25,094 results match your criteria Am J Psychiatry[Journal]


An Array of Studies Addressing Cognition and Cognitively Defined Neuropsychiatric Conditions: Many More Connections Than You Might Think.

Authors:
Philip D Harvey

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun;177(6):491-496

University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami; and Bruce W. Carter Miami VA Medical Center, Miami.

Six articles in the June 2020 issue of the address the overall construct of cognition. These articles have a broad connection to cognition, which is itself a broad concept. From the experimental psychology perspective, cognition is the set of processes associated with attending, learning, knowing, and remembering. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20040407DOI Listing

Antidepressants, Pregnancy, and Autism: Setting the Record(s) Straight.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun;177(6):479-481

Department of Psychiatry, Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center (Maloney, Rogers, Constantino), and Department of Pediatrics (Rogers, Constantino), Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20040418DOI Listing

New Findings Related to Cognition, Intellectual Disability, Dementia, and Autism.

Authors:
Ned H Kalin

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun;177(6):473-475

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20040405DOI Listing

Small Flies Meet Big Data: Genetic Convergence of Neurodevelopmental Disorders Modeled in .

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun;177(6):482-484

Department of Psychiatry (Karam, Javitch) and Department of Pharmacology (Javitch), Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York; Division of Molecular Therapeutics, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York (Karam, Coie, Javitch); and Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York (Coie).

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20040412DOI Listing

Benzodiazepines: A Perspective.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun;177(6):488-490

Department of Psychiatry, Center for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20040376DOI Listing

Can Pharmacological Augmentation of Cognitive Training Remediate Age-Related Cognitive Decline?

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun;177(6):485-487

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Davis.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20040377DOI Listing

Do Benzodiazepines Cause Alzheimer's Disease?

Authors:
Carl Salzman

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun;177(6):476-478

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston; and Massachusetts Mental Health Center, Boston.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20040375DOI Listing

Correction to Lenze et al.

Authors:

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun;177(6):556

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.1776correctionDOI Listing

Parietal-Prefrontal Feedforward Connectivity in Association With Schizophrenia Genetic Risk and Delusions.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May 27:appiajp202019111176. Epub 2020 May 27.

Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Baltimore (Greenman, La, Shah, Chen, Weinberger, Tan); Clinical and Translational Neuroscience Branch, Section on Integrative Neuroimaging, Psychosis and Cognitive Studies Section, NIMH Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, Md. (Berman); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (Weinberger, Tan); Departments of Neurology and Neuroscience and the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (Weinberger).

Objective: Conceptualizations of delusion formation implicate deficits in feedforward information updating across the posterior to prefrontal cortices, resulting in dysfunctional integration of new information about contexts in working memory and, ultimately, failure to update overfamiliar prior beliefs. The authors used functional MRI and machine learning models to address individual variability in feedforward parietal-prefrontal information updating in patients with schizophrenia. They examined relationships between feedforward connectivity, and delusional thinking and polygenic risk for schizophrenia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19111176DOI Listing

Hormonal Treatments for Major Depressive Disorder: State of the Art.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May 27:appiajp202019080848. Epub 2020 May 27.

Child Study Center and Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. (Dwyer); Department of Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, and Northcoast Behavioral Healthcare Hospital, Northfield, Ohio (Aftab); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (Widge); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., and VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, Calif. (Rodriguez); Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Butler Hospital, Brown University, Providence, R.I. (Carpenter); Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas at Austin (Nemeroff); and Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison (Kalin).

Major depressive disorder is a common psychiatric disorder associated with marked suffering, morbidity, mortality, and cost. The World Health Organization projects that by 2030, major depression will be the leading cause of disease burden worldwide. While numerous treatments for major depression exist, many patients do not respond adequately to traditional antidepressants. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19080848DOI Listing

Association Between the Use of Cannabis and Physical Violence in Youths: A Meta-Analytical Investigation.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May 27:appiajp202019101008. Epub 2020 May 27.

Research Center, Montreal University Institute of Mental Health, Montreal (Dellazizzo, Potvin, Dou, Beaudoin, Luigi, Giguère, Dumais); Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal (Dellazizzo, Potvin, Beaudoin, Luigi, Dumais); Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal (Dou [medical student]); and Philippe-Pinel National Institute of Legal Psychiatry, Montreal (Dumais).

Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the extent to which cannabis use among youths is associated with the risk of perpetrating physical violence.

Methods: Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for articles published from the inception of each database to July 2019. All studies that examined both cannabis use and the perpetration of physical violence in a sample of youths and young adults <30 years old were included. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19101008DOI Listing

Mental Health Response to the COVID-19 Outbreak in China.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May 7:appiajp202020030304. Epub 2020 May 7.

Sleep Medicine Center (Zhou, Xue, Tang), Department of Anesthesiology, Translational Neuroscience Center (Liu), and Outpatient Department (Yang), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20030304DOI Listing

Implementation of Advanced Methods for Reproductive Pharmacovigilance in Autism: A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Prenatal Antidepressant Exposure.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun 7;177(6):506-517. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami (Vega, Bozhdaraj, Saltz); Department of Psychology, University of South Florida St. Petersburg (G.C. Newport); Department of Psychiatry (Nemeroff, D.J. Newport), University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School, Austin.

Objective: Observational studies of prenatal antidepressant safety are hindered by methodological concerns, including susceptibility to surveillance bias. Some studies address potential bias by using alternative strategies to operationalize study comparison groups. In a meta-analysis of the association between prenatal antidepressant exposure and autism risk, the authors examined the utility of comparison group operationalization in reducing surveillance bias. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.18070766DOI Listing

Sleep Onset Problems and Subcortical Development in Infants Later Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun 7;177(6):518-525. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences (MacDuffie, St. John, Estes), and Department of Radiology (Dager), University of Washington, Seattle; Department of Psychiatry (Shen, Styner, Kim), Biomedical Research Imaging Center (Styner), and Neurodevelopmental Research Center (Piven), University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia (Paterson); Department of Child Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Pandey); Institute of Child Development (Elison), Department of Educational Psychology (Wolff), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis; Department of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas (Swanson); Department of Child Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis (Botteron); and Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (Zwaigenbaum).

Objective: Sleep patterns in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appear to diverge from typical development in the second or third year of life. Little is known, however, about the occurrence of sleep problems in infants who later develop ASD and possible effects on early brain development. In a longitudinal neuroimaging study of infants at familial high or low risk for ASD, parent-reported sleep onset problems were examined in relation to subcortical brain volumes in the first 2 years of life. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19060666DOI Listing

A Prehistory of the Diathesis-Stress Model: Predisposing and Exciting Causes of Insanity in the 19th Century.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May 7:appiajp202019111213. Epub 2020 May 7.

Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics and Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond.

Histories of the diathesis-stress model trace its origins to the 1950s. However, of 26 psychiatric texts published between 1800 and 1910, 17 noted that causes of insanity could be usefully divided into those that to illness and those that onset. In this "predisposition-excitation framework" (PEF) for the etiology of insanity, hereditary or constitutional factors were critical predisposing causes, but education, occupation, sex, and marital status were typically included as well. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19111213DOI Listing

Neural Correlates of the Dual-Pathway Model for ADHD in Adolescents.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May 7:appiajp202019020183. Epub 2020 May 7.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Ministry of Education-Key Laboratory of Computational Neuroscience and Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Shen, Luo, Jia, Feng, Sahakian); State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Institutes of Brain Science and Human Phenome Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Luo); Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry and the Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K. (Sahakian); Medical Research Council-Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London (Desrivières, Quinlan, Schumann); School of Mathematical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Zhao); Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany (Banaschewski, Millenet, Nees); Discipline of Psychiatry, School of Medicine and Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin (Bokde); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany (Büchel); Department of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany (Flor, Nees); Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany (Flor); Institute of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University Medical Center Schleswig Holstein, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany (Nees); NeuroSpin, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France (Frouin, Orfanos); Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington (Garavan); Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, U.K. (Gowland); Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Heinz, Walter); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig and Berlin (Ittermann); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) Unit 1000, Neuroimaging and Psychiatry, University Paris Sud-Paris Saclay, University Paris Descartes, Paris (Martinot, Artiges, Paillère-Martinot); Service Hospitalier Frédéric Joliot, Orsay, France (Martinot, Artiges); Maison de Solenn, Paris (Martinot); Groupe Hospitalier Nord Essonne, Department of Psychiatry, Orsay, France (Artiges); Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris (Paillère-Martinot); Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, Toronto (Paus); Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto (Paus); Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany (Poustka); Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Poustka); Department of Psychiatry and Neuroimaging Center, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany (Fröhner, Smolka); School of Psychology and Global Brain Health Institute, Trinity College Dublin (Whelan); Developmental and Behavioral Pediatric Department and Child Primary Care Department, Ministry of Education-Shanghai Key Lab for Children's Environmental Health, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China (Li, Sahakian); Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry, U.K. (Feng); and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Feng).

