163,052 results match your criteria Alzheimer's & Dementia[Journal]


Disruption of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells is an early sign of pathology in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 Jun 7;94:130-139. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK. Electronic address:

There is increasing evidence that myelin disruption is related to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the CNS, myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes, which are generated throughout life by adult oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), also known as NG2-glia. To address whether alterations in myelination are related to age-dependent changes in OPCs, we analyzed NG2 and myelin basic protein (MBP) immunolabelling in the hippocampus of 3×Tg-AD mice at 6 and 24 months of age, compared with non-Tg age-matched controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.05.016DOI Listing

Early-stage dysfunction of hippocampal theta and gamma oscillations and its modulation of neural network in a transgenic 5xFAD mouse model.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 May 12;94:121-129. Epub 2020 May 12.

College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin, PR China. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, which induces Aβ-dependent neuronal dysfunctions. We focused on the early-stage disease progression and examined the neuronal network functioning in the 5xFAD mice. The simultaneous intracranial recordings were obtained from the hippocampal perforant path (PP) and the dentate gyrus (DG). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.05.002DOI Listing

Computational systematic selectivity of the Fasalog inhibitors between ROCK-I and ROCK-II kinase isoforms in Alzheimer's disease.

Comput Biol Chem 2020 Jun 22;87:107314. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Neurology, Daqing Oil Field General Hospital, Daqing, 163001, China. Electronic address:

Human Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase (ROCK) is a class of essential neurokinases that consists of two structurally conserved isoforms ROCK-I and ROCK-II; they have been revealed to play distinct roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurological disorders. Selective targeting of the two kinase isoforms with small-molecule inhibitors is a great challenge due to the surprisingly high homology in kinase domain (92 %) and the full identity in kinase active site (100 %). Here, we describe a computational protocol to systematically profile the selectivity of Fasudil and its 25 analogs (termed as Fasalogs) between the two kinase isoforms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2020.107314DOI Listing

Frontotemporal dementia: Plasma metabolomic signature using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020 Jun 16;189:113424. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive impairment in behavior, executive function, and language. The behavioral variant (bvFTD) is the most clinical common form and requires differential diagnosis with atypical Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases. This study aimed to investigate the plasma metabolite profile of patients with bvFTD compared to AD patients and cognitively healthy individuals using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113424DOI Listing

Elevation of Ace2 as a SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor gene expression in Alzheimer's disease.

J Infect 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Neurodegenerative Disease Research Group, Korea Brain Research Institute, Daegu 41062, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.06.072DOI Listing

Long-term oral melatonin alleviates memory deficits, reduces amyloid-β deposition associated with downregulation of BACE1 and mitophagy in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

Neurosci Lett 2020 Jun 30:135192. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Neurology, Zibo Central Hospital, Shandong University, Zibo 255036, China. Electronic address:

Melatonin is a tryptophan metabolite synthesized by the pineal gland. Recent research showed that melatonin has a protective effect in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its exact mechanism is still unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135192DOI Listing

Allocentric coordinate spatial representations are impaired in aMCI and Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

Behav Brain Res 2020 Jun 30:112793. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Laboratory of Cognitive Science and Immersive Virtual Reality, CS-IVR, Department of Psychology, University of Campania L. Vanvitelli, Caserta, Italy.

Research has reported deficits in egocentric (subject-to-object) and mainly allocentric (object-to-object) spatial representations in the early stages of the Alzheimer's disease (eAD). To identify early cognitive signs of neurodegenerative conversion, several studies have shown alterations in both reference frames, especially the allocentric ones in amnestic-Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and eAD patients. However, egocentric and allocentric spatial frames of reference are intrinsically connected with coordinate (metric/variant) and categorical (non-metric/invariant) spatial relations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112793DOI Listing

TRPM4 inhibition improves spatial memory impairment and hippocampal long-term potentiation deficit in chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats.

