109,088 results match your criteria Alzheimer's research & therapy[Journal]


The role of nitric oxide in brain disorders: Autism spectrum disorder and other psychiatric, neurological, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Redox Biol 2020 May 15;34:101567. Epub 2020 May 15.

Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signalling molecule and a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in physiological and pathophysiological processes. In physiological conditions, NO regulates cell survival, differentiation and proliferation of neurons. It also regulates synaptic activity, plasticity and vesicle trafficking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2020.101567DOI Listing

Age-dependent effect of APOE and polygenic component on Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 Apr 30;93:69-77. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

UK Dementia Research Institute at Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom; UK Medical Research Council Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative condition with significant genetic heritability. Several genes have been implicated in the onset of AD with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene being the strongest single genetic risk loci. Evidence suggests that the effect of APOE alters with age during disease progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.04.024DOI Listing

The Application of Ferroptosis in Diseases.

Pharmacol Res 2020 May 25:104919. Epub 2020 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ferroptosis is a new kind of regulated cell death that is characterized by highly iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Ferroptosis involves various biology processes, such as iron metabolism, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), glutathione (GSH) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). A growing body of evidence suggests that ferroptosis is associated with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104919DOI Listing

The Use of Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Alzheimer's Disease Modeling.

Prog Neurobiol 2020 May 25:101804. Epub 2020 May 25.

Division of Neurology, The University of British Columbia, Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, 2215 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive deterioration in multiple facets of cognitive function. As average age of the population rises, AD poses a massive current and future healthcare threat. Today, there is no cure for AD nor well-established interventions to slow progression, and treatment is largely symptomatic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2020.101804DOI Listing

Neuroprotective effect of quercetin nanoparticles: A possible prophylactic and therapeutic role in alzheimer's disease.

J Chem Neuroanat 2020 May 25:101795. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Minia University- Faculty of Medicine, Egypt.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly. Quercetin is a well-known flavonoid with low bioavailability. Recently, quercetin nanoparticles (QNPs) has been shown to have a better bioavailability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2020.101795DOI Listing

Defining the Neural Kinome: Strategies and Opportunities for Small Molecule Drug Discovery to Target Neurodegenerative Diseases.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Kinases are highly tractable drug targets that have reached unparalleled success in fields such as cancer but whose potential has not yet been realized in neuroscience. There are currently 55 approved small molecule kinase-targeting drugs, 48 of which have an anti-cancer indication. The intrinsic complexity linked to central nervous system (CNS) drug development and a lack of validated targets has hindered progress in developing kinase inhibitors for CNS disorders when compared to other therapeutic areas such as oncology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00176DOI Listing

Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes) Ameliorates Spatial Learning and Memory Deficits in Rats with Hypercholesterolemia and Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2020 ;22(1):93-103

Mushroom Research Centre, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated as one of the pathomechanistic factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting memory and learning abilities. In the present study, ameliorative effect of hot water extract (HWE) of mushroom Ganoderma lucidum to the memory and learning related behavioral performance of hypercholesterolemic and AD rats was investigated using Morris water maze (MWM). Male Wistar rats were randomly grouped into control, extract fed control, hypercholesterolemic, extract fed hypercholesterolemic, AD, and extract fed AD groups, each group containing 8 animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020033383DOI Listing
January 2020

GSK-3β regulates the synaptic expression of NMDA receptors via phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4 kinase type IIα.

Eur J Neurosci 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Glutamate Receptor Group, School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Deregulation of GSK-3β is strongly implicated in a variety of serious brain conditions, such as Alzheimer disease, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. To understand how GSK-3β becomes dysregulated in these conditions it is important to understand its physiological functions in the central nervous system. In this context, GSK-3β plays a role in the induction of NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD) and several substrates for GSK-3β have been identified in this form of synaptic plasticity, including KLC-2, PSD-95 and tau. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14841DOI Listing

Influence of human amylin on the membrane stability of rat primary hippocampal neurons.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 May 28;12. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Institution of Chinese Integrative Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

The two most common aging-related diseases, Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, are associated with accumulation of amyloid proteins (β-amyloid and amylin, respectively). This amylin aggregation is reportedly cytotoxic to neurons. We found that aggregation of human amylin (hAmylin) induced neuronal apoptosis without obvious microglial infiltration . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103105DOI Listing

Neuron-Glia interaction: Molecular basis of Alzheimer's Disease and Applications of Neuroproteomics.

