144,864 results match your criteria Alzheimer's Research & Therapy [Journal]


Network localization of heterogeneous neuroimaging findings.

Brain 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Studies of the same disease often implicate different brain regions, contributing to a perceived reproducibility crisis in neuroimaging. Here, we leverage the normative human brain connectome to test whether seemingly heterogeneous neuroimaging findings localize to connected brain networks. We use neurodegenerative disease, and specifically Alzheimer's disease, as our example as it is one of the diseases that has been studied the most using neuroimaging. Read More

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December 2018

Striking reduction in neurons and glial cells in anterior thalamic nuclei of older patients with Down syndrome.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 17;75:54-61. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Electronic address:

The anterior thalamic nuclei are important for spatial and episodic memory, however, surprisingly little is known about the status of these nuclei in neurological conditions that present with memory impairments, such as Down syndrome. We quantified neurons and glial cells in the anterior thalamic nuclei of four older patients with Down syndrome. There was a striking reduction in the volume of the anterior thalamic nuclei and this appeared to reflect the loss of approximately 70% of neurons. Read More

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November 2018

Chirality Dependence of Amyloid β Cellular Uptake and a New Mechanistic Perspective.

Chembiochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

UCSC, Chemistry and Biochemistry, 1156 High Street, 95064, Santa Cruz, UNITED STATES.

Amyloid β is an inherently disordered peptide that can form diverse neurotoxic aggregates, and its 42 amino acid long isoform is the believed culprit of Alzheimer's Disease. Cellular uptake of the peptide is a pivotal step for it to be able to exert many of its toxic actions. The cellular uptake process is complex, and numerous competing internalization pathways have been proposed. Read More

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December 2018
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Phenotypic variability and neuropsychological findings associated with C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208383. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Karolinska Institutet, Dept NVS, Division for Neurogeriatrics, Bioclinicum, Akademiska stråket, Solna, Sweden.

Background: The GGGGCC repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene was recently identified as a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in several European populations. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort and to delineate the associated clinical features.

Methods And Findings: PCR-based assessments of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in all study samples (including 82 FTD, 37 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 16 other neurodegenerative/dementia disorder cases) were performed. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of apolipoprotein E on nutritional metabolism in dementia.

Curr Opin Lipidol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Healthcare System.

Purpose Of Review: Various groups have explored the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) on neurodegeneration through nutritional and metabolic alterations. In this review, we hope to summarize recent findings in humans as well as preclinical APOE models.

Recent Findings: Metabolic pathways including lipid metabolism appear to play a large role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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December 2018

Toward Prevention of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults With Depression: An Observational Study of Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors.

J Clin Psychiatry 2018 Nov 27;80(1). Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Division of Geriatric Psychiatry, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Late-life depression has been associated with increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Predictors of increased risk are incompletely understood. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors could facilitate prevention of MCI and dementia. Read More

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November 2018

Gene mutations in a Han Chinese Alzheimer's disease cohort.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 14:e01180. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by memory loss at disease onset. The gene mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) are the frequent causes of AD. However, the clinical and genetic features of AD overlap with other neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Cognitive and Pathological Influences of Tau Pathology in Lewy Body Disorders.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Objective: To use digital histology in a large autopsy cohort of Lewy Body Disorder (LBD) patients with dementia to test the hypotheses that co-occurring Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology impacts the anatomic distribution of α-synuclein (SYN) pathology and that co-occurring neocortical tau pathology in LBD associates with worse cognitive performance and occurs in a pattern differing from AD.

Methods: Fifty-five autopsy-confirmed LBD (PDD: 36, DLB:19) patients and 25 AD patients were studied. LBD patients were categorized as having moderate/severe AD co-pathology (SYN+AD=20) or little/no AD co-pathology (SYN-AD=35). Read More

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December 2018

The impact of Aβ and tau on prospective cognitive decline in older individuals.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Harvard Aging Brain Study, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: Amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau pathologies are commonly observed among clinically normal older individuals at post-mortem and can now be detected with in vivo neuroimaging. The association and interaction of these proteinopathies with prospective cognitive decline in normal aging and preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains to be fully elucidated.