Behav Brain Res 2020 Jun 30:112781. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) been well characterized as a common pathological status contributing to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. CCH is an important factor that leads to cognitive impairment, but the underlying neurobiological mechanism is poorly understood and no effective treatment is available. Recently, transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) cation channel has been identified as an important molecular element in focal cerebral ischemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112781DOI Listing

AMYLOID-BETA (1-42) LESION OF CA1 RAT DORSAL HIPPOCAMPUS REDUCES CONTEXTUAL FEAR MEMORY AND INCREASES EXPRESSION OF MICROGLIAL GENES REGULATING NEUROINFLAMMATION.

Behav Brain Res 2020 Jun 30:112795. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Discipline of Human Physiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban 4000, South Africa.

Emerging evidence indicates that the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not confined to neuronal disruptions but robustly communicates with the brain's immune system. Genome-wide analysis suggests that several genes, which increase the risk for AD, encode for factors that regulate the glial clearance of misfolded proteins and the inflammatory reaction. This study reappraises the amyloid hypothesis by focusing on the impact of neuroinflammation in a beta-amyloid model of AD, how this possibly exacerbates the progression of the disease and the correlation between genes regulating neuroinflammation (CD33 and TREM2) with post-training recall. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112795DOI Listing

ATR-IR and EPR spectroscopy for following the membrane restoration of isolated cortical synaptosomes in aluminium-induced Alzheimer's disease - Like rat model.

Chem Phys Lipids 2020 Jun 30:104931. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Center for Aging and Associated Diseases, Helmy Institute of Medical Sciences, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt; Children's Cancer Hospital 57357, Cair, Egypt. Electronic address:

Synaptosomal membrane peroxidation and alteration in its biophysical properties are associated with Aluminium (Al) toxicity that may lead to cognitive dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease (AD) like pathogenesis. Here we investigated the therapeutic potential of Lepedium sativum (LS) as a natural anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and as acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor in treating Al induced AD-like in rat model. We utilized ATR-IR spectroscopy to follow the restoration in the damaged membrane structure of isolated rat cortical synaptosomes and its biophysical properties, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping to follow NADPH oxidase activity (NOX), and EPR spin labelling in response to LS treatment after Al intoxication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2020.104931DOI Listing

Neuropsychological tests are useful for predicting comorbidities of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus.

Acta Neurol Scand 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center, Shinsuna Koto-ku, Tokyo, 136-0075, Japan.

Objectives: Comorbidities of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's spectrum (PS) disorder, can affect the long-term prognosis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting. Therefore, it is important to be able to predict comorbidities in the early stage of the disease. This study aimed to predict the comorbidities of iNPH using neuropsychological tests and cognitive performance evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ane.13306DOI Listing

Screening of Antibiotics against β-amyloid as Anti-amyloidogenic Agents: A Drug Repurposing Approach.

Curr Comput Aided Drug Des 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan, H.P. India.

Background: β-amyloid (Aβ) production and aggregation is the main culprit of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is becoming crisis where no treatment available for halting the disease progression. Antibiotics are used not only to treat infections, but also some of the non-contagious diseases and have found active as anti-amyloidogenic agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573409916666200703171732DOI Listing

Nutraceutical Status and Scientific Strategies for Enhancing Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids from Microalgae and Their Role in Healthcare.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura-281406, Uttar Pradesh. India.

Adherence to Omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) as Nutraceuticals for medicinal applications provides health improvement. The prevention and treatment of diseases with O3FAs hold promise clinical therapy and significantly reduces risk of chronic disorders. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) O3FAs has beneficial effects in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, diabetic disease, foetal development, Alzheimer's disease, retinal problem, growth and brain development of infants and antitumor effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201021666200703201014DOI Listing

Genome-wide Association Studies of Brain Imaging Data via Weighted Distance Correlation.