Eur J Neurosci 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Special centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New-Delhi, India.

Neurodegenerative disorders present with progressive and irreversible degeneration of the neurons. The most common neurodegenerative disorder is Alzheimer's disease (AD) affecting 50 million people worldwide in 2017, expected to be doubled every 20 years. Primarily affected by age, AD is the cause for old-age dementia, progressive memory loss, dysfunctional thoughts, confusion, cognitive impairment and personality changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14838DOI Listing

Bupropion for the Treatment of Apathy in Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 May 1;3(5):e206027. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Cologne, Medical Faculty, Cologne, Germany.

Importance: Apathy is a frequent neuropsychiatric symptom in dementia of Alzheimer type and negatively affects the disease course and patients' and caregivers' quality of life. Effective treatment options are needed.

Objective: To examine the efficacy and safety of the dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor bupropion in the treatment of apathy in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.6027DOI Listing

Viewpoint: Impact of the Covid-19 Outbreak on the Clinical and Research Activities of Memory Clinics: An Alzheimer's Disease Center Facing the Covid-19 Crisis.

Authors:
P J Ousset B Vellas

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;7(3):197-198

Pierre Jean Ousset, Toulouse Alzheimer's Disease Research and Clinical Center, UMR INSERM 1027, Gerontopole, Toulouse University Hospital, France,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2020.17DOI Listing
January 2020

Viewpoint: Futility Analyses in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Clinical Trials: A Risky Business.

Authors:
P S Aisen R Raman

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;7(3):195-196

R. Raman, Director of Biostatistics, Alzheimer's Therapeutic Research Institute (ATRI), Director, Biostatistics Unit, Alzheimer's Clinical Trials Consortium (ACTC), Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, 9860 Mesa Rim Road, San Diego, CA 92121, USA, Phone: 858-964-0673,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2020.20DOI Listing
January 2020

Development of an UPSA Short Form for Use in Longitudinal Studies in the Early Alzheimer's Disease Spectrum.

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;7(3):179-183

Dr. Jesus J. Gomar, Litwin-Zucker Alzheimer's Disease Center, Feinstein Institute, Manhassett, NY, USA, Email: Telephone: 516-562-0420, Fax: 516-562-0401.

Background: In individuals with only mild or very mild cognitive attenuations (i.e., so-called pre-clinical AD), performance-based measures of function may be superior to informant-based measures because of increased sensitivity, greater reliability, and fewer ceiling effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2019.51DOI Listing
January 2020

Early Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in an At-Home Setting.

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;7(3):171-178

Marwan N. Sabbagh, Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Tel.: (702) 483-6029; Fax: (702) 722-6584.

Emerging digital tools have the potential to enable a new generation of qualitative and quantitative assessment of cognitive performance. Moreover, the ubiquity of consumer electronics, such as smartphones and tablets, can be harnessed to support large-scale self-assessed cognitive screening with benefit to healthcare systems and consumers. A wide variety of apps, wearables, and new digital technologies are either available or in development for the detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a risk factor for dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2020.22DOI Listing
January 2020

Early Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in Primary Care.

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;7(3):165-170

Marwan N. Sabbagh, Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Tel.: (702) 483-6029; Fax: (702) 722-6584.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is significantly misdiagnosed in the primary care setting due to multi-dimensional frictions and barriers associated with evaluating individuals' cognitive performance. To move toward large-scale cognitive screening, a global panel of clinicians and cognitive neuroscientists convened to elaborate on current challenges that hamper widespread cognitive performance assessment. This report summarizes a conceptual framework and provides guidance to clinical researchers and test developers and suppliers to inform ongoing refinement of cognitive evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2020.21DOI Listing
January 2020

Rationale for Early Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Supported by Emerging Digital Technologies.