Objective: The dual-pathway model has been proposed to explain the heterogeneity in symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by two independent psychological pathways based on distinct brain circuits. The authors sought to test whether the hypothesized cognitive and motivational pathways have separable neural correlates.

Methods: In a longitudinal community-based cohort of 1,963 adolescents, the neuroanatomical correlates of ADHD were identified by a voxel-wise association analysis and then validated using an independent clinical sample (99 never-medicated patients with ADHD, 56 medicated patients with ADHD, and 267 healthy control subjects). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19020183DOI Listing

Informing Further Research in the Use of Brain Stimulation in Psychiatric Disorders: Response to Syed and Smith.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May;177(5):466-467

The Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology, Providence VA Medical Center, Providence, R.I., and the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, R.I.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19101052rDOI Listing

The Critical Relationship Between Anxiety and Depression.

Authors:
Ned H Kalin

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May;177(5):365-367

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20030305DOI Listing

What Does It Mean to Be Transdiagnostic and How Would We Know?

Authors:
Deanna M Barch

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May;177(5):370-372

Departments of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Psychiatry, and Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20030243DOI Listing

Comment on Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May;177(5):465-466

Department of Psychiatry, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston (Syed); Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Hospital, Bedford, Mass., and Departments of Psychiatry and Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (Smith).

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19101052DOI Listing

Some Comments on Psychedelic Research.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May;177(5):368-369

Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20030272DOI Listing

Examining the Reach of Smartphone Apps for Depression and Anxiety.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May;177(5):464-465

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. (Wasil, Shingleton, Wilks, Weisz); Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Wasil); Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (Gillespie).

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19090905DOI Listing

Toward Circuit Mechanisms of Pathophysiology in Depression.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May;177(5):381-390

Department of Psychiatry and Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York.

The search for more effective treatments for depression is a long-standing primary objective in both psychiatry and translational neuroscience. From initial models centered on neurochemical deficits, such as the monoamine hypothesis, research toward this goal has shifted toward a focus on network and circuit models to explain how key nodes in the limbic system and beyond interact to produce persistent shifts in affective states. To build these models, researchers have turned to two complementary approaches: neuroimaging studies in human patients (and their healthy counterparts) and neurophysiology studies in animal models, facilitated in large part by optogenetic and chemogenetic techniques. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20030280DOI Listing

Mapping Symptom Clusters to Circuits: Toward Personalizing TMS Targets to Improve Treatment Outcomes in Depression.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May;177(5):373-375

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, and Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention and Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20030271DOI Listing

Developmental Differences in Neural Responding to Threat and Safety: Implications for Treating Youths With Anxiety.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May;177(5):378-380

Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20020225DOI Listing

The Rearing Environment and Risk for Major Depression: A Swedish National High-Risk Home-Reared and Adopted-Away Co-Sibling Control Study.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May 28;177(5):447-453. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics and Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (Kendler); Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden (Ohlsson, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist); and Department of Family Medicine and Community Health and Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist).

Objective: The authors sought to clarify the role of rearing environment in the etiology of major depression.

Methods: Defining high risk as having at least one biological parent with major depression, the authors identified a Swedish National Sample of 666 high-risk full sibships and 2,596 high-risk half sibships containing at least one home-reared and one adopted-away sibling. Major depression was assessed from national medical registries. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19090911DOI Listing

Is Depression Nature or Nurture? Yes.

Authors:
Myrna M Weissman

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May 28;177(5):376-377. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Departments of Epidemiology and Psychiatry, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York; and Division of Translational Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20020186DOI Listing

20-Year Trends in the Pharmacologic Treatment of Bipolar Disorder by Psychiatrists in Outpatient Care Settings.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Apr 21:appiajp202019091000. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Connecticut, Farmington (Rhee); Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. (Rhee, Wilkinson); Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York (Olfson); and Center for Bipolar Treatment Innovation, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston (Nierenberg).