Bioinformatics 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Statistical Science, School of Mathematics, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Motivation: Imaging genetics is mainly used to reveal the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric risk genes and understand the relationship between human brain structure, functional and individual differences. Increasingly, the brain-wide imaging phenotypes in voxels are available to test the association with genetic markers. A challenge with analyzing such data is their high dimensionality and complex relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa612DOI Listing

Linking the association between circRNAs and Alzheimer's disease progression by multi-tissue circular RNA characterization.

RNA Biol 2020 Jul 3:1-9. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University , Aarhus, Denmark.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has devastating consequences for patients during its slow, progressive course. It is important to understand the pathology of AD onset. Recently, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been found to participate in many human diseases including cancers and neurodegenerative conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2020.1783487DOI Listing

Brexpiprazole in the treatment of schizophrenia and agitation in Alzheimer's disease.

Neurodegener Dis Manag 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Pharmacy, Monmouth Medical Center, 300 Second Avenue, Long Branch, NJ 07740, USA.

Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric disorder marked by progressive loss of functionality in activities of daily living with each relapse. Antipsychotics, the mainstay of therapy for schizophrenia, treat hallucinations and delusions but may have intolerable side effects, including metabolic disturbances and extrapyramidal symptoms. Brexpiprazole, a second-generation antipsychotic with dopamine partial agonist properties, was approved by the US FDA in 2015 for the treatment of schizophrenia and adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorder and by the EU in 2018 for adults with schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nmt-2020-0013DOI Listing

Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of exosomes in Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurochem 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Neurosciences and Signalling Group, Institute of Biomedicine (iBiMED), Department of Medical Sciences, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles released by almost all cell types in physiological and pathological conditions. The exosomal potential to unravel disease mechanisms, or to be used as a source of biomarkers, is being explored, in particularly in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in the world and exosomes appear to have a relevant role in disease pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.15112DOI Listing

Hollow core photonic crystal fiber-assisted Raman spectroscopy as a tool for the detection of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers.

J Biomed Opt 2020 Jul;25(7):1-10

Tel Aviv Univ., Israel.

Significance: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible and progressive disorder that damages brain cells and impairs the cognitive abilities of the affected. Developing a sensitive and cost-effective method to detect Alzheimer's biomarkers appears vital in both a diagnostic and therapeutic perspective.

Aim: Our goal is to develop a sensitive and reliable tool for detection of amyloid β (1-42) peptide (Aβ42), a major AD biomarker, using fiber-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (FERS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.25.7.077001DOI Listing

Cognitive function has a stronger correlation with perceived age than with chronological age.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: The perceived age of older adults, as measured by their facial appearance, has been shown to be a robust biomarker of aging predictive of survival, telomere length and DNA methylation, and reportedly correlates with carotid atherosclerosis and bone status. This study aimed to determine whether metrics of dementia, including general cognition, vitality, depressive state and self-supportability, have stronger correlations with perceived age than with chronological age.

Methods: This study included 124 patients who were admitted to the Department of Geriatric Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, on account of being suspected of cognitive decline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.13972DOI Listing

Intra-gastrointestinal amyloid-β1-42 oligomers perturb enteric function and induce Alzheimer's disease pathology.

J Physiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Biomedical Sciences.

Key Points: Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and transgenic mice have beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is possible that Aβ from the periphery contributes to the load of Aβ in the brain, as Aβ has prion-like properties. The present investigations demonstrate that Aβ injected into the GI tract of ICR mice is internalised into enteric cholinergic neurons; at 1 month, administration of Aβ into the body of the stomach and the proximal colon was observed to partly redistribute to the fundus and jejunum; at 1 year, vagal and cerebral β-amyloidosis was present, and mice exhibited GI dysfunction and cognitive deficits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP279919DOI Listing

Cancer and Alzheimer's disease: intracellular pH scales the metabolic disorders.

Biogerontology 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Research Laboratory in Applied Metabolic Engineering, Department of Chemical, Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer have much in common than previously recognized. These pathologies share common risk factors (inflammation and aging), with similar epidemiological and biochemical features such as impaired mitochondria. Metabolic reprogramming occurs during aging and inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10522-020-09888-6DOI Listing

Associations of truncal body composition with cognitive status in patients with dementia.

