46 results match your criteria Altitude Illness - Pulmonary Syndromes


High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema in Ohio at an Elevation of 339 Meters.

Open Access Emerg Med 2021 31;13:151-153. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Mercy Health St. Elizabeth Boardman Hospital, Youngstown, OH, USA.

Background: HAPE (High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema) is a life-threatening form of high-altitude illness caused by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. It has been most commonly reported in individuals who live at lower elevations and travel to elevations above 2500 m, typically in those who do so without any acclimatization. It can also occur in residents of high altitudes who descend to lower altitudes and then return to their native altitude without acclimatization. Read More

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A comprehensive review of histopathological findings of infections induced by COVID-19.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2020 Oct 31;66(7):143-151. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus (CoV2) virus, first identified in Wuhan, China, caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which soon became a global pandemic, as labelled by the World Health Organization (WHO). The transmission method of the infection is primarily through droplets of various sizes. The SARS-CoV2 virus leads to a severe respiratory illness which in the first place causes the simulation of the acute respiratory syndrome. Read More

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October 2020

COVID-19 Lung Injury and High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema. A False Equation with Dangerous Implications.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2020 08;17(8):918-921

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; and.

Amid efforts to care for the large number of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19), there has been considerable speculation about whether the lung injury seen in these patients is different than acute respiratory distress syndrome from other causes. One idea that has garnered considerable attention, particularly on social media and in free open-access medicine, is the notion that lung injury due to COVID-19 is more similar to high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Drawing on this concept, it has also been proposed that treatments typically employed in the management of HAPE and other forms of acute altitude illness-pulmonary vasodilators and acetazolamide-should be considered for COVID-19. Read More

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Health risk of travel for chronic kidney disease patients.

J Res Med Sci 2020 18;25:22. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Hypertension and Nephrology, NTT Medical Centre Tokyo, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

The number of people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased and so has their demand for travel. However, the health risk posed by travel in these patients is unclear. Few reports document the travel risk in CKD and dialysis patients. Read More

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Acetazolamide, Nifedipine and Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Rationale for Their Utilization as Adjunctive Countermeasures in the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Cureus 2020 Mar 20;12(3):e7343. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Internal Medicine, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, USA.

Effective treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak are urgently needed. While anti-viral approaches and vaccines are being considered immediate countermeasures are unavailable. The aim of this article is to outline a perspective on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in the context of the currently available clinical data published in the literature. Read More

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High-altitude illness: Management approach.

Turk J Emerg Med 2019 Oct 19;19(4):121-126. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Emergency Department, King's College Hospital, London, UK.

In high altitudes, usually above 2500 m, travelers are faced with decreased partial pressure of oxygen along with decreased barometric pressure. High-altitude illness, a syndrome of acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral edema and high-altitude pulmonary edema, occurs due to the hypobaric hypoxia when there is inadequate acclimatization. This review provides detailed information about pathophysiology, clinical features, prevention and treatment strategies for high-altitude illness according to the current literature. Read More

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October 2019

Interventions for preventing high altitude illness: Part 3. Miscellaneous and non-pharmacological interventions.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 04 23;4:CD013315. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Critical Care, Fundacion Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Hospital de San José, Carrera 19 # 8-32, Bogota, Bogota, Colombia, 11001.

Background: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of mainly cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (˜ 8200 feet). Acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE), and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude ascent. In this, the third of a series of three reviews about preventive strategies for HAI, we assessed the effectiveness of miscellaneous and non-pharmacological interventions. Read More

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Interventions for treating acute high altitude illness.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 06 30;6:CD009567. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Cochrane Ecuador. Centro de Investigación en Salud Pública y Epidemiología Clínica (CISPEC). Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud Eugenio Espejo, Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial, Quito, Ecuador.

Background: Acute high altitude illness is defined as a group of cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to high altitudes. It is more common above 2500 metres, but can be seen at lower elevations, especially in susceptible people. Acute high altitude illness includes a wide spectrum of syndromes defined under the terms 'acute mountain sickness' (AMS), 'high altitude cerebral oedema' and 'high altitude pulmonary oedema'. Read More

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Interventions for preventing high altitude illness: Part 2. Less commonly-used drugs.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 03 12;3:CD012983. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Methodology Research Unit, National Institute of Pediatrics, Insurgentes Sur 3700 - C, Col. Insurgentes Cuicuilco, Coyoacan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico, 04530.

Background: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of mainly cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (˜ 8200 feet). Acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude ascent. In this second review, in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assessed the effectiveness of five of the less commonly used classes of pharmacological interventions. Read More

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The Effect of Dietary Nitrate on Nocturnal Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Arterial Oxygen Desaturation at High Altitude.

High Alt Med Biol 2018 03 6;19(1):21-27. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

1 Environmental Physiology Group, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University , Östersund, Sweden .

Patrician, Alexander, Harald Engan, David Lundsten, Ludger Grote, Helena Vigetun-Haughey, and Erika Schagatay. The effect of dietary nitrate on nocturnal sleep-disordered breathing and arterial oxygen desaturation at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 19:21-27, 2018. Read More

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Interventions for preventing high altitude illness: Part 1. Commonly-used classes of drugs.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 06 27;6:CD009761. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Hospital de San José, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Colombia.