Objective: Pharmacological options for treating bipolar disorder have increased over the past 20 years, with several second-generation antipsychotics receiving regulatory approval in the 1990s. The authors describe trends in use of pharmacological agents in the outpatient management of bipolar disorder.

Methods: Using nationally representative data from the 1997-2016 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys, the authors examined trends in the use of mood stabilizers, first- and second-generation antipsychotics, and antidepressants among psychiatrist visits for which bipolar disorder was listed among the primary diagnoses. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19091000DOI Listing

Intergenerational Effects of Maternal Holocaust Exposure on Methylation.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Apr 21:appiajp201919060618. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Mental Health Care Center, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, N.Y. (Bierer, Bader, Lehrner, Makotkine, Yehuda); Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (Bierer, Bader, Daskalakis, Lehrner, Makotkine, Yehuda); McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Mass. (Daskalakis, Klengel); Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany (Klengel); Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max-Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich (Provençal, Wiechmann, Binder); Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, and British Columbia Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia (Provençal); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta (Binder).

Objective: There is growing evidence that exposure to trauma prior to conception can affect offspring. The authors have reported that adult offspring of Holocaust survivors showed lower methylation of FK506 binding protein 5 () intron 7, site 6 compared with Jewish comparison volunteers. The present study sought to replicate this finding in a larger sample and to examine parental and offspring correlates of observed effects. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19060618DOI Listing

Association Between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Hospital Admissions for Depression in 75 Chinese Cities.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Apr 21:appiajp202019070748. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing (Gu, T. Guo, Deng, X. Guo, Wu); Beijing HealthCom Data Technology Co., Beijing (Si, Wang, Chen, Wei); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing (Si); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer (Zhang, Lin); and Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Peking University), Ministry of Education, Beijing (Wu).

Objective: Although the association between ambient air pollution and risk of depression has been investigated in several epidemiological studies, the evidence is still lacking for hospital admissions for depression, which indicates a more severe form of depressive episode. The authors used national morbidity data to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and daily hospital admissions for depression.

Methods: Using data from the Chinese national medical insurance databases for urban populations, the authors conducted a two-stage time-series analysis to investigate the associations of short-term exposure to major ambient air pollutants-fine particles (PM), inhalable particles (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO), ozone (O), and carbon monoxide (CO)-and daily hospital admission risk for depression in 75 Chinese cities during the period 2013-2017. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19070748DOI Listing

Age Differences in the Neural Correlates of Anxiety Disorders: An fMRI Study of Response to Learned Threat.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May 7;177(5):454-463. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, and Pediatric Anxiety Research Center, Bradley Hospital, Riverside, R.I. (Gold); Emotion and Development Branch, NIMH, Bethesda, Md. (Abend, Behrens, Farber, Ronkin, Leibenluft, Pine); Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. (Britton); Scientific and Statistical Computing Core, NIMH, Bethesda, Md. (Chen).

Objective: Although both pediatric and adult patients with anxiety disorders exhibit similar neural responding to threats, age-related differences have been found in some functional MRI (fMRI) studies. To reconcile disparate findings, the authors compared brain function in youths and adults with and without anxiety disorders while rating fear and memory of ambiguous threats.

Methods: Two hundred medication-free individuals ages 8-50 were assessed, including 93 participants with an anxiety disorder. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19060650DOI Listing

Brain Reward System Dysfunction in Adolescence: Current, Cumulative, and Developmental Periods of Depression.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Apr 7:appiajp201919030281. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences (Rappaport, Barch), Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Mo.; and Department of Psychiatry (Kandala, Luby, Barch) and Department of Radiology (Barch), Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo.

Objective: Reward system dysfunction is a well-known correlate and predictor of depression in adults and adolescents, with depressed individuals showing blunted (hyporeactive) striatal response to monetary rewards. Furthermore, studies of remitted depression suggest network-wide hyporeactivity of striatal (caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens) and cortical (insula, anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]) regions even in the absence of current symptoms. Thus, it remains unclear which patterns of hyporeactivity represent a trait-like indicator of depression and which represent a current depressed state. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19030281DOI Listing

Associations of Benzodiazepines, Z-Drugs, and Other Anxiolytics With Subsequent Dementia in Patients With Affective Disorders: A Nationwide Cohort and Nested Case-Control Study.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun 7;177(6):497-505. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals, Frederiksberg, Denmark (Osler); Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Osler); Psychiatric Center Copenhagen, Department O, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Jørgensen); and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen (Jørgensen).