Methods: One hundred and thirty-seven older individuals (age=76. Read More

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December 2018

Knockdown of heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3 recapitulates phenotypic, cellular, and molecular features of aging.

Aging Cell 2018 Dec 13:e12886. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine.

Identifying genetic factors that modify an individual's susceptibility to cognitive decline in aging is critical to understanding biological processes involved and mitigating risk associated with a number of age-related disorders. Recently, heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3 (Hp1bp3) was identified as a mediator of cognitive aging. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for these findings and show that targeted knockdown of Hp1bp3 in the hippocampus by 50%-75% is sufficient to induce cognitive deficits and transcriptional changes reminiscent of those observed in aging and Alzheimer's disease brains. Read More

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December 2018

Regional multimodal relationships between tau, hypometabolism, atrophy, and fractional anisotropy in atypical Alzheimer's disease.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) can present with atypical clinical forms where the prominent domain of deficit is not memory, that is, atypical AD. Atypical AD patients show cortical atrophy on MRI, hypometabolism on [ F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, tau uptake on [ F]AV-1451 PET, and white matter tract degeneration on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). How these disease processes relate to each other locally and distantly remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of brain perfusion patterns in dementia with Lewy bodies patients with or without cingulate island sign.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, Oita University, Faculty of Medicine, Oita, Japan.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the differences in the brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography patterns compared in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) with or without cingulate island sign (CIS).

Methods: A total of 43 patients with DLB and 63 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were included in the study. The CIScore was determined based on the posterior cingulate area and the occipital cortex using the eZIS software. Read More

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December 2018

Dissociation in awareness of memory and language decline in Alzheimer's disease.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Memory and Attention Disorders, Neurological Institute, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine awareness of decline in memory and in language in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), by comparing participant and informant ratings, as well as these ratings and actual test performance.

Methods: We analyzed data from 149 individuals with AD enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) who filled the Everyday Cognition questionnaire, and performed memory and language tasks.

Results: Participants provided significantly lower assessments of decline than did informants for both memory and language. Read More

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December 2018

The effect of early growth response 1 on levels of Amyloid-β 40 peptide in U87MG cells.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, The Frist Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

A recent study has shown that early growth response 1 (EGR1) plays a critical role in the β-amyloid cascade and tau hypotheses. In addition, evidence has suggested that EGR1 can regulate levels of amyloid-beta peptides, key molecules in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether EGR1 is a deleterious or protective factor in the AD is still controversial. Read More

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December 2018

Tadalafil: 15 years' journey in male erectile dysfunction and beyond.

Authors:
Nermin S Ahmed

Drug Dev Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, German University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt.

Hit, Lead & Candidate Discovery Tadalafil, Cialis, Eli Lilly & Co./ICOS, (6R,12aR)-6-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-methyl-2,3,6,7,12,12a-hexahydropyrazino[1',2':1,6] pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,4-dione, was first discovered in 2003. It was reported to have high diastereospecificity for phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitions. Read More

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December 2018
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Impaired Kv7 channel function in cerebral arteries of a tauopathy mouse model (rTg4510).

Physiol Rep 2018 Dec;6(23):e13920

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

In tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease with or without concomitant amyloid β plaques, cerebral arteries display pathological remodeling, leading to reduced brain tissue oxygenation and cognitive impairment. The precise mechanisms that underlie this vascular dysfunction remain unclear. Kv7 voltage-dependent K channels contribute to the development of myogenic tone in rat cerebral arteries. Read More

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December 2018

Optical coherence tomography in the investigation of systemic neurologic disease.

Clin Exp Optom 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-established technique for the clinical examination, diagnosis, severity staging and monitoring of ophthalmic disorders. The application of this technology has more recently been extended beyond ophthalmic disease, whereby it has been demonstrated that OCT can serve as an ophthalmic marker for a range of systemic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This review will focus on the clinical utility of OCT-derived retinal measures for the investigation of these conditions. Read More

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December 2018

Rational structure-based design of fluorescence probes for amyloid folds.

