115,154 results match your criteria Alzheimers & Dementia[Journal]


A Systematic Review of Frailty Trajectories: Their Shape And Influencing Factors.

Gerontologist 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Edinburgh Dementia Prevention, University of Edinburgh, BioCube 1, Little France Road, Edinburgh, UK.

Background And Objectives: Frailty describes an increased vulnerability to adverse events such as disease or injury. Combatting this state remains a major challenge for geriatric research. By exploring how and why frailty changes throughout later life we will be better positioned to improve ways of identifying and treating those at high risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnaa061DOI Listing

Comparison of Prodromal Symptoms of Patients with Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer Disease.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2020 Jun 2:1-9. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, Neurology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland,

Introduction: Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most common clinical subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. bvFTD is often characterized by changes in behavior and personality, frequently leading to psychiatric misdiagnoses. On the other hand, substantial clinical overlap with other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), further complicates the diagnostics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507544DOI Listing

Novel carbazole-stilbene hybrids as multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents.

Bioorg Chem 2020 May 26;101:103977. Epub 2020 May 26.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Kalabhavan Campus, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat, India. Electronic address:

Molecules capable of engaging with multiple targets associated with pathological condition of Alzheimer's disease have proved to be potential anti-Alzheimer's agents. In our goal to develop multitarget-directed ligands for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, a novel series of carbazole-based stilbene derivatives were designed by the fusion of carbazole ring with stilbene scaffold. The designed compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-AD activities including cholinesterase inhibition, Aβ aggregation inhibition, antioxidant and metal chelation properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.103977DOI Listing

Lipid-core nanocapsules containing simvastatin improve the cognitive impairment induced by obesity and hypercholesterolemia in adult rats.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2020 May 30:105397. Epub 2020 May 30.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nanociências, Universidade Franciscana CP, 97010-030, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

The development of cognitive impairment may be related to high levels of plasma cholesterol and obesity. Simvastatin (SV) and lovastatin (LV) are drugs that can potentially be used for the treatment of cognitive deficit. This study aimed to develop and characterize lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) containing SV (SV-LNC) or LV (LV-LNC), evaluating the effects of SV-LNC in an animal model of cognitive deficit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105397DOI Listing

LTP-like cortical plasticity predicts conversion to dementia in patients with memory impairment.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Non Invasive Brain Stimulation Unit/Department of Behavioral and Clinical Neurology, Santa Lucia Foundation IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Section of Human Physiology, ECampus University, Novedrate, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: New diagnostic criteria consider Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a clinico-biological entity identifiable in vivo on the presence of specific patterns of CSF biomarkers.

Objective: Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the mechanisms of cortical plasticity and sensory-motor integration in patients with hippocampal-type memory impairment admitted for the first time in the memory clinic stratified according to CSF biomarkers profile.

Methods: Seventy-three patients were recruited and divided in three groups according to the new diagnostic criteria: 1) Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI) patients (n=21); Prodromal AD (PROAD) patients (n=24); AD with manifest dementia (ADD) patients (n=28). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.013DOI Listing

Proteome profiling in cerebrospinal fluid reveals novel biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Syst Biol 2020 Jun;16(6):e9356

Department of Proteomics and Signal Transduction, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany.

Neurodegenerative diseases are a growing burden, and there is an urgent need for better biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment efficacy. Structural and functional brain alterations are reflected in the protein composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have higher CSF levels of tau, but we lack knowledge of systems-wide changes of CSF protein levels that accompany AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/msb.20199356DOI Listing

Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists-mediated cognitive improvement in a mouse model of Alzheimer's type: possible involvement of BDNF-H S-Nrf2 signaling.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Neurology, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Beilin District, 256 Friendship West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710068, China.

The present study explored the role and mechanisms of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced cognitive impairment. A single intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ was given to mice, and after 14 days of injection, memory was evaluated using the Morris Water maze test. Spironolactone (25 and 50 mg/kg) and eplerenone (50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered for two days before and for 14 days after Aβ injection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12576DOI Listing

Alzheimer's amyloid-β and tau protein accumulation is associated with decreased expression of the LDL receptor-associated protein in human brain tissue.