Neurol Sci 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Neurology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, 120-1 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05030, South Korea.

Backgound: Central obesity in midlife is a risk factor of cognitive decline and dementia, and also one of the factors that make cognitive functions deteriorate rapidly.

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between truncal body composition (fat and muscle) and cognitive impairment in patients with dementia.

Methods: A total of 81 female over 60 years of age with probable Alzheimer's disease were recruited between November 2014 and September 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04503-5DOI Listing

Increased Prevalence in Alzheimer Disease in the Northeast Tennessee Region of the United States.

South Med J 2020 Jul;113(7):351-355

From the Departments of Health Services Management and Policy and Community and Behavioral Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, and Adventist Health System, Roseville, California.

Objectives: This study describes the changes in prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for Alzheimer disease (AD) in the northeast Tennessee region (NTR) during a 3-year period, describes the statistical assessment process, and critically assesses the database from which the statistical association was derived. The article also examines several beliefs pertinent to the clinical management of AD in the NTR from the perspective of professionals delivering services.

Methods: We extracted prevalence data for NTR counties for 2013, 2014, and 2015 from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Geographic Variation Public Use File. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14423/SMJ.0000000000001116DOI Listing

Alzheimer's Disease is Driven by Intraneuronally Retained Beta-Amyloid Produced in the AD-Specific, βAPP-Independent Pathway: Current Perspective and Experimental Models for Tomorrow.

Ann Integr Mol Med 2020 ;2(1):90-114

Division of Molecular Medicine, Children's Hospital, Boston, USA.

A view of the origin and progression of Alzheimer's disease, AD, prevailing until now and formalized as the Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis theory, maintains that the disease is initiated by overproduction of beta-amyloid, Aβ, which is generated solely by the Aβ precursor protein, βAPP, proteolytic pathway and secreted from the cell. Consequent extracellular accumulation of Aβ triggers a cascade of molecular and cellular events leading to neurodegeneration that starts early in life, progresses as one prolonged process, builds up for decades, and culminates in symptomatic manifestations of the disease late in life. In this paradigm, a time window for commencement of therapeutic intervention is small and accessible only early in life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.33597/aimm.02-1007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331974PMC
January 2020

An automated clinical mass spectrometric method for identification and quantification of variant and wild-type amyloid-β 1-40 and 1-42 peptides in CSF.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2020 30;12(1):e12036. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Providence Health Care Vancouver British Columbia Canada.

Introduction: We developed an automated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for multiplex quantification of wild-type (wt) amyloid β (Aβ) peptides 1-40 (Aβ40) and 1-42 (Aβ42) and detection of variant Aβ peptides in cerebrospinal fluid.

Methods: The multiplex Aβ HPLC-MS/MS assay was validated in a clinically accredited laboratory following regulatory guidelines, with Aβ42 calibration assigned to the ERM/IFCC certified reference material; sequence variants were additionally multiplexed into the method.

Results: Sample preparation was fully automated on a liquid handler. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327131PMC

Relationship between family caregiver quality of life and the care provided to people living with dementia: protocol for a mixed methods study.

AIMS Public Health 2020 11;7(2):301-305. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Healthcare Studies, the College at Brockport, State University of New York, 350 New Campus Drive, Brockport, New York 14420, USA.

Objective: Family caregivers of people with dementia perform duties that are important for maintaining their loved one's overall well-being. However, it is not yet clear how these caregivers' quality-of-life affects their ability to meet the care demands of their loved ones. The purpose of this study is to utilize a mixed methods approach in investigating how family caregiver quality-of-life affects the care provided to people with dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/publichealth.2020025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327395PMC

Reversal of -Amyloid-Induced Microglial Toxicity by Activation of Fpr2/3.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 13;2020:2139192. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Institute of Dentistry, Barts and the London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, Blizard Institute, 4, Newark Street, London E1 2AT, UK.