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;7(3):158-164

Marwan N. Sabbagh, Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Tel.: (702) 483-6029; Fax: (702) 722-6584.

Disease-modifying pharmacotherapies for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are currently in late-stage clinical development; once approved, new healthcare infrastructures and services, including primary healthcare, will be necessary to accommodate a huge demand for early and large-scale detection of AD. The increasing global accessibility of digital consumer electronics has opened up new prospects for early diagnosis and management of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with particular regard to AD. This new wave of innovation has spurred research in both academia and industry, aimed at developing and validating a new "digital generation" of tools for the assessment of the cognitive performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2020.19DOI Listing
January 2020

The Future of Anti-Amyloid Trials.

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;7(3):146-151

P.S. Aisen, University of Southern California Alzheimer's Therapeutic Research Institute, San Diego, CA, USA,

The termination of many clinical trials of amyloid-targeting therapies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has had a major impact on the AD clinical research enterprise. However, positive signals in recent studies have reinvigorated support for the amyloid hypothesis and amyloid-targeting strategies. In December 2019, the EU-US Clinical Trials on Alzheimer's Disease (CTAD) Task Force met to share learnings from these studies in order to inform future trials and promote the development of effective AD treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2020.24DOI Listing
January 2020

Tau pathology and relative cerebral blood flow are independently associated with cognition in Alzheimer's disease.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: We aimed to investigate associations between tau pathology and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and their relationship with cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD), by using a single dynamic [F]flortaucipir positron emission tomography (PET) scan.

Methods: Seventy-one subjects with AD (66 ± 8 years, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) 23 ± 4) underwent a dynamic 130-min [F]flortaucipir PET scan. Cognitive assessment consisted of composite scores of four cognitive domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-020-04831-wDOI Listing

Systematic metabolic analysis of potential target, therapeutic drug, diagnostic method and animal model applicability in three neurodegenerative diseases.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 May 27;12. Epub 2020 May 27.

Yunnan Key Laboratory of Primate Biomedical Research, Institute of Primate Translational Medicine, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, Yunnan, China.

Considerable evidence suggests that metabolic abnormalities are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to conduct a systematic metabolic analysis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Human and mouse model microarray datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103253DOI Listing

Nutrition and the ageing brain: Moving towards clinical applications.

Ageing Res Rev 2020 May 24:101079. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. Electronic address:

The global increases in life expectancy and population have resulted in a growing ageing population and with it a growing number of people living with age-related neurodegenerative conditions and dementia, shifting focus towards methods of prevention, with lifestyle approaches such as nutrition representing a promising avenue for further development. This overview summarises the main themes discussed during the 3 Symposium on "Nutrition for the Ageing Brain: Moving Towards Clinical Applications" held in Madrid in August 2018, enlarged with the current state of knowledge on how nutrition influences healthy ageing and gives recommendations regarding how the critical field of nutrition and neurodegeneration research should move forward into the future. Specific nutrients are discussed as well as the impact of multi-nutrient and whole diet approaches, showing particular promise to combatting the growing burden of age-related cognitive decline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2020.101079DOI Listing

Stress and Alzheimer's Disease: A Senescence Link?

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology and 2 Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, United States. Electronic address:

Chronic stress has been shown to promote numerous aging-related diseases, and to accelerate the aging process itself. Of particular interest is the impact of stress on Alzheimer's Disease (AD), the most prevalent form of dementia. The vast majority of AD cases have no known genetic cause, making it vital to identify the environmental factors involved in the onset and progression of the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.05.010DOI Listing

Neurobiologic Rationale for Treatment of Apathy in Alzheimer's Disease With Methylphenidate.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (NJ, PBR), Baltimore, MD.

