147,586 results match your criteria Alzheimer's & Dementia[Journal]


Treatment with a brain-selective prodrug of 17β-estradiol improves cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease mice by regulating klf5-NF-κB pathway.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450002, China.

10β,17β-dihydroxyestra-1,4-dien-3-one (DHED) which is a brain-selective prodrug of 17β-estradiol has been reported to improve the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice model. However, little is known about the potential mechanism for cognitive improvement. In the present study, we used AD mice to investigate the effects and mechanisms of DHED treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-019-01639-wDOI Listing

Selective vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases is not easily reconcilable with clinical diversity and clinical-anatomical convergence.

Authors:
Carlo Abbate

J Neurol Sci 2019 Mar 11;400:23-24. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Geriatric Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, via Alfonso Lamarmora 5, 20122, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides protect against Alzheimer's disease by regulating Nrf2 signaling and exerting antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun 130041, China. Electronic address:

Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOPS) was initially separated and purified via precipitation from an aqueous extract with 80% alcohol, a DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column, and a Sephadex G-100 gel permeation chromatography system. IOPS was found to have a molecular weight of 111.9 kDa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.03.033DOI Listing

Diagnostic performance of a fully automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis.

Clin Chim Acta 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Laboratory of Clinical Neurochemistry, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, S. Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

The variability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (Aβ42, t-Tau and p-Tau) undermines their full-fledged introduction into routine diagnostics and clinical trials. The introduction of automatic systems can improve the diagnostic performance promoting standardization and reducing the impact of preanalytical and analytical factors. Here we assessed the diagnostic performance of a fully automated chemiluminescent enzyme assay (LUMIPULSE) and compared it with that obtained by using the classical manual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2019.03.1612DOI Listing

Regional vulnerability and spreading of hyperphosphorylated tau in seeded mouse brain.

Neurobiol Dis 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium; Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

We have exploited whole brain microscopy to map the progressive deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau in intact, cleared mouse brain. We found that the three-dimensional spreading pattern of hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain of an aging Tau.P301L mouse model did not resemble that observed in AD patients. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09699961193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2019.03.010DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Regional hypometabolism in the 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Dis 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

St. Boniface Hospital Research, Canada; Dept. of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Canada. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive age-related neurodegenerative disease. Although neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid beta are classic hallmarks of AD, the earliest deficits in AD progression may be caused by unknown factors. One suspected factor has to do with brain energy metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2019.03.008DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Alterations in cholesterol metabolism as a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease: Potential novel targets for treatment.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Karolinska Institutet, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology Care Sciences and Society, Division of Neurogeriatrics, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and it is characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. However, the complete pathogenesis of the disease is still unknown. High level of serum cholesterol has been found to positively correlate with an increased risk of dementia and some studies have reported a decreased prevalence of AD in patients taking cholesterol-lowering drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Intrathecal cell therapy with autologous stromal cells increases cerebral glucose metabolism and can offer a new approach to the treatment of Alzheimer's type dementia.

Cytotherapy 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.

Background Aims: After recent observations that intrathecal administration of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) increases cerebral metabolism in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), we examined this type of cell therapy in Alzheimer's type dementia.

Methods: Three patients with clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease received every 3 months 100 million autologous MSCs by intrathecal route, until a total dose of 300 million.

Results: During cell therapy the patients showed arrest in neurological deterioration and two of them manifested clear improvement of previous symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2019.02.009DOI Listing

A pilot study: Resistive behavior in the context of informal caregiver-assisted activities of daily living.

Geriatr Nurs 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Duquesne University School of Nursing, 600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, United States.

Providing care for people with dementia is difficult when resistive behaviors displayed by people impede caregiving efforts.

Purpose: To examined the frequency of resistive behaviors during informal caregiver-assisted activities of daily living and the impact of these occurrences.