Microglial inflammatory activity is thought to be a major contributor to the pathology of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), and strategies to restrain their behaviour are under active investigation. Classically, anti-inflammatory approaches are aimed at suppressing proinflammatory mediator production, but exploitation of inflammatory resolution, the endogenous process whereby an inflammatory reaction is terminated, has not been fully investigated as a therapeutic approach in AD. In this study, we sought to provide proof-of-principle that the major proresolving actor, formyl peptide receptor 2, Fpr2, could be targeted to reverse microglial activation induced by the AD-associated proinflammatory stimulus, oligomeric -amyloid (oA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2139192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7313167PMC

Adaptogenic effects of on modulation of cardiovascular functions.

J Ginseng Res 2020 Jul 28;44(4):538-543. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology and Cell Signaling, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Cardiovascular diseases are a rapidly growing epidemic with high morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need to develop nutraceutical-based therapy with minimum side effects to reduce cardiovascular risk. occupies a prominent status in herbal medicine for its various therapeutic effects against inflammation, allergy, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and even cancer, with positive, beneficial, and restorative effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2020.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322748PMC

A pilot study of brain morphometry following donepezil treatment in mild cognitive impairment: volume changes of cortical/subcortical regions and hippocampal subfields.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10912. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, 42 Jebong-Ro, Donggu, Gwangju, 61469, Republic of Korea.

The efficacy of donepezil is well known for improving the cognitive performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of the recent neuroimaging studies focusing on the brain morphometry have dealt with the targeted brain structures, and thus it remains unknown how donepezil treatment influences the volume change over the whole brain areas including the cortical and subcortical regions and hippocampal subfields in particular. This study aimed to evaluate overall gray matter (GM) volume changes after donepezil treatment in MCI, which is a prodromal phase of AD, using voxel-based morphometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67873-yDOI Listing

[F]THK5317 imaging as a tool for predicting prospective cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Nordberg Translational Molecular Imaging Lab, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Cross-sectional studies have indicated potential for positron emission tomography (PET) in imaging tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, its prognostic utility remains unproven. In a longitudinal, multi-modal, prognostic study of cognitive decline, 20 patients with a clinical biomarker-based diagnosis in the AD spectrum (mild cognitive impairment or dementia and a positive amyloid-beta PET scan) were recruited from the Cognitive Clinic at Karolinska University Hospital. The participants underwent baseline neuropsychological assessment, PET imaging with [F]THK5317, [C]PIB and [F]FDG, magnetic resonance imaging, and in a subgroup cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling, with clinical follow-up after a median 48 months (interquartile range = 32:56). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0815-4DOI Listing

Plasma BDNF is a more reliable biomarker than erythrocyte omega-3 index for the omega-3 fatty acid enrichment of brain.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10809. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.

Enriching brain DHA is believed to be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of several neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. An impediment in assessing the effectiveness of the treatments is the lack of a reliable biomarker for brain DHA. The commonly used erythrocyte omega-3 index is not suitable for brain because of the involvement of unique transporter at the blood brain barrier (BBB). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67868-9DOI Listing

Garcinoic acid prevents β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the mouse brain.

J Biol Chem 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, Italy.

Garcinoic acid (GA or δ-T3-13'COOH), is a natural vitamin E metabolite that has preliminarily been identified as a modulator of nuclear receptors involved in β-amyloid (Aβ) metabolism and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated GA's effects on Aβ oligomer formation and deposition. Specifically, we compared them with those of other vitamin E analogs and the soy isoflavone genistein, a natural agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) that has therapeutic potential for managing AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.013303DOI Listing

The substrate repertoire of γ-secretase/presenilin.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Munich, Germany; Neuroproteomics, School of Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, 81675, Munich, Germany; Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

The intramembrane protease γ-secretase is a hetero-tetrameric protein complex with presenilin as the catalytic subunit and cleaves its membrane protein substrates within their single transmembrane domains. γ-Secretase is well known for its role in Notch signalling and in Alzheimer's disease, where it catalyzes the formation of the pathogenic amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. However, in the 21 years since its discovery many more substrates and substrate candidates of γ-secretase were identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.05.019DOI Listing

May neuropsychiatric symptoms be a potential intervention target to delay functional impairment in Alzheimer's disease?