The public health burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is related not only to cognitive symptoms, but also to neuropsychiatric symptoms, including apathy. Apathy is defined as a quantitative reduction of goal-directed activity in comparison to a previous level of functioning and affects 30%-70% of persons with AD. Previous attempts to treat apathy in AD-both nonpharmacologically and pharmacologically-have been wanting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2020.04.026DOI Listing

The compensatory phenomenon of the functional connectome related to pathological biomarkers in individuals with subjective cognitive decline.

Transl Neurodegener 2020 May 27;9(1):21. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Neurology, Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School and The State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Institute of Brain Science, Nanjing University, 321 Zhongshan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210008, P. R. China.

Background: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is a preclinical stage along the Alzheimer's disease (AD) continuum. However, little is known about the aberrant patterns of connectivity and topological alterations of the brain functional connectome and their diagnostic value in SCD.

Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory analyses were used to investigate the alterations of the functional connectome in 66 SCD individuals and 64 healthy controls (HC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40035-020-00201-6DOI Listing

Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells improves cognitive deficits and alleviates neuropathology in animal models of Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analytic review on potential mechanisms.

Transl Neurodegener 2020 May 27;9(1):20. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of International Medical Service & Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dong Cheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder. Therapeutically, a transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) can play a beneficial role in animal models of Alzheimer's disease. However, the relevant mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40035-020-00199-xDOI Listing

APOE ε4 genotype-dependent cerebrospinal fluid proteomic signatures in Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2020 May 27;12(1):65. Epub 2020 May 27.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Aggregation of amyloid β into plaques in the brain is one of the earliest pathological events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The exact pathophysiology leading to dementia is still uncertain, but the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype plays a major role. We aimed to identify the molecular pathways associated with amyloid β aggregation using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteomics and to study the potential modifying effects of APOE ε4 genotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-020-00628-zDOI Listing

The association between genetic variants in lactotransferrin and dental caries: a meta- and gene-based analysis.

BMC Med Genet 2020 May 27;21(1):114. Epub 2020 May 27.

Division of Statistics, School of Economics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Rd, Baoshan Dist, Shanghai, 200444, China.

Background: The pathogenesis of dental caries remains unclear, with increasing evidence suggesting that genetic susceptibility plays an essential role. Previous studies have reported the association between genetic polymorphisms in lactotransferrin (LTF) and the risk of dental caries with inconsistent results.

Methods: A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Cochrane Library, HuGE and Google Scholar databases was performed by two authors independently for papers published before December 5, 2019 on the association between genetic variants in LTF and the risk of dental caries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-020-01029-7DOI Listing

Mobile Personal Healthcare System for Non-Invasive, Pervasive and Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring: A Feasibility Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2020 Apr 26. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Departments of Neurosciences and Human Genetics, and Rio Grande Valley Alzheimer´s Disease Resource Center for Minority Aging Research, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, US.

Background: Smartphone-based blood pressure (BP) monitor using photoplethysmogram (PPG) technology has emerged as a promising approach to empower users with self-monitoring for effective diagnosis and control of hypertension (HT).

Objective: This study aimed to develop a mobile personal healthcare system for non-invasive, pervasive, and continuous estimation of BP level and variability to be user-friendly to elderly.

Methods: The proposed approach was integrated by a self-designed cuffless, calibration-free, wireless and wearable PPG-only sensor, and a native purposely-designed smartphone application using multilayer perceptron machine learning techniques from raw signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/18012DOI Listing

The dichotomous role of the gut microbiome in exacerbating and ameliorating neurodegenerative disorders.

Expert Rev Neurother 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine , New York, NY 10029, USA.

Introduction: Age related neurodegenerative disorders affect millions of people around the world. The role of the gut microbiome (GM) in neurodegenerative disorders has been elucidated over the past few years. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome ultimately results in neurodegeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737175.2020.1775585DOI Listing

An Ecologically Valid, Longitudinal, and Unbiased Assessment of Treatment Efficacy in Alzheimer Disease (the EVALUATE-AD Trial): Proof-of-Concept Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2020 May 27;9(5):e17603. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, United States.