Design: A cross sectional design was used to recruit 17 caregivers from Alzheimer's support group meetings in 2010. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2019.01.005DOI Listing

Therapeutic potentials of plant iridoids in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: A review.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Mar 8;169:185-199. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Chemistry, Dasaratha Deb Memorial College, Khowai, Tripura, 799201, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders, affecting several millions of aged people globally. Among these disorders, AD is more severe, affecting about 7% of individuals aged 65 and above. AD is primarily a dementia-related disorder from progressive cognitive deterioration and memory impairment, while PD is primarily a movement disorder illness having three major kinesia or movement disorder symptoms, bradykinesia (slowness of movements), hypokinesia (reduction of movement amplitude), and akinesia (absence of normal unconscious movements) along with muscle rigidity and tremor at rest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.03.009DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Association Between Earliest Amyloid Uptake and Functional Connectivity in Cognitively Unimpaired Elderly.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Sweden.

Alterations in cognitive performance have been noted in nondemented subjects with elevated accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrils. However, it is not yet understood whether brain function is already influenced by Aβ deposition during the very earliest stages of the disease. We therefore investigated associations between [18F]Flutemetamol PET, resting-state functional connectivity, gray and white matter structure and cognitive performance in 133 cognitively normal elderly that exhibited normal global Aβ PET levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz020DOI Listing

GABAergic astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease.

Aging (Albany NY) 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.101870DOI Listing

Hallucinations and delusions signal Alzheimer's associated cognitive dysfunction more strongly compared to other neuropsychiatric symptoms.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA.

Objective: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common among individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). We sought to characterize which NPS more purely relate to cognitive dysfunction in DAT, relative to other NPS.

Methods: Demographic, neurocognitive, neuroimaging, and NPS data were mined from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database (n=906). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbz032DOI Listing

[Bioinks and in vitro neurovascular unit production - New prospects in Alzheimer's disease research].

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:209-222

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Dept. of Chemistry, Aristotle University, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Neurovascular dysfunction is a central process in the pathogenesis of the stroke and most neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The multi-cell neurovascular unit (NVU) combines the components of the neural, vascular and extracellular matrix (ECM) into an important interface whose proper function is critical to maintaining brain health. Tissue engineering now offers new tools and information to promote understanding of NVU's operation. Read More

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January 2019

[Technical characteristics of Alzheimer model based on organ technology (organoid)].

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:195-208

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Dept. of Chemistry, Aristotle University, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder that manifests itself as progressive damage to memory and knowledge and is the main cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid-β plate (Aβ) and by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein. These modifications lead to neuronal cell death, vascular dysfunction and inflammatory disorders. Read More

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January 2019
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Biochemical diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment associated with subcortical small vessels disease.

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:187-193

Cognitive and Movement Disorders Unit and Unit of Neurochemistry and Biological Markers, 1st Department of Neurology, Eginition Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder that has been fully described in clinical, neuropathological and imaging aspects. It is considered as the most prevalent ischemic CNS disorder and has been associated to arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and obstructive sleep apnea. The hallmark of SSVD is the ischemic white matter lesions which can be presented as lacunar infracts and global brain hypoperfusion in a common and homogeneous subtype of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) which is often unrecognized. Read More

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January 2019

The self in Alzheimer's Disease' A Case Study with Implications for Life Quality.

Authors:
Sylva Sarafidou

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:180-186

Private Office Ideas, Center of Psychology, Eurosciences and Art, Vrilissia, 152335, Athens.

In neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia of the Alzheimer's type the person gradually loses skills and aspects of everyday living. Does that indicate that he/ she lose the self? In the past it was widely accepted that the self diminishes in dementia, until it is lost in the latest stage, yet in the recent years this premise has been challenged. Accepting that the self is "lost" can be problematic theoretically in the approach of self-hood, and practically in the care of individuals. Read More

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January 2019

Cerebellar pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:174-179

Leeds Teachnig Hospitals NHS TRUST, University of Leeds, Leeds, England, UK.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the main causes of dementia in the western world. It is clinically characterized by memory impairment, deterioration of intellectual faculties and loss of professional skills. AD brains exhibit significant atrophy, predominantly in the temporal and parietal lobes, while light microscopy reveals deposition of senile plaques and neurofibrillary degeneration initially in the entorhinal cortex, the hippocampus, and in the acoustic and visual cortices, in the frontal lobe and the cerebellum in the advanced stages. Read More

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January 2019

Ageing and Down syndrome: Neurocognitive characteristics and pharmacological treatment.