Brain Behav 2020 Jun 2:e01672. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: One of the major neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein in the brain. Evidence suggests that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-associated protein (RAP) binds strongly to Aβ and enhances its cellular uptake and that decreased RAP expression correlates with increased Aβ production in animal models of AD.

Methods: The current study examined whether RAP levels change in AD human brain tissue and whether they are related to the amount of AD pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1672DOI Listing

Spatiotemporal Statistical Shape Model for Temporal Shape Change Analysis of Adult Brain.

Curr Med Imaging 2020 ;16(5):499-506

Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Hyogo, Japan.

Background: This study presents a novel method of constructing a spatiotemporal statistical shape model (st-SSM) for adult brain. St-SSM is an extension of statistical shape model (SSM) in the temporal domain which will represent the statistical variability of shape as well as the temporal change of statistical variance with respect to time.

Aims: Expectation-Maximization (EM) based weighted principal component analysis (WPCA) using a temporal weight function is applied where the eigenvalues of each data are estimated by Estep using temporal eigenvectors, and M-step updates Eigenvectors in order to maximize the variance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405615666181120141147DOI Listing
January 2020

Clinical Data for the Use of Cannabis-Based Treatments: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

Ann Pharmacother 2020 Jun 2:1060028020930189. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Intermountain Healthcare, Taylorsville, UT, USA.

To compile and synthesize the available literature describing medical cannabis use across various disease states. PubMed, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches were conducted using MeSH and/or keywords. Studies were included if they described the use of cannabis-based products and medications in the treatment of a predefined list of disease states in humans and were published in English. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1060028020930189DOI Listing

The autophagic marker p62 highlights Alzheimer type II astrocytes in metabolic/hepatic encephalopathy.

Neuropathology 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Division of Neuropathology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Metabolic/hepatic encephalopathy is neuropathologically characterized by the presence of Alzheimer type II astrocytes (AA II) with large and clear nuclear morphology. To date, there is no good immunohistochemical marker to better identify these cells. Here, we assessed cases of hepatic encephalopathy of different etiologies by immunohistochemistry using an anti-p62 antibody. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12660DOI Listing

Dysregulated expression of monoacylglycerol lipase is a marker for anti-diabetic drug metformin-targeted therapy to correct impaired neurogenesis and spatial memory in Alzheimer's disease.

Theranostics 2020 15;10(14):6337-6360. Epub 2020 May 15.

Regenerative Medicine Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, K1H 8L6, Canada.

Monoacylglycerol lipase (Mgll), a hydrolase that breaks down the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) to produce arachidonic acid (ARA), is a potential target for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence shows that impairment of adult neurogenesis by perturbed lipid metabolism predisposes patients to AD. However, it remains unknown what causes aberrant expression of Mgll in AD and how Mgll-regulated lipid metabolism impacts adult neurogenesis, thus predisposing to AD during aging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.44962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255032PMC

Synergistic effects of quercetin and regular exercise on the recovery of spatial memory and reduction of parameters of oxidative stress in animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

EXCLI J 2020 8;19:596-612. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz, Iran.

It has widely been reported that the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is affected by increased oxidative stress, and this may have a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Quercetin, a polyphenol extensively found in nature, has recently been considered. Also, physical activities have a paradoxical effect on brain function in older adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17179/excli2019-2082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7257248PMC

Expanded Demographic Norms for Version 3 of the Alzheimer Disease Centers' Neuropsychological Test Battery in the Uniform Data Set.

Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Goizueta Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Norms for the Uniform Data Set Version 3 Neuropsychological Battery are available for cognitively normal individuals based on age, education, and sex; however, these norms do not include race. We provide expanded norms for African Americans and whites.

Methods: Data from 32 Alzheimer's Disease Centers (ADCs) and ADC affiliated cohorts with global Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) Dementia Staging Instrument scores of 0 were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0000000000000388DOI Listing

Neck Circumference and Cerebral Gray Matter Volume.

Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Institute of Human Genomic Study, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan-si.

Background: While obesity is linked with brain atrophy and dementia incidence, associations with regional adiposity are uncertain. Our goal was to determine whether cerebral gray matter volume is related to neck circumference (NC), a measure of regional adiposity having unique relationships with metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease.

Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging and NC were cross-sectionally assessed from 2011 to 2014 in a population-based sample of 2916 men and women in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0000000000000386DOI Listing

Xingnaojing ameliorates synaptic plasticity and memory deficits in an Aβ induced mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

J Pharmacol Sci 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Neurology, Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School and The State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Institute of Brain Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; Department of Neurology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

The accumulation of insoluble amyloid β (Aβ) peptides is one of the pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which induced synaptic plasticity impairment and excitatory amino acid toxicity associated with decreased memory function. Xingnaojing (XNJ), a well-known prescription in traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the treatment of stroke for many years in China. In this study, we aim to investigate the therapeutic effects of XNJ in a hippocampus of Aβ induced mouse model of AD which showed significant memory loss and impaired synaptic morphology and function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphs.2020.05.002DOI Listing

Effect of Glycyrrhizic Acid on Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Mice.

Int Neurourol J 2020 May 31;24(Suppl 1):S48-55. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Catholic Kwandong University, Gangneung, Korea.

Purpose: Cognitive impairment is one of the main symptoms of Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Glycyrrhiza uralensis is a natural product that has a protective effect against cognitive impairment. In this study, we investigated whether glycyrrhizic acid, among the main bioactive components of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, has a neuroprotective effect on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5213/inj.2040154.077DOI Listing

The impact of tamsulosin on cognition in Alzheimer disease with benign prostate hyperplasia: A study using the Hallym Smart Clinical Data Warehouse.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(22):e20240

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine.

Studies suggest that the use of alpha-blockers increases the risk of dementia in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Due to study limitations, the relationship between the use of alpha-blockers, such as tamsulosin, and the risk of dementia is still unclear. However, alpha1-adrenoreceptors are also present in the brain, so there is potential for adverse effects on cognitive function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020240DOI Listing

Involvement of NFƙB and MAPK signaling pathways in the preventive effects of Ganoderma lucidum on the inflammation of BV-2 microglial cells induced by LPS.

J Neuroimmunol 2020 May 26;345:577269. Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, United States of America. Electronic address:

Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE) is a potent ancient Asian remedy for the treatment of various diseases. This study investigated GLE preventive effects on LPS-stimulated inflammation of BV-2 microglial cells. The results show that pre-treatment with GLE decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines: G-CSF, IL1-α, MCP-5, MIP3α, and, with a higher effect in MIP3α. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2020.577269DOI Listing

Deep cerebral microbleeds are associated with poor cholinesterase inhibitor treatment response in people with Alzheimer disease.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 May 25;195:105959. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Neurology, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Objectives: Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are the most effective treatment for Alzheimer disease (AD), but the response to treatment varies. Vascular lesions are associated with the pathogenesis of AD, and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are an indicator of hemorrhagic vascular pathology, which can be detected through susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SWMRI). This study investigated the association between CMBs and ChEI treatment response in patients with AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.105959DOI Listing

The hazardous effects of the environmental toxic gases on amyloid beta-peptide aggregation: A theoretical perspective.

Biophys Chem 2020 May 22;263:106394. Epub 2020 May 22.

Molecular Simulation Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, India. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia in elderly people. It has been well documented that the exposure to environmental toxins such as CO, CO, SO and NO that are present in the air is considered as a hallmark for the progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, their actual mechanism by which environmental toxin triggers the aggregation of Aβ42 peptide at the molecular and atomic levels remain unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpc.2020.106394DOI Listing

CD8 T-cells infiltrate Alzheimer's disease brains and regulate neuronal- and synapse-related gene expression in APP-PS1 transgenic mice.