Objective: Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs are two of the most prescribed agents worldwide. However, because of their cognitive side effects, the question of their influence on the risk of dementia has been raised. The authors examined the association of benzodiazepines, Z-drugs, and other anxiolytics with incident dementia in patients with affective disorders. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19030315DOI Listing

Stanford Accelerated Intelligent Neuromodulation Therapy for Treatment-Resistant Depression.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Apr 7:appiajp201919070720. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif. (all authors), and Department of Psychology (Stimpson, Cherian, Choi, Aaron, Guerra, Phillips), Palo Alto University, Palo Alto, Calif.

Objective: New antidepressant treatments are needed that are effective, rapid acting, safe, and tolerable. Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation treatment that has been approved by the U.S. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19070720DOI Listing

Are Visual Memory Deficits in Recent-Onset Psychosis Degenerative? Response to Smucny et al.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 04;177(4):356-357

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London, London (Zanelli, Reichenberg); Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Mollon); Department of Psychiatry (Sandin, Reichenberg), Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, and Friedman Brain Institute (Reichenberg), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19080845rDOI Listing

Failing to Gain: Another Explanation of Cognitive Change in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses in the Decade Following the First Episode.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 04;177(4):354

Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Carlton South, Victoria, Australia (Panayiotou, Van Rheenen, Pantelis); Orygen, National Centre of Excellence in Youth Mental Health, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (Wood, Stainton, Allott); Centre for Youth Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (Wood, Stainton, Allott); Centre for Mental Health, Faculty of Health, Arts, and Design, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia (Van Rheenen).

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19090972DOI Listing

Further Analysis of Cognitive Change in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses in the Decade Following the First Episode: Response to Panayiotou et al.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 04;177(4):354-355

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London, London (Zanelli, Reichenberg); Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Mollon); Department of Psychiatry (Sandin, Reichenberg), Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, and Friedman Brain Institute (Reichenberg), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19090972rDOI Listing

The Ambiguity of Maltreatment.

Authors:
Jerome Kagan

Am J Psychiatry 2020 04;177(4):357-358

Daniel and Amy Starch Professor of Psychology, Emeritus, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20010083DOI Listing

Are Visual Memory Deficits in Recent-Onset Psychosis Degenerative?

Am J Psychiatry 2020 04;177(4):355-356

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19080845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241283PMC

On the Origins of Schizophrenia.

Authors:
René S Kahn

Am J Psychiatry 2020 04;177(4):291-297

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health System, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, N.Y.; and VISN 2 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, N.Y.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20020147DOI Listing

Psychotic Experiences, Cognitive Decline, and Genetic Vulnerabilities in Relation to Developing Psychotic Disorders.

Authors:
Ned H Kalin

Am J Psychiatry 2020 04;177(4):279-281

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20020162DOI Listing

Highlights From the Residents' Journal: March 2020.

Authors:

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Apr;177(4):360

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.177401DOI Listing

Genetically, Developmentally, and Clinically Distinct Cognitive Subtypes in Schizophrenia: A Tale of Three Trajectories.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 04;177(4):282-284

Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Program, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Mass.; and Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20020132DOI Listing

We Need to Talk About Prevention.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 04;177(4):285-287

Department of Psychiatry, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin (Healy, Cannon).

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20020155DOI Listing

Disclosure of Editors' Financial Relationships.

Authors:

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Apr;177(4):359

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.1774359DOI Listing

Augmenting Computerized Cognitive Training With Vortioxetine for Age-Related Cognitive Decline: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun 26;177(6):548-555. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Healthy Mind Lab, Department of Psychiatry (Lenze, Stevens, Pham, Haddad), Department of Radiology (Shimony), and Division of Biostatistics (Miller), Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis; Department of Psychology, St. Louis University, St. Louis (Waring); and Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario (Bowie).

