and low-fat dairy consumption have been associated with reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in some studies.

Objective: We assessed the relation of yogurt and other dairy consumption to incidence of T2D in black women, a population group with a disproportionately high incidence of T2D.

Methods: The Black Women's Health Study has followed 59,000 US black women since 1995 through biennial questionnaires which update health information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa143DOI Listing

Use of standardized body composition measurements and malnutrition screening tools to detect malnutrition risk and predict clinical outcomes in children with chronic conditions.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, University College London Great Ormond St Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Better tools are needed to diagnose and identify children at risk of clinical malnutrition.

Objectives: We aimed to compare body composition (BC) and malnutrition screening tools (MSTs) for detecting malnutrition on admission; and examine their ability to predict adverse clinical outcomes [increased length of stay (LOS) and complications] in complex pediatric patients.

Methods: This was a prospective study in children 5-18 y old admitted to a tertiary pediatric hospital (n = 152). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa142DOI Listing

Metabolic signatures associated with Western and Prudent dietary patterns in women.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The Western dietary pattern (WD) is positively associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cancer, whereas the Prudent dietary pattern (PD) may be protective. Foods may influence metabolite concentrations as well as oxidative stress and lipid dysregulation, biological mechanisms associated with CAD and cancer.

Objective: The aim was to assess the association of 2 derived dietary pattern scores with serum metabolites and identify metabolic pathways associated with the metabolites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa131DOI Listing

Dietary Inflammatory Index and metabolic syndrome in Mexican adult population.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Center for Population Health Research, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

Background: Evidence suggests low-grade inflammation as the cause of metabolic syndrome and suggests diet as a promoter of chronic inflammation.

Objective: We evaluated the association between inflammatory diets and the development of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults.

Methods: A total of 399 participants of the Health Workers Cohort Study were included in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa135DOI Listing

One size doesn't fit all: postexercise protein requirements for the endurance athlete.

Authors:
Daniel R Moore

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa144DOI Listing

Linoleic acid intake and reduction in mortality: the icing on the cake of health benefits from n-6 PUFAs?

Authors:
Emilio Ros

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul;112(1):3-4

Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain; and CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa062DOI Listing

A metabolomic study of red and processed meat intake and acylcarnitine concentrations in human urine and blood.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Background: Acylcarnitines (ACs) play a major role in fatty acid metabolism and are potential markers of metabolic dysfunction with higher blood concentrations reported in obese and diabetic individuals. Diet, and in particular red and processed meat intake, has been shown to influence AC concentrations but data on the effect of meat consumption on AC concentrations is limited.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of red and processed meat intake on AC concentrations in plasma and urine using a randomized controlled trial with replication in an observational cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa140DOI Listing

No effect of resveratrol supplementation after 6 months on insulin sensitivity in overweight adults: a randomized trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Background: Effects of resveratrol on metabolic health have been studied in several short-term human clinical trials, with conflicting results. Next to dose, the duration of the clinical trials may explain the lack of effect in some studies, but long-term studies are still limited.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-mo resveratrol supplementation on metabolic health outcome parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa125DOI Listing

Mediterranean diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and Pro-vegetarian dietary pattern in relation to the risk of basal cell carcinoma: a nested case-control study within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Background: The association of dietary pattern with the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is little understood and has scarcely been investigated.

Objectives: We assessed the association of several complete dietary patterns [Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Pro-vegetarian dietary pattern] with the risk of BCC, conducting a nested case-control study (4 controls for each case).

Methods: Cases and controls were selected from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort using risk set sampling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa127DOI Listing

Findings in 3 clinical trials challenge the accuracy of the Institute of Medicine's estimated average requirements for vitamin A in children and women.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: Vitamin A (VA) estimated average requirements (EARs) for women and children are extrapolated from rats and adult males. The retinol isotope dilution (RID) test can sensitively characterize VA status and intake requirements.

Objectives: These studies evaluated current EARs for children 4-8 y and women 19-30 y old. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa132DOI Listing

Public health guidelines should recommend reducing saturated fat consumption as much as possible: YES.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul;112(1):13-18

Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of California-San Francisco (UCSF).

Based on decades of research, there is strong evidence that supports ongoing dietary recommendations to decrease intakes of SFAs and, more recently, to replace SFAs with unsaturated fat, including PUFAs and MUFAs. Epidemiologic research has shown that replacement of SFAs with unsaturated fat, but not refined carbohydrate and added sugars, is associated with a reduction in coronary heart disease events and death. There is much evidence from controlled clinical studies demonstrating that SFAs increase LDL cholesterol, a major causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa110DOI Listing

Public health guidelines should recommend reducing saturated fat consumption as much as possible: Debate Consensus.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul;112(1):25-26

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

There is ongoing debate as to whether public health guidelines should advocate reducing SFA consumption as much as possible to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). In considering both sides of this question, we identified a number of points of agreement, most notably that the overall dietary patterns in which SFAs are consumed are of greater significance for cardiometabolic and general health than SFA intake alone. Nevertheless, there remained significant disagreements, centered largely on the interpretation of evidence bearing on 4 major questions: 1) does reducing dietary SFAs lower the incidence of CVD, 2) is the LDL-cholesterol reduction with lower SFA intake predictive of reduced CVD risk, 3) do dietary SFAs affect factors other than LDL cholesterol that may impact CVD risk, and 4) is there a sufficient rationale for setting a target for maximally reducing dietary SFAs? Finally, we identified specific research needs for addressing knowledge gaps that have contributed to the controversies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa134DOI Listing