Brain Behav Immun 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Institute of Molecular Regenerative Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria; Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg (SCI-TReCS), Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria; Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration. Electronic address:

Neuroinflammation is a major contributor to disease progression in Alzheimeŕs disease (AD) and is characterized by the activity of brain resident glial cells, in particular microglia cells. However, there is increasing evidence that peripheral immune cells infiltrate the brain at certain stages of AD progression and shape disease pathology. We recently identified CD8 T-cells in the brain parenchyma of APP-PS1 transgenic mice being tightly associated with microglia as well as with neuronal structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.070DOI Listing

Golgi-Cox impregnation combined with fluorescence staining of amyloid plaques reveals local spine loss in an Alzheimer mouse model.

J Neurosci Methods 2020 May 29:108797. Epub 2020 May 29.

Institute of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Spine loss is a hallmark of Alzheimer´s and other neurodegenerative diseases, and testing candidate therapeutic drugs needs quantitative analysis of dendritic spine densities. Golgi-Cox impregnation of neurons is a classical method to visualize dendritic spines in diseased brains. Importantly, at early disease stages spine loss occurs locally in the vicinity of amyloid plaques, and concomitant fluorescence labeling of amyloid plaques is required to detect local spine damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.108797DOI Listing

Isolation, in vitro evaluation and molecular docking of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from South African Amaryllidaceae.

Fitoterapia 2020 May 29:104650. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; SAMRC Herbal Drugs Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa. Electronic address:

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is considered a promising strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia. Members of the Amaryllidaceae family are well known for their pharmacologically active alkaloids, including galanthamine, which is used to treat AD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of South African Amaryllidaceae species to inhibit AChE, to isolate the active compounds, and probe their ability to bind the enzyme using molecular docking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104650DOI Listing

Neuropsychiatric symptoms as prognostic makers for the elderly with mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2020 Jun 18;271:185-192. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Nursing, XiangYa School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China; Oceanwide Health management institute, Central South University, Changsha, China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Background: Although several neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) have been demonstrated to have value in the prediction of the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia, these symptoms are less studied for the prediction of the transition from normal cognition (NC) to MCI.

Methods: Prospective cohort studies were included if they reported on at least one NPS at baseline and had MCI as the outcome.

Results: We obtained 13 cohort studies with a total population of 33,066. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.03.061DOI Listing

In vitro and in vivo neuroprotective effects of Etifoxine in β-amyloidinduced toxicity models.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Pharmacology department, Biocodex, 3 Chemin d'Armancourt, 60200 Compiegne. France.

Background: Etifoxine is an anxiolytic compound with a dual mechanism of action; it is a positive allosteric modulator of GABAergic receptors as well as a ligand for the 18 kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO). TSPO has recently raised interest in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and experimental studies have shown that some TSPO ligands could induce neuroprotective effects in animal models.

Objective: In this study, we examined the potential protective effect of etifoxine in an in vitro and an in vivo model of amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced toxicity in its oligomeric form, which is a crucial factor in AD pathologic mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871527319666200601151007DOI Listing

Evidence On The New Drug Lumateperone (Iti-007) For Psychiatric And Neurological Disorders.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Department of Geriatrics, Neuroscience and Orthopedics, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome. Italy.

Lumateperone (ITI-007) is a tosylate salt with binding affinities to receptors implicated in the therapeutic actions of antipsychotic medications, including the serotonin 5HT2A receptors, dopamine D2 and D1 receptors and the serotonin transporter. It has a unique mechanism of action because it simultaneously modulates serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate neurotransmission, implicated in serious mental illness. It can be considered a multi-target-directed ligand and a multifunctional modulator of serotoninergic system with possible precognitive, antipsychotic, antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871527319666200601145653DOI Listing

Emerging Proof of Protein Misfolding and Interaction in Multifactorial Alzheimer's Disease.

Curr Top Med Chem 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah. Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the extracellular accumulations of amyloid beta (Aβ) as senile plaques and intracellular aggregations of tau in the form of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in specific brain regions. In this review, we focus on the interaction of Aβ and tau with cytosolic proteins and several cell organelles as well as associated neurotoxicity in AD.