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:123-132

Department of Education, University of Nicosia, Cyprus - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) are commonly characterized by unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioural profiles that emerge within specific stages in the developmental continuum. A plethora of studies have confirmed DS's relationship to premature aging and subsequent cognitive decline. Due to having three copies of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene which results in amyloid-beta plaque deposition, the cognitive decline often resembles the decline observed in Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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January 2019

Hereditary causes of ischemic cerebral small vessel disease.

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:95-101

Cognitive and Movement Disorders Unit and Unit of Neurochemistry and Biological Markers, 1st Department of Neurology, Eginition Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens Greece.

Hereditary types of ischemic cerebral subcortical small vessel disease (SSVD) are rare, usually autosomal dominant, diseases, due to an abnormality in vessel wall synthesis. They may present with various combinations of migraine with aura, ischemic events (transient ischemic attacks, lacunar strokes) and progressively worsening ischemic lesion load in brain imaging. Eventually, vascular cognitive impairment (usually of the frontal-subcortical type) develops, frequently accompanied by behavioral-psychiatric symptoms and bilateral pyramidal and pseudobulbar signs leading to severe disability and premature death. Read More

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January 2019

Future strategies of management of Alzheimer's Disease. The role of homotaurine.

Authors:
Magda Tsolaki

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:82-94

1st University Department of Neurology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Makedonia, Greece.

Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) particularly will become in future one of the major problems that healthcare systems will have to face with in developed but also in developing countries, because of the progressive aging of the population and the age-associated increase in their incidence. There is a rapid increasing in life expectancy and in elderly percentage. Unfortunately, improvements in lifespan have not been matched by improvements in mental health span. Read More

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January 2019
2 Reads

Callosal Angle and Evans Index predict beta amyloid and tau protein in patients with dementia.

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:51-58

School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Makedonia, Greece.

Introduction: Aβ and tau protein have been widely investigated for the diagnosis of dementia entities, most commonly Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, their measurement is an interventional, time-consuming procedure, while it requires specialized personnel, unlike the evaluation of radiological markers, such as Evans index (EI) and Callosal angle (CA). This study aims to investigate the correlation between EI, CA, Aβ and total tau in order to outline a basis of diagnostic evaluation for the patient's CSF biomarker profile. Read More

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January 2019

Magnetic chrysin silica nanomaterials behavior in an amyloidogenic environment.

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:42-50

Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with brain damage induced by β-amyloid and tau accumulation. One of the hallmarks of amyloidogenesis, is the aggregation of amyloid proteins into a specific cross-β sheet structure, which alters their biological activity thereby affecting neuronal connectivity and function. Despite significant progress in the management of AD over the recent years, the early diagnostic and treatment options still remain limited. Read More

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January 2019
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Naringin nanoparticles against neurodegenerative processes: A preliminary work.

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:32-41

Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece.

It is well established that during Alzheimer disease (AD), gradual loss of neuronal networks occurs in the brain, consequently, affecting cognition and memory tasks of the patients. Among other causative factors, oxidative stress induces changes that are eventually accompanied by an irreversible disruption of synaptic connectivity and death of neurons. Moreover, aging and oxidative stress cause alterations to the blood brain barrier, leading to increased permeability, which are thought to further aggravate the underlying pathology. Read More

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January 2019

Differences between professional and non-professional drivers with cognitive disorders.

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:17-31

Department of Occupational Therapy, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece.

Aim: The study describes the driving habits of people with cognitive disorders and previous professional driving experience. A similar study has not been mentioned in the literature.

Method: From a total of 639 drivers who participated in the research, 153 participants were selected based on their answer on an extensive driving questionnaire. Read More

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January 2019

The Correlation between Cognition Screening Scores and Gait Status from Three-Dimensional Gait Analysis.

J Clin Neurol 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, Korea.

Background And Purpose: Gait impairment in patients with cognitive decline has received considerable attention over the past several decades. However, gait disturbance in dementia is often underdiagnosed. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely used screening test for dementia, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been developed for more accurate assessments of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Read More

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Insights into the Potential Role of Mercury in Alzheimer's Disease.