Background: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (8202 feet). Acute hypoxia, acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude. In this review, the first in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assess the effectiveness of six of the most recommended classes of pharmacological interventions. Read More

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Cross-Sectional Comparison of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Native Peruvian Highlanders and Lowlanders.

High Alt Med Biol 2017 Mar;18(1):11-19

1 Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore, Maryland.

Pham, Luu V., Christopher Meinzen, Rafael S. Arias, Noah G. Read More

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Acute high-altitude sickness.

Eur Respir Rev 2017 Jan 31;26(143). Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Dept of Internal Medicine, University Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

At any point 1-5 days following ascent to altitudes ≥2500 m, individuals are at risk of developing one of three forms of acute altitude illness: acute mountain sickness, a syndrome of nonspecific symptoms including headache, lassitude, dizziness and nausea; high-altitude cerebral oedema, a potentially fatal illness characterised by ataxia, decreased consciousness and characteristic changes on magnetic resonance imaging; and high-altitude pulmonary oedema, a noncardiogenic form of pulmonary oedema resulting from excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be fatal if not recognised and treated promptly. This review provides detailed information about each of these important clinical entities. After reviewing the clinical features, epidemiology and current understanding of the pathophysiology of each disorder, we describe the current pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of these diseases. Read More

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January 2017

Effects of Acute, Profound Hypoxia on Healthy Humans: Implications for Safety of Tests Evaluating Pulse Oximetry or Tissue Oximetry Performance.

Anesth Analg 2017 01;124(1):146-153

From the *Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California, †Clinimark Labs, Louisville, Colorado, and ‡Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

Extended periods of oxygen deprivation can produce acidosis, inflammation, energy failure, cell stress, or cell death. However, brief profound hypoxia (here defined as SaO2 50%-70% for approximately 10 minutes) is not associated with cardiovascular compromise and is tolerated by healthy humans without apparent ill effects. In contrast, chronic hypoxia induces a suite of adaptations and stresses that can result in either increased tolerance of hypoxia or disease, as in adaptation to altitude or in the syndrome of chronic mountain sickness. Read More

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January 2017

Athletes at High Altitude.

Sports Health 2016 Mar-Apr;8(2):126-32

Context: Athletes at different skill levels perform strenuous physical activity at high altitude for a variety of reasons. Multiple team and endurance events are held at high altitude and may place athletes at increased risk for developing acute high altitude illness (AHAI). Training at high altitude has been a routine part of preparation for some of the high level athletes for a long time. Read More

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December 2016

Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Vascular Function in Patients With Chronic Mountain Sickness and Healthy High-Altitude Dwellers.

Chest 2016 Apr 12;149(4):991-8. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Department of Cardiology and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is often associated with vascular dysfunction, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) frequently occurs at high altitude. At low altitude, SDB causes vascular dysfunction. Read More

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Patent foramen ovale: Unanswered questions.

Eur J Intern Med 2015 Dec 17;26(10):743-51. Epub 2015 Oct 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, New York, NY, United States.

The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20-25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea-orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary edema. A unifying hypothesis is that a chemical or particulate matter from the venous circulation crosses the PFO conduit between the right and left atria to produce a variety of clinical syndromes. Read More

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December 2015

Patent foramen ovale (PFO): is there life before death in the presence of PFO?

Authors:
Christian Seiler

Eur J Clin Invest 2015 Aug;45(8):875-82

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.

Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an embryologic remnant with incomplete postnatal adhesion of the cardiac atrial septum primum and secundum. After birth, the prevalence of PFO decreases from about 35% at young to approximately 20% at old age. PFO has been associated with numerous conditions such as decompression illness in divers, migraine, high-altitude pulmonary oedema, cerebrovascular and coronary ischaemia, and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Read More

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[High altitude medicine is a concern also for Swedish primary care. Knowledge needed to identify high risk patients and provide appropriate advice].

Authors:
Olivia Kiwanuka

Lakartidningen 2015 May 26;112. Epub 2015 May 26.

Adventure Medicine - Stockholm, Sweden - Stockholm, Sweden.

With the increasing amount of people traveling to high altitude regions, the number of people at risk of acquiring altitude illness increases. Altitude illness entails three syndromes; acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral edema, and high-altitude pulmonary edema. These syndromes are potentially lethal acquired medical conditions that in most cases are preventable. Read More

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Evaluating the Risks of High Altitude Travel in Chronic Liver Disease Patients.

High Alt Med Biol 2015 Jun 6;16(2):80-8. Epub 2015 Apr 6.

1 Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington , Seattle, Washington.

Luks, Andrew M., and Erik R. Swenson. Read More

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Meta-analysis of clinical efficacy of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor on high altitude hypoxia and its complications.

High Alt Med Biol 2014 Apr;15(1):46-51

1 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University , Chongqing, China .