Summary: Misfolded proteins present in cells accompanied by correctly folded, intermediately folded, as well as unfolded species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026620666200601161703DOI Listing

Lipoprotein(a) in Alzheimer, Atherosclerotic, Cerebrovascular, Thrombotic, and Valvular Disease: Mendelian Randomization Investigation.

Circulation 2020 Jun 1;141(22):1826-1828. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom (A.M.M., T.J., A.S.B., S.B.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.045826DOI Listing

Pharmacological exploration of traditional plants for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

Phytother Res 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is clinically characterized as memory deficits, altered behavior and impaired cognitive functions. The most important risk factor for AD is aging and mounting. Evidences suggested in different studies that traditionally used plants in Asia, China, and Europe significantly affect aging and AD involved neurodegeneration pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6742DOI Listing

The Role of Virtual Reality in Improving Health Outcomes for Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Systematic Review.

J Med Internet Res 2020 Jun 1;22(6):e17331. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia.

Background: Virtual reality (VR) delivered through immersive headsets creates an opportunity to deliver interventions to improve physical, mental, and psychosocial health outcomes. VR app studies with older adults have primarily focused on rehabilitation and physical function including gait, balance, fall prevention, pain management, and cognition. Several systematic reviews have previously been conducted, but much of the extant literature is focused on rehabilitation or other institutional settings, and little is known about the effectiveness of VR apps using immersive headsets to target health outcomes among community-dwelling older adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17331DOI Listing

Effects of sex, race, ethnicity, and education on online aging research participation.

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2020 26;6(1):e12028. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center Center for Imaging and Neurodegenerative Diseases San Francisco California USA.

Introduction: This study aimed to identify the relationship of sociodemographic variables with older adults participation in an online registry for recruitment and longitudinal assessment in cognitive aging.

Methods: Using Brain Health Registry (BHR) data, associations between sociodemographic variables (sex, race, ethnicity, education) and registry participation outcomes (task completion, willingness to participate in future studies, referral/enrollment in other studies) were examined in adults aged 55+ (N = 35,919) using logistic regression. All models included sex, race, ethnicity, education, age, and subjective memory concern. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/trc2.12028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249268PMC

Protective Role of Apigenin Against Aβ 25-35 Toxicity Via Inhibition of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2019 Nov-Dec;10(6):557-566. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Cognitive dysfunction is the most common problem of patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD). The pathological mechanism of cognitive impairment in AD may contribute to neuronal loss, synaptic dysfunction, and alteration in neurotransmitters receptors. Mitochondrial synapses dysfunction due to the accumulation of Amyloid Beta (Aβ) is one of the earliest pathological features of AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.32598/BCN.9.10.385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253805PMC
November 2019

Protein Kinase Cɛ in the Platelet and Hippocampal Tissue as a Diagnostic Biological Marker in Alzheimer Disease.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2019 Nov-Dec;10(6):545-556. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Alzheimer Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Protein Kinase Cɛ (PKCɛ) is an isoform that most effectively suppresses Amyloid Beta (Aβ) production and synaptic loss.

Methods: In this study, spatial learning and memory for treated rats were evaluated by the Morris water maze test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.32598/bcn.9.10.80.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253800PMC
November 2019

Validation of the RUDAS for the Identification of Dementia in Illiterate and Low-Educated Older Adults in Lima, Peru.

Front Neurol 2020 5;11:374. Epub 2020 May 5.

Servicio de Neurología, Instituto Peruano de Neurociencias, Lima, Peru.

To evaluate the performance of the Peruvian version of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS-PE) in discriminating between controls and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in an illiterate population with low-levels of education. We compared the cognitive performance of 187 elderly subjects who were illiterate (controls = 60; MCI = 64; dementia = 63). Neuropsychological measures included the RUDAS-PE, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), INECO Frontal Screening (IFS), and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232574PMC

Impaired Phasic Discharge of Locus Coeruleus Neurons Based on Persistent High Tonic Discharge-A New Hypothesis With Potential Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Authors:
Kathrin Janitzky

Front Neurol 2020 12;11:371. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.