J Mol Neurosci 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway.

Mercury (Hg), which is a non-essential element, is considered a highly toxic pollutant for biological systems even when present at trace levels. Elevated Hg exposure with the growing release of atmospheric pollutant Hg and rising accumulations of mono-methylmercury (highly neurotoxic) in seafood products have increased its toxic potential for humans. This review aims to highlight the potential relationship between Hg exposure and Alzheimer's disease (AD), based on the existing literature in the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-019-01274-3DOI Listing

Effect of off-target binding on F-Flortaucipir variability in healthy controls across the lifespan.

J Nucl Med 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States.

Measuring early tau accumulation is important in studying aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is only as accurate as the signal to noise ratio of the tracer. Along with aggregated tau in the form of neurofibrillary tangles, F-Flortaucipir (F-FTP) has been reported to bind to neuromelanin, monoamine oxidase, calcification, iron, lepto-meningeal melanocytes, and microhemorrages. Although F-FTP successfully differentiates healthy controls (HC) from subjects with AD, variability exists in the cortical signal in amyloid-β negative (Aβ-) HCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.118.224113DOI Listing

Small molecules as therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Garrison Institute on Aging, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street, MS 9424, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States; Garrison Institute on Aging, South West Campus, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 6630 S. Quaker Suite E, MS 7495, Lubbock, TX 79413, United States; Cell Biology & Biochemistry Department, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street, MS 9424, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States; Pharmacology & Neuroscience Department, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street, MS 9424, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States; Neurology Department, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street, MS 9424, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States; Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences Department, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street, MS 9424, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States; Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3601 4th Street, MS 9424, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a central protagonist of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction stems from various factors including mitochondrial DNA damage and oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species, membrane and ionic gradient destabilization, and interaction with toxic proteins such as amyloid beta (Aβ). Therapeutic drugs such as cholinesterase and glutamate inhibitors have proven to improve synaptic neurotransmitters, but do not address mitochondrial dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2019.03.001DOI Listing

Altered neurovascular coupling and brain arginine metabolism in endothelial nitric oxide synthase deficient mice.

Nitric Oxide 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences, Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Brain Research New Zealand, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is a key regulator of cerebral blood flow (CBF) dynamics. Mice with eNOS deficiency (eNOS) display age-related increases in amyloid beta in the brain and memory deficits, implicating eNOS dysfunction in the neuropathogenesis and/or development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study systematically investigated behavioural, CBF and brain arginine metabolic profile changes in male and female wildtype (WT) and eNOS mice at 14 months of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2019.03.006DOI Listing
March 2019
3.521 Impact Factor

Gene-environment interactions in Alzheimer's Disease: A potential path to precision medicine.

Pharmacol Ther 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Environmental Health, Robert Stempel School of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, FL. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the United States and afflicts greater than 5.7 million Americans in 2018. Therapeutic options remain extremely limited to those that are symptom targeting, while no drugs have been approved for the modification or reversal of the disease itself. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2019.03.005DOI Listing

Functional Differences between Synaptic Mitochondria from the Striatum and the Cerebral Cortex.

Neuroscience 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, N, Denmark. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to play a major role in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In these and other neurodegenerative disorders, disruption of synaptic connectivity and impaired neuronal signaling are among the early signs. When looking for potential causes of neurodegeneration, specific attention is drawn to the function of synaptic mitochondria, as the energy supply from mitochondria is crucial for normal synaptic function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.02.033DOI Listing

Dual-drug loaded nanoparticles of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)/Ascorbic acid enhance therapeutic efficacy of EGCG in a APPswe/PS1dE9 Alzheimer's disease mice model.

J Control Release 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Spain; Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a candidate for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its inherent instability limits bioavailability and effectiveness. We found that EGCG displayed increased stability when formulated as dual-drug loaded PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles (EGCG/AA NPs). Oral administration of EGCG/AA NPs in mice resulted in EGCG accumulation in all major organs, including the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.03.010DOI Listing

Mind the gaps: What we don't know about cognitive impairment in essential tremor.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Although the hallmark feature of essential tremor (ET) is tremor, there is growing appreciation that cognitive impairment also occurs, including increased prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and increased prevalence and incidence of dementia. With emerging knowledge of ET-cognitive impairment, come fundamental questions regarding its course, bases, predictors and clinical outcomes. Studies in the general population and in Parkinson's disease (PD), a related movement disorder, offer a starting point from which to begin filling these clinically important knowledge gaps. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2019.02.038DOI Listing

Epigenetic modifications induced by exercise: Drug-free intervention to improve cognitive deficits associated with obesity.