Objective: Age-related cognitive decline, the deterioration in functions such as memory and executive function, is faced by most older adults and affects function and quality of life. No approved treatments exist for age-related cognitive decline. Computerized cognitive training has been shown to provide consistent albeit modest improvements in cognitive function as measured by neuropsychological testing. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19050561DOI Listing

The Relationship Between White Matter Microstructure and General Cognitive Ability in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Participants in the ENIGMA Consortium.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Jun 26;177(6):537-547. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

School of Psychology, Centre for Neuroimaging and Cognitive Genomics, National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science and Galway Neuroscience Centre, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Holleran, Cannon, McDonald, Morris, Mothersill, Donohoe); Imaging Genetics Center, Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Marina del Rey (Kelly, Thompson, Jahanshad); Department of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (Alloza, Lawrie); Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, IiSGM, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, School of Medicine, CIBERSAM, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Alloza, Arango, Janssen, Martinez); NORMENT, K.G. Jebsen Center for Psychosis Research, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Agartz); Department of Psychiatry, Ullevål University Hospital and Institute of Psychiatry, University of Oslo, Oslo (Andreassen); Laboratory of Neuropsychiatry, Department of Clinical and Behavioral Neurology, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome (Banaj, Piras, Spalletta); Mind Research Network and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (Calhoun); Neuroscience Research Australia and School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Carr); Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group, Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin (Corvin); Olin Neuropsychiatric Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn. (Glahn); Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Gur, Roalf, Satterthwaite); Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (Hong, Kochunov, Rowland); National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czech Republic (Hoschl, Spaniel); Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health (Howells, Stein, Uhlmann) and Neuroscience Institute (Howells, Stein), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Highfield Unit, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, U.K. (James); Mind Research Network, Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, N.Mex. (Liu); Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Carlton South, Australia (Pantelis, Zalesky); Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine (Potkin); Priority Centre for Brain and Mental Health Research (Schall, Rasser) and Priority Research Centre for Stroke and Brain Injury, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia (Rasser); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (Spalletta); Kimel Family Translational Imaging-Genetics Research Laboratory, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto (Voineskos); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia (Zalesky); Clinical Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, and Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, University of California Irvine, Irvine (van Erp); Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta (Turner); and Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (Deary).

Objective: Schizophrenia has recently been associated with widespread white matter microstructural abnormalities, but the functional effects of these abnormalities remain unclear. Widespread heterogeneity of results from studies published to date preclude any definitive characterization of the relationship between white matter and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Given the relevance of deficits in cognitive function to predicting social and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, the authors carried out a meta-analysis of available data through the ENIGMA Consortium, using a common analysis pipeline, to elucidate the relationship between white matter microstructure and a measure of general cognitive performance, IQ, in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19030225DOI Listing
June 2020
12.295 Impact Factor

Neural Insensitivity to the Effects of Hunger in Women Remitted From Anorexia Nervosa.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 Mar 12:appiajp201919030261. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, San Diego (Kaye, Wierenga, Bischoff-Grethe, Berner, Ely, Bailer, Paulus); Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (Berner); Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Division of General Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Bailer); Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, Okla. (Paulus); Departments of Neuroscience and Psychiatry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (Fudge).

Objective: Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric condition, yet the pathophysiology of this disorder and its primary symptom, extreme dietary restriction, remains poorly understood. In states of hunger relative to satiety, the rewarding value of food stimuli normally increases to promote eating, yet individuals with anorexia nervosa avoid food despite emaciation. This study's aim was to examine potential neural insensitivity to these effects of hunger in anorexia nervosa. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19030261DOI Listing

Distinct Symptom-Specific Treatment Targets for Circuit-Based Neuromodulation.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 May 12;177(5):435-446. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Psychiatry (Siddiqi) and Department of Neurology (Pascual-Leone, Fox), Harvard Medical School, Boston; Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation (Siddiqi, Cooke, Fox), and Cognitive Neurology Unit, Department of Neurology (Siddiqi), Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston; Division of Neurotherapeutics, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Mass. (Siddiqi); Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (Siddiqi); Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Md. (Siddiqi); Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor (Taylor); Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research and Center for Memory Health, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston (Pascual-Leone); Guttmann Institute, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Pascual-Leone); Brain Stimulation Lab, Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (George); Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, S.C. (George); Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (Fox); Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, Mass. (Fox).

Objective: Treatment of different depression symptoms may require different brain stimulation targets with different underlying brain circuits. The authors sought to identify such targets, which could improve the efficacy of therapeutic brain stimulation and facilitate personalized therapy.

Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed two independent cohorts of patients who received left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for treatment of depression (discovery sample, N=30; active replication sample, N=81; sham replication sample, N=87). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19090915DOI Listing