Chembiochem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, Swiss Federal Institute of, Technology, ETH-Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland, SWITZERLAND.

Amyloid fibrils are pathological hallmark of various human diseases - including Parkinson's Alzheimer's, ALS, Prion diseases. Treatment of the amyloid diseases are hindered amongst other factors also due to timely detection and therefore, early detection of the amyloid fibrils would be beneficial for the treatment against these disorders. Here, we report a small molecular fluorescent probe that selectively recognize the fibrillar form of Amyloid beta(1-42), α-Synuclein, and HET-s(218-289) protein over their monomeric conformation. Read More

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December 2018

A hotspots analysis-relation discovery representation model for revealing diabetes mellitus and obesity.

BMC Syst Biol 2018 Dec 14;12(Suppl 7):116. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Key Laboratory of Symbolic Computation and Knowledge Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Computer Science and Technology, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

Background: Nowadays, because of the huge economic burden on society causing by obesity and diabetes, they turn into the most serious public health challenges in the world. To reveal the close and complex relationships between diabetes, obesity and other diseases, search the effective treatment for them, a novel model named as representative latent Dirichlet allocation (RLDA) topic model is presented.

Results: RLDA was applied to a corpus of more than 337,000 literatures of diabetes and obesity which were published from 2007 to 2016. Read More

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December 2018

The emerging role of microRNA-4487/6845-3p in Alzheimer's disease pathologies is induced by Aβ25-35 triggered in SH-SY5Y cell.

BMC Syst Biol 2018 Dec 14;12(Suppl 7):119. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences, Shanghai, 201318, China.

Background: Accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuron-enriched miRNA was aberrantly regulated and may be associated with the pathogenesis of AD. However, regarding whether miRNA is involved in the accumulation of Aβ in AD, the underlying molecule mechanism remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Study protocol: individualized music for people with dementia - improvement of quality of life and social participation for people with dementia in institutional care.

BMC Geriatr 2018 Dec 14;18(1):313. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Counseling and Clinical Intervention, Institute of Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Humboldtstrasse 11, 07743, Jena, Germany.

Background: People with dementia (PwD) experience a range of negative behavioral and psychological symptoms which can lower their quality of life. Because of the increasing prevalence of dementia, interventions that maintain and enhance the quality of life for PwD are needed. Listening to individualized music constitutes a promising non-pharmacological intervention for PwD. Read More

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December 2018

6-Phenylpyrimidin-4-ones as Positive Allosteric Modulators at the M1 mAChR: The Determinants of Allosteric Activity.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Targeting allosteric sites of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) is an enticing approach to overcome the lack of receptor subtype selectivity observed with orthosteric ligands. This is a promising strategy for obtaining novel therapeutics to treat cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, while reducing the peripheral side effects such as seen in the current treatment regimes, which are non-subtype selective. We previously described compound 2, the first positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the M1 mAChR based on a 6-phenylpyrimidin-4-one scaffold, which has been further developed in this study. Read More

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December 2018

Donepezil-induced torsades de pointes without QT prolongation.

J Cardiol Cases 2013 Aug 25;8(2):e69-e71. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

Faculty of Health and Sciences, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Japan.

We report a case of torsades de pointes (TdP) induced by donepezil without QT prolongation. An 86-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a syncopal attack. She had been treated for Alzheimer's disease with donepezil. Read More

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Novel tau fragments in cerebrospinal fluid: relation to tangle pathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborgsvägen 31, House V3/SU, 43180, Mölndal, Sweden.

Tau is an axonal microtubule-binding protein. Tau pathology in brain and increased tau concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of tau in CSF is present as fragments. Read More

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December 2018

Frontostriatal grey matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis A visual rating study.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):388-393

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by frontostriatal grey matter changes similar to those in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, these changes are usually detected at a group level, and simple visual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cortical atrophy scales may further elucidate frontostriatal changes in ALS.