Background: The current clinical trial assessment methodology relies on a combination of self-report measures, cognitive and physical function tests, and biomarkers. This methodology is limited by recall bias and recency effects in self-reporting and by assessments that are brief, episodic, and clinic based. Continuous monitoring of ecologically valid measures of cognition and daily functioning in the community may provide a more sensitive method to detect subtle, progressive changes in patients with cognitive impairment and dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17603DOI Listing

Regulation of aberrant proteasome activity re-establishes plasticity and long-term memory in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

FASEB J 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Reduced retrograde memory performance at the cognitive level and aggregation/deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain at the cellular level are some of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). A molecular system that participates in the removal of proteins with an altered conformation is the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS). Impairments of the UPS in wild-type (WT) mice lead to defective clearance of Aβ and prevent long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201902844RRDOI Listing

High-altitude Tibetan fermented milk ameliorated cognitive dysfunction by modified gut microbiota in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

Food Funct 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Research Center for High Altitude Medicine, Qinghai University, Key Laboratory for Application of High Altitude Medicine in Qinghai Province, Xining, China. and Qinghai University Affiliated Hospital, Xining, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease that is regarded as a growing global challenge. Accumulating evidence linking gut microbiota with AD has become intriguing. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Tibetan fermented milk affected memory impairment in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS1) mice, using APP/PS1 transgenic mice as examples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo03007gDOI Listing

Antioxidant properties of eugenol, butylated hydroxylanisole, and butylated hydroxyl toluene with key biomolecules relevant to Alzheimer's diseases-In vitro.

J Food Biochem 2020 May 26:e13276. Epub 2020 May 26.

Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Phytomedicine Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Akure, Akure, Nigeria.

This research work examined and likened effect of eugenol a natural phenolic compound with butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) synthetic phenolic compounds with key biomolecules [acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and monoamine oxidase (MAO)] relevant to Alzheimer's diseases (AD) in vitro. Ten millimolar each sample was prepared in a mixture of ethanol and water (1:1 v/v), and the interactions with AChE, BChE, and MAO were evaluated. Still, ferric reducing antioxidant property, ABTS radicals scavenging ability and lipid peroxidation were carried out. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13276DOI Listing

Targeting Infectious Agents as a Therapeutic Strategy in Alzheimer's Disease.

CNS Drugs 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Microbiology and Infectious diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent dementia in the world. Its cause(s) are presently largely unknown. The most common explanation for AD, now, is the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which states that the cause of AD is senile plaque formation by the amyloid β peptide, and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles by hyperphosphorylated tau. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-020-00737-1DOI Listing

The potential long-term impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on patients with non-communicable diseases in Europe: consequences for healthy ageing.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Upjohn (Division of Pfizer), Surrey, UK.

The early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic have focused on containing SARS-CoV-2 infection and identifying treatment strategies. While controlling this communicable disease is of utmost importance, the long-term effect on individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCD) is significant. Although certain NCDs appear to increase the severity of COVID-19 and mortality risk, SARS-CoV-2 infection in survivors with NCDs may also affect the progression of their pre-existing clinical conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-020-01601-4DOI Listing

Effects of curcumin on neurological diseases: focus on astrocytes.

Pharmacol Rep 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Iran.

Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system, and are important players in both brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. Curcumin (1,7-bis[4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl]-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), the major active component of turmeric, belongs to the curcuminoid family that was originally isolated from the plant Curcuma longa. Several studies suggest that curcumin may have a beneficial impact on the brain pathology and aging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43440-020-00112-3DOI Listing

Combining diagnostic memory clinic with rehabilitation follow-up after hip fracture.

Eur Geriatr Med 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Seinäjoki Central Hospital, Hanneksenrinne 7, 60220, Seinäjoki, Finland.

Purpose: Cognitive impairment and dementia are common in older hip fracture patients. We describe new diagnoses of cognitive disorders (NDCDs) and associated factors in a two-year post-hip fracture follow-up including the use of the diagnostic facilities of a memory clinic.