Int Psychogeriatr 2020 Jun;32(6):689-691

Department of Psychiatry, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, School of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610219002254DOI Listing

Wandering along the epigenetic timeline.

Clin Epigenetics 2020 Jul 2;12(1):97. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

EpiCBio, Epigenetic Chemical Biology, Department Structural Biology and Chemistry, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR n°3523, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75015, Paris, France.

Background: Increasing life expectancy but also healthspan seems inaccessible as of yet but it may become a reality in the foreseeable future. To extend lifespan, it is essential to unveil molecular mechanisms involved in ageing. As for healthspan, a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in age-related pathologies is crucial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-020-00893-7DOI Listing

Regional hyperperfusion in older adults with objectively-defined subtle cognitive decline.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2020 Jul 2:271678X20935171. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Research Service, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA.

Although cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), CBF patterns across prodromal stages of AD remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated patterns of regional CBF in 162 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants characterized as cognitively unimpaired (CU;  = 80), objectively-defined subtle cognitive decline (Obj-SCD;  = 31), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI;  = 51). Arterial spin labeling MRI quantified regional CBF in a priori regions of interest: hippocampus, inferior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and rostral middle frontal gyrus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X20935171DOI Listing

Association of Saitohin gene rs62063857 polymorphism with dry type age-related macular degeneration.

Ophthalmic Genet 2020 Jul 2:1-2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran,Iran.

Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as the leading cause of central visual loss in the developed countries has extensive pathologic similarities with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Saitohin rs62063857 Q7 R polymorphism is associated with increased risk of AD though we decided to evaluate the possible association of this polymorphism with advanced AMD.

Materials And Methods: 152 advanced AMD patients (134 wet AMD and 18 geographic atrophy) and 75 healthy controls included in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13816810.2020.1786842DOI Listing

Impact of multiple sclerosis risk loci in postinfectious neurological syndromes.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Jun 24;44:102326. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Nazionale IRCCS Mondino, via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Background: The genetic component of multiple sclerosis (MS) is now set to 200 autosomal common variants. However, it is unclear how genetic knowledge be clinically used in the differential diagnosis between MS and other inflammatory conditions like adult-onset postinfectious neurological syndromes (PINS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PINS and MS have a shared genetic background using an updated polygenic risk scores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102326DOI Listing

Increased GABAergic Development in iPSC-Derived Neurons from Patients with Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

Neurosci Lett 2020 Jun 29:135208. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Neurology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 1800 Yuntai Road, Shanghai, 200123, China. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of this neurodegenerative disorder are still unclear. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons play an essential role in the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance in the brain, and the GABAergic system may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. We used human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from sporadic AD (SAD) patients to analyze the phenotype and transcriptional profiles of SAD iPSC-derived neural cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135208DOI Listing

Neural Oscillations and Brain Stimulation in Alzheimer's Disease.

Prog Neurobiol 2020 Jun 29:101878. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Neuroscience, Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, T1K 3M4, Canada. Electronic address:

Aging is associated with alterations in cognitive processing and brain neurophysiology. Whereas the primary symptom of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is memory problems greater than normal for age and education, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show impairments in other cognitive domains in addition to memory dysfunction. Resting-state electroencephalography (rsEEG) studies in physiological aging indicate a global increase in low-frequency oscillations' power and the reduction and slowing of alpha activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2020.101878DOI Listing

Quantitative proteomic analysis of the frontal cortex in Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurochem 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular deposition of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) in the extracellular matrix. The pathogenesis of AD has not yet been fully elucidated and little is known about global alterations in the brain proteome that are related to AD. To identify and quantify such AD-related changes in the brain, we employed a tandem mass tags (TMT) approach coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.15116DOI Listing

Increased glutaminyl cyclase activity in brain of Alzheimer's disease individuals.