Objective: High altitude illness can be life-threatening if left untreated. Acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary hypertension are two syndromes of high altitude illness. Recent clinical studies showed the beneficial effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors on the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Read More

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Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

PLoS One 2014 22;9(1):e81229. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Apex (Altitude Physiology Expeditions), c/o Dr. J. K. Baillie, Critical Care Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, United Kingdom ; Division of Genetics and Genomics, Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Read More

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December 2014

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and high altitude illnesses.

Authors:
Erik R Swenson

Subcell Biochem 2014 ;75:361-86

VA Puget Sound Health Care System and Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA,

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, particularly acetazolamide, have been used at high altitude for decades to prevent or reduce acute mountain sickness (AMS), a syndrome of symptomatic intolerance to altitude characterized by headache, nausea, fatigue, anorexia and poor sleep. Principally CA inhibitors act to further augment ventilation over and above that stimulated by the hypoxia of high altitude by virtue of renal and endothelial cell CA inhibition which oppose the hypocapnic alkalosis resulting from the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), which acts to limit the full expression of the HVR. The result is even greater arterial oxygenation than that driven by hypoxia alone and greater altitude tolerance. Read More

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Epidemiological and genetic characteristics associated with the severity of acute viral bronchiolitis by respiratory syncytial virus.

J Pediatr (Rio J) 2013 Nov-Dec;89(6):531-43. Epub 2013 Sep 12.

Pediatrics Department, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Objective: to assess the epidemiological and genetic factors associated with severity of acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

Data Source: the key words "bronchiolitis", "risk factor", "genetics" and "respiratory syncytial virus", and all combinations among them were used to perform a search in the PubMed, SciELO, and Lilacs databases, of articles published after the year 2000 that included individuals younger than 2 years of age.

Data Synthesis: a total of 1,259 articles were found, and their respective summaries were read. Read More

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September 2015

Patent foramen ovale and thromboembolic complications.

Curr Pharm Des 2010 ;16(31):3497-502

Cardiology Unit, Department of Medical Pathophysiology, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

The foramen ovale, an atrial septal defect which is essential in the fetal circulation, remains patent through adulthood in approximately 25% of the general population and so it represents the most common persistent abnormality of fetal origin. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) allows interatrial right-to-left blood shunting during those periods of the cardiac cycle in which the right atrial pressure exceeds the left one. An increasing number of pathological manifestations of PFO has been recently identified; among these, paradoxical systemic embolism, refractory hypoxemia in patients with right ventricular myocardium infarction or severe pulmonary disease, orthostatic oxygen desaturation in the rare platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, neurological decompression illness in divers, high altitude pilots and astronauts, and finally, migraine headache with aura. Read More

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Acute mountain sickness: pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2010 May-Jun;52(6):467-84

Warwick Medical School, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, UK.

Barometric pressure falls with increasing altitude and consequently there is a reduction in the partial pressure of oxygen resulting in a hypoxic challenge to any individual ascending to altitude. A spectrum of high altitude illnesses can occur when the hypoxic stress outstrips the subject's ability to acclimatize. Acute altitude-related problems consist of the common syndrome of acute mountain sickness, which is relatively benign and usually self-limiting, and the rarer, more serious syndromes of high-altitude cerebral edema and high-altitude pulmonary edema. Read More

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The athlete and high altitude.

Curr Sports Med Rep 2010 Mar-Apr;9(2):79-85

Tri-Service Military Primary Care Sports Medicine Program, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Expanding athlete participation in high-altitude environments highlights the importance for a sports physician to have a good understanding of the high-altitude illness (HAI) syndromes: acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). All may occur in the setting of acute altitude exposure higher than 2500 m; incidence and severity increases as altitudes or ascent rates increase. Once HAI is recognized, proven therapies should be instituted to alleviate symptoms and avert the possibility of critical illness. Read More

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Modulation of Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Leakage in Rats by Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.).

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011 15;2011:574524. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, DRDO, Ministry of Defence, Timarpur, Delhi 110054, India.

Cerebral and pulmonary syndromes may develop in unacclimatized individuals shortly after ascent to high altitude resulting in high altitude illness, which may occur due to extravasation of fluid from intra to extravascular space in the brain, lungs and peripheral tissues. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of seabuckthorn (SBT) (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaf extract (LE) in curtailing hypoxia-induced transvascular permeability in the lungs by measuring lung water content, leakage of fluorescein dye into the lungs and further confirmation by quantitation of albumin and protein in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Read More

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High-altitude illness in children.

Pediatr Ann 2009 Apr;38(4):218-23

The Children's Hospital, Denver, Colorado, USA.

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[Gastrointestinal dysfunction in acute severe mountain sickness and its relation with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome].

Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2009 Feb;21(2):95-8

Department of High Altitude Disease, High Altitude Medicine College, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between gastrointestinal dysfunction (GD) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in acute severe mountain sickness (ASMS), including high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), by a retrospective study of medical records and prospective study of hospitalized patients.

Methods: In retrospective study, the clinical data of 3 184 inpatients of General Hospital of Tibetan Military Command suffering from ASMS in the past 50 years (from June, 1958 to June, 2007) were collected. Statistical analysis was performed to study the relationship between GD and MODS in these patients. Read More

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February 2009