Methods: Data were collected on admission and at outpatient assessment 4-6 months post-hip fracture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41999-020-00334-xDOI Listing

Editorial: Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 7;12:124. Epub 2020 May 7.

Departamento Biologia Celular, Genetica y Fisiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica de Malaga-IBIMA, Universidad de Malaga, Málaga, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221022PMC

Sleep Disturbances in MCI and AD: Neuroinflammation as a Possible Mediating Pathway.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 8;12:69. Epub 2020 May 8.

CHU Bichat-Claude-Bernard, AP-HP, Service de Gériatrie, Paris, France.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) affect a high proportion of the elderly population with an increasing prevalence. Sleep disturbances are frequent in those with MCI and AD. This review summarizes existing research on sleep disturbances and neuroinflammation in MCI and AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227443PMC

Spread of pathological tau proteins through communicating neurons in human Alzheimer's disease.

Nat Commun 2020 May 26;11(1):2612. Epub 2020 May 26.

Clinical Memory Research Unit, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Tau is a hallmark pathology of Alzheimer's disease, and animal models have suggested that tau spreads from cell to cell through neuronal connections, facilitated by β-amyloid (Aβ). We test this hypothesis in humans using an epidemic spreading model (ESM) to simulate tau spread, and compare these simulations to observed patterns measured using tau-PET in 312 individuals along Alzheimer's disease continuum. Up to 70% of the variance in the overall spatial pattern of tau can be explained by our model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15701-2DOI Listing

A 3'UTR modification of the TNF-α mouse gene increases peripheral TNF-α and modulates the Alzheimer-like phenotype in 5XFAD mice.

Sci Rep 2020 May 26;10(1):8670. Epub 2020 May 26.

Laboratory of Cellular Neurobiology, Center of Basic Research, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, 11527, Athens, Greece.

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, involved in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Anti-TNF-α therapeutic approaches currently used in autoimmune diseases have been proposed as a therapeutic strategy in AD. We have previously examined the role of TNF-α and anti-TNF-α drugs in AD, using 5XFAD mice, and we have found a significant role for peripheral TNF-α in brain inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65378-2DOI Listing

Effect of ApoE isoforms on mitochondria in Alzheimer disease.

Neurology 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

From the Barrow Neurological Institute (J.Y., M.N.S., M.N., J.S.), St. Joseph Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ; Banner Alzheimer's Institute (E.M.R.), Phoenix, AZ; Civin Laboratory for Neuropathology (T.G.B., G.E.S.), Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, AZ; Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health (M.N.S.), Las Vegas, NV; School of Life Sciences (M.N.), Arizona State University, Tempe; Department of Neurology (R.J.C.), Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale; Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection (J.S.), Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; and China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases (J.S.), Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that ApoE isoforms affect mitochondrial structure and function that are related to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD), we systematically investigated the effects of ApoE isoforms on mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, oxidative stress, synapses, and cognitive performance in AD.

Methods: We obtained postmortem human brain tissues and measured proteins that are responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α [PGC-1α] and sirtuin 3 [SIRT3]), for mitochondrial dynamics (mitofusin 1 [MFN1], mitofusin 2 [MFN2], and dynamin-like protein 1 [DLP1]), for oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase 2 [SOD2] and forkhead-box protein O3a [Foxo3a]), and for synapses (postsynaptic density protein 95 [PSD95] and synapsin1 [Syn1]). A total of 46 cases were enrolled, including ApoE-ɛ4 carriers (n = 21) and noncarriers (n = 25). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009582DOI Listing

Mild behavioral impairment as a predictor of cognitive functioning in older adults.