Physiol Behav 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Laboratório de Bioenergética e Estresse Oxidativo (LABOX), Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brazil. Electronic address:

Obesity and metabolic disorders are increasing worldwide and are associated with brain atrophy and dysfunction, which are risk factors for late-onset dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that changes in lifestyle, including the frequent practice of physical exercise are able to prevent and treat not only obesity/metabolic disorders, but also to improve cognitive function and dementia. Several biochemical pathways and epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to understand the beneficial effects of physical exercise on cognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Restoration of aberrant mTOR signaling by intranasal rapamycin reduces oxidative damage: Focus on HNE-modified proteins in a mouse model of down syndrome.

Redox Biol 2019 Mar 9:101162. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Department of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Increasing evidences support the notion that the impairment of intracellular degradative machinery is responsible for the accumulation of oxidized/misfolded proteins that ultimately results in the deposition of protein aggregates. These events are key pathological aspects of "protein misfolding diseases", including Alzheimer disease (AD). Interestingly, Down syndrome (DS) neuropathology shares many features with AD, such as the deposition of both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2019.101162DOI Listing

An ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, using a fern leaves-like gold nanostructure.

Authors:
M Negahdary H Heli

Talanta 2019 Jun 31;198:510-517. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Nanomedicine and Nanobiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

An extremely sensitive and highly simple aptasensor was fabricated for quantitation of amyloid beta (Aβ) by electrochemical transduction of a fern leaves-like gold nanostructure. The gold nanostructure was synthesized by electrodeposition using polyethylene glycol 6000 as a shape-directing agent, and characterized electrochemically and by field emission scanning electron microscopy. A specific RNA aptamer was immobilized on the fern leaves-like gold nanostructure, and binding with Aβ was detected by the ferro/ferricyanide redox marker. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.01.109DOI Listing

Modulation of Disordered Proteins with a Focus on Neurodegenerative Diseases and Other Pathologies.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre CEP 90050-170, RS, Brazil.

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) do not have rigid 3D structures, showing changes in their folding depending on the environment or ligands. Intrinsically disordered proteins are widely spread in eukaryotic genomes, and these proteins participate in many cell regulatory metabolism processes. Some IDPs, when aberrantly folded, can be the cause of some diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prionic, among others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061322DOI Listing

The Therapeutic Potential of Apigenin.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.

Several plant bioactive compounds have exhibited functional activities that suggest they could play a remarkable role in preventing a wide range of chronic diseases. The largest group of naturally-occurring polyphenols are the flavonoids, including apigenin. The present work is an updated overview of apigenin, focusing on its health-promoting effects/therapeutic functions and, in particular, results of in vivo research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061305DOI Listing

The Use of Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Organoids to Study Extracellular Matrix Development during Neural Degeneration.

Cells 2019 Mar 14;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA.

The mechanism that causes the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologies, including amyloid plaque, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuron death, is not well understood due to the lack of robust study models for human brain. Three-dimensional organoid systems based on human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have shown a promising potential to model neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. These systems, in combination with engineering tools, allow in vitro generation of brain-like tissues that recapitulate complex cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells8030242DOI Listing

Global Evolution of Research in Artificial Intelligence in Health and Medicine: A Bibliometric Study.

J Clin Med 2019 Mar 14;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam.

The increasing application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in health and medicine has attracted a great deal of research interest in recent decades. This study aims to provide a global and historical picture of research concerning AI in health and medicine. A total of 27,451 papers that were published between 1977 and 2018 (84. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8030360DOI Listing

Brain IGFBP-5 modifies the relation of depressive symptoms to decline in cognition in older persons.