Objective: To investigate whether frontostriatal changes are detectable using simple visual MRI atrophy rating scales applied at an individual patient level in ALS. Read More

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December 2018

Monitoring of drug treatment and psychosocial intervention with SPECT in Alzheimer patients Implications for neurologically appropriate psychosocial interventions. An observational study. The Osaki-Tajiri Project.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):380-387

Geriatric Behavioral Neurology, Tohoku University CYRIC, Japan.

We previously examined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with reference to drug treatment (donepezil) and psychosocial intervention.

Objective: The aim is to provide "brain-based" evidence for psychosocial interventions using SPECT.

Methods: The participants were 27 consecutive outpatients with AD who received the drug and psychosocial intervention, and SPECT three times (baseline, pre-/post-intervention) at 6 month-intervals. Read More

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December 2018

The Mini-Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (M-ACE) as a brief cognitive screening instrument in Mild Cognitive Impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):368-373

Grupo de Neurologia Cognitiva e do Comportamento (GNCC), Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The Mini-Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (M-ACE) is a brief cognitive screening test that evaluates four main cognitive domains (orientation, memory, language and visuospatial function) with a maximum score of 30 points and administration time of five minutes.

Objective: To assess the performance of healthy elderly, MCI patients and mild AD patients using the Brazilian version of the M-ACE.

Methods: The test was applied to a group of 36 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), 23 mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and 25 cognitive healthy elderly. Read More

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December 2018

Focused ultrasound and Alzheimer's disease A systematic review.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):353-359

Medical student. Departamento de Medicina, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Paraíba, Cabedelo, PB, Brazil.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects millions of people, however, there is still no effective treatment. The use of focused ultrasound with microbubbles (FUS-MB) for the opening of the blood-brain barrier has been recently studied and may become a promising therapeutic target.

Objective: To discuss the use of FUS-MB for the treatment of AD and to present some of the techniques used. Read More

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December 2018

Metamemory monitoring in Alzheimer's disease A systematic review.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):337-352

PhD, Center for Alzheimer's disease and Related Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Metamemory is the awareness of one's own knowledge and control of memory, and refers to the online ability to gather information about the current state of the memory system.

Objective: Metamemory is one's own knowledge and control of memory. A systematic review was performed to identify the types of tasks used for evaluating metamemory monitoring, the stimuli used in these tasks, their limitations and the outcomes in people with Alzheimer's disease (PwAD). Read More

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December 2018
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Neuroinflammation in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 2018 Nov 23;9(4):211-218. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

RIKEN Center for Brain Science Laboratory for Proteolytic Neuroscience Wako Japan.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of neurocognitive disorder. Although both amyloid β peptide deposition and neurofibrillary tangle formation in the AD brain have been established as pathological hallmarks of the disease, many other factors contribute in a complex manner to the pathogenesis of AD before clinical symptoms of the disease become apparent. Longitudinal pathophysiological processes cause patients' brains to exist in a state of chronic neuroinflammation, with glial cells acting as key regulators of the neuroinflammatory state. Read More

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November 2018

Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth and Synaptic Partner Selection in .

J Exp Neurosci 2018 2;12:1179069518816088. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Read More

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December 2018
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Transmission of amyloid-β protein pathology from cadaveric pituitary growth hormone.

Nature 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

MRC Prion Unit at UCL, UCL Institute of Prion Diseases, London, UK.

We previously reported the presence of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) deposits in individuals with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) who had been treated during childhood with human cadaveric pituitary-derived growth hormone (c-hGH) contaminated with prions. The marked deposition of parenchymal and vascular Aβ in these relatively young individuals with treatment-induced (iatrogenic) CJD (iCJD), in contrast to other prion-disease patients and population controls, allied with the ability of Alzheimer's disease brain homogenates to seed Aβ deposition in laboratory animals, led us to argue that the implicated c-hGH batches might have been contaminated with Aβ seeds as well as with prions. However, this was necessarily an association, and not an experimental, study in humans and causality could not be concluded. Read More

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December 2018
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Apolipoprotein E genotypes among diverse middle-aged and older Latinos: Study of Latinos-Investigation of Neurocognitive Aging results (HCHS/SOL).