Int Psychogeriatr 2020 May 27:1-9. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Neurology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Objective: To assess the influence of mild behavioral impairment (MBI) on the cognitive performance of older adults who are cognitively healthy or have mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Methods: Secondary data analysis of a sample (n = 497) of older adults from the Florida Alzheimer's Disease Research Center who were either cognitively healthy (n = 285) or diagnosed with MCI (n = 212). Over half of the sample (n = 255) met the operationalized diagnostic criteria for MBI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610220000678DOI Listing

Testing whether the progression of Alzheimer's disease changes with the year of publication, additional design, and geographical area: a modeling analysis of literature aggregate data.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2020 May 26;12(1):64. Epub 2020 May 26.

Center for Drug Clinical Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 1200 Cailun Road, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Background: Our objectives were to develop a disease progression model for cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to determine whether disease progression of AD is related to the year of publication, add-on trial design, and geographical regions.

Methods: Placebo-controlled randomized AD clinical trials were systemically searched in public databases. Longitudinal placebo response (mean change from baseline in the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale [ADAS-cog]) and the corresponding demographic information were extracted to establish a disease progression model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-020-00630-5DOI Listing

Partial reduction of amyloid β production by β-secretase inhibitors does not decrease synaptic transmission.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2020 May 26;12(1):63. Epub 2020 May 26.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, S-431 80, Mölndal, Sweden.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Cerebral deposition of Aβ peptides, especially Aβ42, is considered the major neuropathological hallmark of AD and the putative cause of AD-related neurotoxicity. Aβ peptides are produced by sequential proteolytic processing of APP, with β-secretase (BACE) being the initiating enzyme. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-020-00635-0DOI Listing

Systemic Exposure to Air Pollution Induces Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Mouse Brain, Contributing to Neurodegeneration Onset.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 24;21(10). Epub 2020 May 24.

School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy.

In northern Italy, biomass burning-derived (BB) particles and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are considered the most significant contributors to ultrafine particle (UFP) emission. However, a comparison between their impact on different brain regions was not investigated until now. Therefore, male BALB/c mice were treated with a single or three consecutive intratracheal instillations using 50 µg of UFPs in 100 µL of isotonic saline solution or 100 µL of isotonic saline solution alone, and brains were collected and analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103699DOI Listing

The Role of the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Antibiotics in ALS and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Microorganisms 2020 May 23;8(5). Epub 2020 May 23.

Research Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland, Department of Veteran's Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

The human gut hosts a wide and diverse ecosystem of microorganisms termed the microbiota, which line the walls of the digestive tract and colon where they co-metabolize digestible and indigestible food to contribute a plethora of biochemical compounds with diverse biological functions. The influence gut microbes have on neurological processes is largely yet unexplored. However, recent data regarding the so-called leaky gut, leaky brain syndrome suggests a potential link between the gut microbiota, inflammation and host co-metabolism that may affect neuropathology both locally and distally from sites where microorganisms are found. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050784DOI Listing

Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Low-Moderate Dose Ionizing Radiation in Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 23;21(10). Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon 35365, Korea.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. The neuropathological features of AD include amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation. Although several clinical trials have been conducted to identify a cure for AD, no effective drug or treatment has been identified thus far. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103678DOI Listing

Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids of Belladine-Type from cv. Carlton as New Selective Inhibitors of Butyrylcholinesterase.

Biomolecules 2020 May 22;10(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

ADINACO Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

Thirteen known (- and ) and three previously undescribed Amaryllidaceae alkaloids of belladine structural type, named carltonine A-C (-), were isolated from bulbs of cv. Carlton (Amaryllidaceae) by standard chromatographic methods. Compounds isolated in sufficient amounts, and not tested previously, were evaluated for their in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE; E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050800DOI Listing

The Contribution of Spanish Science to Patents: Medicine as Case of Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 May 21;17(10). Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Engineering, University of Almeria, ceiA3, 04120 Almeria, Spain.

Investments in research and development (R&D) and innovation are expensive, and one wishes to be assured that there is positive feedback and to receive guidance on how to direct investments in the future. The social or economic benefits of investments in R&D are of particular interest to policymakers. In this regard, public expense in research, especially through universities, is sometimes being questioned. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103638DOI Listing