Public health guidelines should recommend reducing saturated fat consumption as much as possible: NO.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul;112(1):19-24

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

The proposition that dietary SFAs should be restricted to the maximal extent possible (e.g., to achieve approximately half of current consumption) is based primarily on observational and clinical trial data that are interpreted as indicating a benefit of such limitation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa111DOI Listing

Reply to A Lucas and SA Abrams.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 06;111(6):1302-1303

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266681PMC

Reply to P-F Wu et al.

Authors:
Pinpin Long An Pan

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 06;111(6):1300-1301

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa070DOI Listing

Human milk fortifiers: corrigenda.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 06;111(6):1301-1302

Department of Pediatrics, Dell Medical School at the University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa093DOI Listing

Application and interpretation of Mendelian randomization approaches in exploring the causality between folate and coronary artery disease.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 06;111(6):1299-1300

Department of Ultrasound Diagnosis, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa069DOI Listing

Fat and fat-free mass index references in children and young adults: assessments along racial and ethnic lines.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

USDA/Agricultural Research Service Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) are superior to BMI and fat percentage in evaluating nutritional status. However, existing references fail to account for racial/ethnic differences in body composition among children.

Objectives: Our goal was to produce age-based normative references for FFMI and FMI in children for specific racial/ethnic groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa128DOI Listing

Race-specific associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone with cardiometabolic biomarkers among US white and black postmenopausal women.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Epidemiology, Indiana University Richard M Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] tend to be lower in African Americans than in non-Hispanic whites, but whether adding information on parathyroid hormone (PTH) can help explain the higher cardiometabolic risk among African Americans is unknown.

Objectives: This study examined race (black/white)-specific independent and joint associations of 25(OH)D and PTH with cardiometabolic biomarkers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-B).

Methods: Among 1500 white and 1300 black postmenopausal women without cardiovascular disease from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a weighted linear regression analysis and a novel penalized spline-based semiparametric model with contour plots, accounting for possible nonlinear relations and interactions simultaneously, were used to investigate the race-specific independent and joint associations of 25(OH)D and PTH with each biomarker. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa121DOI Listing

Serum sphingolipids and incident diabetes in a US population with high diabetes burden: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul;112(1):57-65

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Background: Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthases prevented diabetes in animal studies.

Objectives: We sought to evaluate prospective associations of serum sphingolipids with incident diabetes in a population-based cohort.

Methods: We included 2010 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) aged 18-74 y who were free of diabetes and other major chronic diseases at baseline (2008-2011). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa114DOI Listing

Effect of lean red meat combined with a multicomponent exercise program on muscle and cognitive function in older adults: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul;112(1):113-128

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Exercise and increased dietary protein have been linked to improved muscle and cognitive health, but the combination may be more effective.

Objective: In this study performed in community-dwelling older adults undergoing a 3-d/wk resistance-based exercise training program, we investigated whether those who consumed lean red meat compared to carbohydrates on the 3 training days per wk would experience greater exercise-induced improvements in total body and leg lean mass (LM), muscle strength, and executive function (multiple primary outcomes), as well as muscle size and density, functional performance, cognition, inflammatory and neurotrophic markers, blood pressure, and lipid concentrations.

Design: In a 24-wk, 2-arm parallel randomized controlled trial, 154 adults aged ≥65 y participated in a multicomponent 3-d/wk resistance-based exercise program with random allocation to either a lean red meat group (two 80-g servings of cooked red meat), the exercise plus lean red meat (Ex + Meat) group (n = 77) or a control group receiving carbohydrates in the form of one-half cup (approximately 225 g cooked weight) of rice or pasta or 1 medium potato, the exercise plus carbohydrate control (C + Ex) group (n = 77), on the training days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa104DOI Listing

Correcting measurement error in dietary exposure assessments: no piece of cake.

Authors:
Christina C Dahm

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul;112(1):11-12

Research Unit for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa130DOI Listing

Effects of a multinutrient-fortified milk drink combined with exercise on functional performance, muscle strength, body composition, inflammation, and oxidative stress in middle-aged women: a 4-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Fonterra Co-operative Group Ltd, Palmerston, North New Zealand.

Background: Multinutrient protein-enriched supplements are promoted to augment the effects of exercise on muscle mass and strength, but their effectiveness in middle-aged women, or whether there are any additional benefits to physical function, remains uncertain.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate whether a multinutrient-fortified milk drink (MFMD) could enhance the effects of exercise on functional muscle power (stair climbing) in middle-aged women. Secondary aims were to evaluate the intervention effects on physical function, muscle strength, lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), bone mineral content (BMC), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle density, balance, flexibility, aerobic fitness, inflammation, oxidative stress, bone and cartilage turnover, blood pressure, and blood lipids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa126DOI Listing