The locus coeruleus (LC) is a small brainstem nucleus with widely distributed noradrenergic projections to the whole brain, and loss of LC neurons is a prominent feature of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). This article discusses the hypothesis that in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases, the discharge mode of LC neurons could be changed to a persistent high tonic discharge, which in turn might impair phasic discharge. Since phasic discharge of LC neurons is required for the release of high amounts of norepinephrine (NE) in the brain to promote anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, persistent high tonic discharge of LC neurons could be a key factor in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235306PMC

Lack of Helios During Neural Development Induces Adult Schizophrenia-Like Behaviors Associated With Aberrant Levels of the TRIF-Recruiter Protein WDFY1.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 14;14:93. Epub 2020 May 14.

Departament de Biomedicina, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

The role of the WDFY1 protein has been studied as a TLR3/4 scaffold/recruiting protein in the immune system and in different oncogenic conditions. However, its function in brain remains poorly understood. We have found that in mice devoid of (He mice), a transcription factor specifically expressed during the development of the immune cells and the central nervous system, there is a permanent and sustained increase of gene expression in the striatum and hippocampus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2020.00093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240114PMC

[Time-sparing screening method for mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease: Self- and family reports using the TMIG index of competence].

Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 2020 ;57(2):182-194

Division of Neurology and Gerontology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University.

Aim: To verify the clinical utility of instrumental activities of daily life evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology index of competence (TMIG-IC) as a screening tool for patients with early-phase cognitive impairment, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: We recruited healthy subjects from our community-based cohort and consecutive subjects with MCI and AD from our clinic. The TMIG-IC was investigated in all participants and their family members. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3143/geriatrics.57.182DOI Listing
January 2020

Method to discriminate amyloids using fluorescent probes.

Methods Enzymol 2020 25;639:91-114. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, CA, United States. Electronic address:

The aggregation of misfolded proteins into amyloids is a common characteristic of many neurodegenerative and non-neurologic diseases. Fluorescent amyloid-targeting probes that discriminate amyloids based on differences in protein composition can provide rapid information to aid in disease diagnosis. In this chapter, we present protocols for the synthesis and use of ANCA-11 as an environmentally-sensitive amyloid-targeting probe that can fluorescently discriminate between amyloids with different disease origin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mie.2020.04.010DOI Listing

Neuronal deficiency of p38α-MAPK ameliorates symptoms and pathology of APP or Tau-transgenic Alzheimer's mouse models.

FASEB J 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Neurology, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia with very limited therapeutic options. Amyloid β (Aβ) and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) are key pathogenic molecules in AD. P38α-MAPK is specifically activated in AD lesion sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201902731RRDOI Listing

Selected LDLR and APOE Polymorphisms Affect Cognitive and Functional Response to Lipophilic Statins in Alzheimer's Disease.

J Mol Neurosci 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Effects of statins over clinical changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are usually non-significant, but epistatic interactions between genetic variants involved in cholesterol metabolism could be important for such effects. We aimed to investigate whether LDLR single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs11669576 (LDLR8), rs5930 (LDLR10), and rs5925 (LDLR13) are associated with cognitive and functional changes in AD, while also considering APOE haplotypes and lipid-lowering treatment with lipophilic statins for stratification. Consecutive outpatients with late-onset AD were screened with cognitive tests, while caregivers scored functionality and caregiver burden, with prospective neurotranslational correlations documented for 1 year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01588-7DOI Listing

Supplementation with Matured Hop Bitter Acids Improves Cognitive Performance and Mood State in Healthy Older Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Kirin Central Research Institute, Kirin Holdings Company, Ltd., Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan.

Background: Prevention of age-related cognitive decline and depression is becoming urgent because of rapid growing aging populations. Effects of vagal nerve activation on brain function by food ingredients are inadequately investigated; matured hop bitter acid (MHBA) administration reportedly improves cognitive function and depression via vagal nerve activation in model mice.