J Affect Disord 2019 Mar 8;250:313-318. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Brain proteins, including Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5 (IGFBP-5), have been associated with cognitive dysfunction in aging. Mechanisms linking depression with cognition are poorly understood. We hypothesize that the association of depressive symptoms with cognition is mediated or modified by brain proteins. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01650327183240
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.03.051DOI Listing
March 2019
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Modeling caspase-1 inhibition: Implications for catalytic mechanism and drug design.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Feb 27;169:159-167. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Departamento de Química Física, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, Valencia, 46100, Spain. Electronic address:

The metabolic product of caspase-1, IL-1β, is an important mediator in inflammation and pyroptosis cell death process. Alzheimer's disease, septic shock and rheumatoid arthritis are IL-1β mediated diseases, making the caspase-1 an interesting target of pharmacological value. Many inhibitors have been developed until now, most of them are peptidomimetic with improved potency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.02.064DOI Listing
February 2019

Donepezil's Effects on Brain Functions of Patients With Alzheimer Disease: A Regional Homogeneity Study Based on Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Clin Neuropharmacol 2019 Mar/Apr;42(2):42-48

Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Purpose: Donepezil is known to increase cholinergic synaptic transmission in Alzheimer disease (AD), although how it affects cortical brain activity and how it consequently affects brain functions need further clarification. To investigate the therapeutic mechanism of donepezil underlying its effect on brain function, regional homogeneity (ReHo) technology was used in this study.

Patients And Methods: This study included 11 mild-to-moderate AD patients who completed 24 weeks of donepezil treatment and 11 matched healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNF.0000000000000324DOI Listing

Cellular and Molecular Differences Between Area CA1 and the Dentate Gyrus of the Hippocampus.

Authors:
Karim A Alkadhi

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

A distinct feature of the hippocampus of the brain is its unidirectional tri-synaptic pathway originating from the entorhinal cortex and projecting to the dentate gyrus (DG) then to area CA3 and subsequently, area CA1 of the Ammon's horn. Each of these areas of the hippocampus has its own cellular structure and distinctive function. The principal neurons in these areas are granule cells in the DG and pyramidal cells in the Ammon's horn's CA1 and CA3 areas with a vast network of interneurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1541-2DOI Listing

Activation of microglia and astrocytes: a roadway to neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease.

Inflammopharmacology 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, Bathinda, Punjab, 151001, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is of high importance to the neuroscience world, yet the complex pathogenicity is not fully understood. Inflammation is usually observed in AD and could implicate both beneficial or detrimental effects depending on the severity of the disease. During initial AD pathology, microglia and astrocyte activation is beneficial since they are involved in amyloid-beta clearance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-019-00580-xDOI Listing

Loss of DPP6 in neurodegenerative dementia: a genetic player in the dysfunction of neuronal excitability.

Acta Neuropathol 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Center for Molecular Neurology, VIB, Antwerp, Belgium.

Emerging evidence suggested a converging mechanism in neurodegenerative brain diseases (NBD) involving early neuronal network dysfunctions and alterations in the homeostasis of neuronal firing as culprits of neurodegeneration. In this study, we used paired-end short-read and direct long-read whole genome sequencing to investigate an unresolved autosomal dominant dementia family significantly linked to 7q36. We identified and validated a chromosomal inversion of ca. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-019-01976-3DOI Listing

To be or not to be: PP2A as a dual player in CNS functions, its role in neurodegeneration, and its interaction with brain insulin signaling.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Accumulating evidence has reached the consensus that the balance of phosphorylation state of signaling molecules is a pivotal point in the regulation of cell signaling. Therefore, characterizing elements (kinases-phosphatases) in the phosphorylation balance are at great importance. However, the role of phosphatase enzymes is less investigated than kinase enzymes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-019-03063-yDOI Listing

A multimodal training modulates short-afferent inhibition and improves complex walking in a cohort of faller older adults with an increased prevalence of Parkinson's disease.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, IRCSS, Genova, Italy.

Background: Falls are frequent in Parkinson's disease and ageing. Impairments in the cholinergic-mediated attentional supervision of gait may contribute to increased fall risk, especially when obstacles challenge gait. Interventions combining motor-cognitive approaches have been shown to improve motor performance, cognitive skills and falls number. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glz072DOI Listing