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17578. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, McGovern Medical School University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The apoE4 isoform is associated with increased cholesterol, cardiovascular risk, and Alzheimer's Disease risk, however, its distribution is not well-understood among US Latinos. Latinos living in the US are highly Amerindian, European and African admixed, which varies by region and country of origin. However, Latino genetic diversity is understudied and consequently poorly understood, which has significant implications for understanding disease risk in nearly one-fifth of the US population. Read More

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December 2018

Integrative system biology analyses of CRISPR-edited iPSC-derived neurons and human brains reveal deficiencies of presynaptic signaling in FTLD and PSP.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Dec 13;8(1):265. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660S. Euclid Ave. Campus Box 8134, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene cause autosomal dominant frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau inclusions (FTLD-tau). MAPT p.R406W carriers present clinically with progressive memory loss and neuropathologically with neuronal and glial tauopathy. Read More

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December 2018
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Alzheimer's disease: The right drug, the right time.

Science 2018 Dec;362(6420):1250-1251

Department of Neurosciences and Shiley-Marcos Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

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December 2018
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Presence of tau astrogliopathy in frontotemporal dementia caused by a novel Grn nonsense (Trp2*) mutation.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Brain Tissue Bank, Fundación CIEN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration caused by GRN mutations is mainly associated with a TDP-43 type A proteinopathy. We present a family with autosomal dominant frontotemporal lobar degeneration caused by a novel GRN nonsense mutation (c.5G>A: p. Read More

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November 2018

Statins: The Burglar of Memory?

Consult Pharm 2018 Dec;33(12):706-710

Alzheimer's disease is becoming more predominant in our aging population. Statin medications have been reported to contribute to cognitive impairment. Updated cholesterol treatment guidelines significantly increase the proportion of people eligible for treatment with statins. Read More

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December 2018

Using a birth cohort to study brain health and preclinical dementia: recruitment and participation rates in Insight 46.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Dec 13;11(1):885. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing at UCL, London, UK.

Objective: Identifying and recruiting people with early pre-symptomatic Alzheimer's disease to neuroimaging research studies is increasingly important. The extent to which results of these studies can be generalised depends on the recruitment and representativeness of the participants involved. We now report the recruitment and participation patterns from a neuroscience sub-study of the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, "Insight 46". Read More

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December 2018

When pitch adds to volume: coregulation of transcript diversity predicts gene function.

BMC Genomics 2018 Dec 13;19(1):926. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

ISGlobal, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Genes corregulate their overall transcript volumes to perform their physiological functions. However, it is unknown if they additionally coregulate their transcript diversities. We studied the reliability, consistency and functional associations of co-splicing correlations of genes of interest, across two independent studies, multiple tissues and two statistical methods. Read More

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December 2018

Neuroprotective and Neurological/Cognitive Enhancement Effects of Curcumin after Brain Ischemia Injury with Alzheimer's Disease Phenotype.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 12;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

In recent years, ongoing interest in ischemic brain injury research has provided data showing that ischemic episodes are involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathology. Brain ischemia is the second naturally occurring neuropathology, such as Alzheimer's disease, which causes the death of neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. In addition, brain ischemia was considered the most effective predictor of the development of full-blown dementia of Alzheimer's disease phenotype with a debilitating effect on the patient. Read More

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December 2018
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The Potential Use of Plant Natural Products and Plant Extracts with Antioxidant Properties for the Prevention/Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases: In Vitro, In Vivo and Clinical Trials.

Molecules 2018 Dec 11;23(12). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 7GJ, UK.

Neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, present a major health issue and financial burden for health care systems around the world. The impact of these diseases will further increase over the next decades due to increasing life expectancies. No cure is currently available for the treatment of these conditions; only drugs, which merely alleviate the symptoms. Read More

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December 2018

Blood-Brain Delivery Methods Using Nanotechnology.