Objective: We investigated the effects of MHBA supplementation on cognitive function and mood state in healthy older adults with perceived subjective cognitive decline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200229DOI Listing

Association Between Sarcopenia and Quality of Life in Patients with Early Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Community Healthcare and Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan.

Background: Cognitive impairment is linked to decreased quality of life (QOL), but few studies have investigated the impact of comorbid sarcopenia.

Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of sarcopenia with QOL in patients with early dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

Methods: Individuals with a Clinical Dementia Rating of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200169DOI Listing

Clinical and Molecular Characterization of a Novel Progranulin Deletion Associated with Different Phenotypes.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Medicine, Center for Neurodegenerative diseases (CEMAND), Surgery and Dentistry, NeuroScience Section, University of Salerno, Italy.

Background: Mutations in the GRN gene are causative for an autosomal dominant form of frontotemporal dementia.

Objective/methods: The objective of the present study is to describe clinical and molecular features of three siblings harboring the GRN deletion NM_002087.3:c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200151DOI Listing

Herpetosiphon Secondary Metabolites Inhibit Amyloid-β Toxicity in Human Primary Astrocytes.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Neuroinflammation Group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia.

Background: The accumulation of extracellular plaques containing amyloid-β protein (Aβ) in the brain is one of the main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ peptide can promote the production of highly volatile free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce oxidative damage to neurons and astrocytes. At present, numerous studies have investigated the neuroprotective and glioprotective effects of natural products derived from plants, animals, and microorganisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200116DOI Listing

Proteomic Profiling of Plasma and Brain Tissue from Alzheimer's Disease Patients Reveals Candidate Network of Plasma Biomarkers.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center, Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital, Bedford, MA, USA.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia with two pathological hallmarks of tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid-β protein (Aβ)-containing neuritic plaques. Although Aβ and tau have been explored as potential biomarkers, levels of these pathological proteins in blood fail to distinguish AD from healthy control subjects.

Objective: We aim to discover potential plasma proteins associated with AD pathology by performing tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomic analysis of proteins from peripheral and central nervous system compartments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200110DOI Listing

Head-to-Head Comparison of 18F-Florbetaben and 18F-Flutemetamol in the Cortical and Striatal Regions.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: 18F-florbetaben (FBB) and 18F-flutemetamol (FMM) amyloid PET have been developed and approved for clinical use. It is important to understand the distinct features of these ligands to compare and correctly interpret the results of different amyloid PET studies.

Objective: We performed a head-to-head comparison of FBB and FMM to compare with regard to imaging characteristics, including dynamic range of retention, and differences in quantitative measurements between the two ligands in cortical, striatal, and white matter (WM) regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200079DOI Listing

Relationships Between Plasma Lipids Species, Gender, Risk Factors, and Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, WA, Australia.

Background: Lipid metabolism is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the relationship between AD risk factors (age, APOEɛ4, and gender) and lipid metabolism is not well defined.

Objective: We investigated whether altered lipid metabolism associated with increased age, gender, and APOE status may contribute to the development of AD by examining these risk factors in healthy controls and also clinically diagnosed AD individuals.

Methods: We performed plasma lipidomic profiling (582 lipid species) of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle flagship study of aging cohort (AIBL) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-191304DOI Listing

APOE4 Status is Related to Differences in Memory-Related Brain Function in Asymptomatic Older Adults with Family History of Alzheimer's Disease: Baseline Analysis of the PREVENT-AD Task Functional MRI Dataset.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Centre for Cerebral Imaging, Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Montreal, Canada.

Background: Episodic memory decline is one of the earliest symptoms of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Older adults with the apolipoprotein E ɛ4 (+APOE4) genetic risk factor for AD may exhibit altered patterns of memory-related brain activity years prior to initial symptom onset.

Objective: Here we report the baseline episodic memory task functional MRI results from the PRe-symptomatic EValuation of Experimental or Novel Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease cohort in Montreal, Canada, in which 327 healthy older adults were scanned within 15 years of their parent's conversion to AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-191292DOI Listing