J Neurochem 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

Glutaminyl cyclases (QC) catalyze the formation of neurotoxic pGlu-modified amyloid-β peptides found in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reports of several-fold increases in soluble QC (sQC) expression in the brain and peripheral circulation of AD individuals has prompted the development of QC inhibitors as potential AD therapeutics. There is however a lack of standardized quantitative data on QC expression in human tissues, precluding inter-laboratory comparison and validation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.15114DOI Listing

The Relationship between Inter-muscular Fat and Physical Performance Is Moderated by Muscle Area in Older Adults.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: Age-related deposition of fat in skeletal muscle is associated with functional limitations. Skeletal muscle fat may be present in people with preserved muscle mass or accompanied by muscle wasting. However, it is not clear if the association between muscle fat deposition and physical performance is moderated by muscle mass. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glaa161DOI Listing

Self-awareness for financial decision-making abilities in healthy adults.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0235558. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Cognitive Neuroscience Division of the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America.

Objective: Decades of research have established how to measure metacognition (i.e., awareness of one's cognitive abilities), whereas relatively little is known about how to assess the integrity of financial awareness (FA; awareness of one's financial abilities), a related construct with practical implications for vulnerable older adults. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235558PLOS

Poor oral health conditions and cognitive decline: Studies in humans and rats.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0234659. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: The relationship between poor oral health conditions and cognitive decline is unclear.

Objective: To examine the association between oral health and cognition in humans and rats.

Methods: In humans: a cross-sectional study was conducted. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234659PLOS

Resolution-Associated Molecular Patterns (RAMPs) as Endogenous Regulators of Glia Functions in Neuroinflammatory Disease.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1V 1V7. Canada.

Glial cells, including microglia and astrocytes, facilitate the survival and health of all cells within the central nervous system (CNS) by secreting a range of growth factors and contributing to tissue and synaptic remodeling. Microglia and astrocytes can also secrete cytotoxins in response to specific stimuli, such as exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), or endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Excessive cytotoxic secretions can induce the death of neurons and contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871527319666200702143719DOI Listing

Steady-State Cerebral Autoregulation in Older Adults with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Linear Mixed Model Analysis.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, United States.

We examined whether steady-state cerebral autoregulation (CA) is impaired in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a prodromal stage of clinical Alzheimer disease (AD). Forty-two patients with aMCI and 27 cognitively normal older adults (NC) of similar age, sex, and education underwent stepwise decreases and increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, respectively. Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured in the internal carotid and vertebral artery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00193.2020DOI Listing

The role of GLP-1/GIP receptor agonists in Alzheimer's disease.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2020 Jun;29(6):661-668

Department of Geriatrics, Second Affiliated Hospital of the Harbin Medical University, China.

Background: New glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues developed in recent years have a long half-life and offer further prospects for clinical application. At present, the neuroprotection of GLP-1 analogues in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has just begun to be explored.

Objectives: To investigate how glucagon-like peptide-1 (liraglutide) plays a protective role in AD by regulating tau activation and BACE1 expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/121007DOI Listing

Using machine learning to quantify structural MRI neurodegeneration patterns of Alzheimer's disease into dementia score: Independent validation on 8,834 images from ADNI, AIBL, OASIS, and MIRIAD databases.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Jul 2:e25115. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Barnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Biomarkers for dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) are sought to facilitate accurate prediction of the disease onset, ideally predating the onset of cognitive deterioration. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a commonly used neuroimaging modality for measuring brain structure in vivo, potentially providing information enabling the design of biomarkers for DAT. We propose a novel biomarker using structural MRI volume-based features to compute a similarity score for the individual's structural patterns relative to those observed in the DAT group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25115DOI Listing