Pharmaceutics 2018 Dec 11;10(4). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Emergency University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania.

Pathologies of the brain, of which brain cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, and multiple sclerosis, are some of the most prevalent, and that presently are poorly treated due to the difficulties associated with drug development, administration, and targeting to the brain. The existence of the blood-brain barrier, a selective permeability system which acts as a local gateway against circulating foreign substances, represents the key challenge for the delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain. However, the development of nanotechnology-based approaches for brain delivery, such as nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, micelles, and carbon nanotubes, might be the solution for improved brain therapies. Read More

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December 2018

Potential Role of Fluoride in the Etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 9;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Powst. Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland.

The etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease has not been fully explained. Now, the disease is widely attributed both to genetic and environmental factors. It is believed that only a small percentage of new AD cases result solely from genetic mutations, with most cases attributed to environmental factors or to the interaction of environmental factors with preexistent genetic determinants. Read More

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December 2018
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Multifunctional Donepezil Analogues as Cholinesterase and BACE1 Inhibitors.

Molecules 2018 Dec 8;23(12). Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0596, USA.

A series of 22 donepezil analogues were synthesized through alkylation/benzylation and compared to donepezil and its 6--desmethyl adduct. All the compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), two enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in Alzheimer's disease patient brains. Many of them displayed lower inhibitory concentrations of AChE (IC = 0. Read More

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December 2018

Bojungikgi-Tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Exerts Neuroprotective Effects and Ameliorates Memory Impairments in Alzheimer's Disease-Like Experimental Models.

Nutrients 2018 Dec 10;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Clinical Medicine Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea.

Bojungikgi-tang (BJIGT; Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang in China, Hochuekkito in Japan) is a traditional Oriental herbal formula comprised of eight medicinal herbs that has long been used for the treatment of digestive disorders. A recent clinical study from South Korea reported that BJIGT-gamibang administration may be effective in treating dementia. We aimed to establish scientific evidence for the anti-dementia effects of BJIGT using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Read More

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December 2018

Sun Exposure Public Health Directives.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 10;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands.

There have been many public health recommendations for avoiding UV radiation exposures. This is primarily due to concerns about skin cancer and especially melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer. However, UV radiation is also known as the primary source of vitamin D and other compounds needed for good health. Read More

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December 2018

Designing Hybrids Targeting the Cholinergic System by Modulating the Muscarinic and Nicotinic Receptors: A Concept to Treat Alzheimer's Disease.

Molecules 2018 Dec 7;23(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.

The cholinergic hypothesis has been reported first being the cause of memory dysfunction in the Alzheimer's disease. Researchers around the globe have focused their attention on understanding the mechanisms of how this complicated system contributes to processes such as learning, memory, disorientation, linguistic problems, and behavioral issues in the indicated chronic neurodegenerative disease. The present review reports recent updates in hybrid molecule design as a strategy for selectively addressing multiple target proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the study of their therapeutic relevance. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular and Functional Interaction of the Myokine Irisin with Physical Exercise and Alzheimer's Disease.

Molecules 2018 Dec 7;23(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Rehabilitation Science, Graduate School of Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea.

Irisin, a skeletal muscle-secreted myokine, produced in response to physical exercise, has protective functions in both the central and the peripheral nervous systems, including the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factors. In particular, irisin is capable of protecting hippocampus. Since this area is the region of the brain that is most susceptible to Alzheimer's disease (AD), such beneficial effect may inhibit or delay the emergence of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Read More

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December 2018

Antioxidant Properties and the Formation of Iron Coordination Complexes of 8-Hydroxyquinoline.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 7;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Molecular Systems Biology, Department of Ecogenomics and Systems Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

Background: The alkaloid 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) is well-known for various biological activities, including antioxidant effects and especially for the formation of coordination complexes with various transition metals, such as iron, amongst others. Therefore, 8HQ was extensively explored as a promising antineurodegenerative agent. However, other authors noted pro-oxidant effects of 8HQ. Read More

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December 2018