29 results match your criteria Altitude Illness - Cerebral Syndromes

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Interventions for treating acute high altitude illness.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 06 30;6:CD009567. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Cochrane Ecuador. Centro de Investigación en Salud Pública y Epidemiología Clínica (CISPEC). Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud Eugenio Espejo, Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial, Quito, Ecuador.

Background: Acute high altitude illness is defined as a group of cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to high altitudes. It is more common above 2500 metres, but can be seen at lower elevations, especially in susceptible people. Acute high altitude illness includes a wide spectrum of syndromes defined under the terms 'acute mountain sickness' (AMS), 'high altitude cerebral oedema' and 'high altitude pulmonary oedema'. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD009567.pub2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009567.pub2DOI Listing
June 2018
8 Reads

Interventions for preventing high altitude illness: Part 2. Less commonly-used drugs.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 03 12;3:CD012983. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Methodology Research Unit, National Institute of Pediatrics, Insurgentes Sur 3700 - C, Col. Insurgentes Cuicuilco, Coyoacan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico, 04530.

Background: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of mainly cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (˜ 8200 feet). Acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude ascent. In this second review, in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assessed the effectiveness of five of the less commonly used classes of pharmacological interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012983DOI Listing
March 2018
4 Reads

Interventions for preventing high altitude illness: Part 1. Commonly-used classes of drugs.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 06 27;6:CD009761. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Hospital de San José, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Colombia.

Background: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (8202 feet). Acute hypoxia, acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude. In this review, the first in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assess the effectiveness of six of the most recommended classes of pharmacological interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009761.pub2DOI Listing
June 2017
15 Reads

Acute high-altitude sickness.

Eur Respir Rev 2017 Jan 31;26(143). Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Dept of Internal Medicine, University Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

At any point 1-5 days following ascent to altitudes ≥2500 m, individuals are at risk of developing one of three forms of acute altitude illness: acute mountain sickness, a syndrome of nonspecific symptoms including headache, lassitude, dizziness and nausea; high-altitude cerebral oedema, a potentially fatal illness characterised by ataxia, decreased consciousness and characteristic changes on magnetic resonance imaging; and high-altitude pulmonary oedema, a noncardiogenic form of pulmonary oedema resulting from excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be fatal if not recognised and treated promptly. This review provides detailed information about each of these important clinical entities. After reviewing the clinical features, epidemiology and current understanding of the pathophysiology of each disorder, we describe the current pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of these diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/16000617.0096-2016DOI Listing
January 2017
8 Reads

Effects of Acute, Profound Hypoxia on Healthy Humans: Implications for Safety of Tests Evaluating Pulse Oximetry or Tissue Oximetry Performance.

Anesth Analg 2017 01;124(1):146-153

From the *Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California, †Clinimark Labs, Louisville, Colorado, and ‡Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

Extended periods of oxygen deprivation can produce acidosis, inflammation, energy failure, cell stress, or cell death. However, brief profound hypoxia (here defined as SaO2 50%-70% for approximately 10 minutes) is not associated with cardiovascular compromise and is tolerated by healthy humans without apparent ill effects. In contrast, chronic hypoxia induces a suite of adaptations and stresses that can result in either increased tolerance of hypoxia or disease, as in adaptation to altitude or in the syndrome of chronic mountain sickness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000001421DOI Listing
January 2017
13 Reads

Athletes at High Altitude.

Sports Health 2016 Mar-Apr;8(2):126-32

Context: Athletes at different skill levels perform strenuous physical activity at high altitude for a variety of reasons. Multiple team and endurance events are held at high altitude and may place athletes at increased risk for developing acute high altitude illness (AHAI). Training at high altitude has been a routine part of preparation for some of the high level athletes for a long time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941738116630948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4789936PMC
December 2016
22 Reads
4 Citations

[High altitude medicine is a concern also for Swedish primary care. Knowledge needed to identify high risk patients and provide appropriate advice].

Authors:
Olivia Kiwanuka

Lakartidningen 2015 May 26;112. Epub 2015 May 26.

Adventure Medicine - Stockholm, Sweden - Stockholm, Sweden.

With the increasing amount of people traveling to high altitude regions, the number of people at risk of acquiring altitude illness increases. Altitude illness entails three syndromes; acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral edema, and high-altitude pulmonary edema. These syndromes are potentially lethal acquired medical conditions that in most cases are preventable. Read More

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May 2015
3 Reads

Effect of altitude on brain intracellular pH and inorganic phosphate levels.

Psychiatry Res 2014 Jun 13;222(3):149-56. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

The Brain Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; VISN 19 Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC), Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Normal brain activity is associated with task-related pH changes. Although central nervous system syndromes associated with significant acidosis and alkalosis are well understood, the effects of less dramatic and chronic changes in brain pH are uncertain. One environmental factor known to alter brain pH is the extreme, acute change in altitude encountered by mountaineers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.04.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699298PMC
June 2014
6 Reads

Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

PLoS One 2014 22;9(1):e81229. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Apex (Altitude Physiology Expeditions), c/o Dr. J. K. Baillie, Critical Care Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, United Kingdom ; Division of Genetics and Genomics, Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0081229PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3898916PMC
December 2014
9 Reads
3 Citations
3.230 Impact Factor

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and high altitude illnesses.

Authors:
Erik R Swenson

Subcell Biochem 2014 ;75:361-86

VA Puget Sound Health Care System and Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA,

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, particularly acetazolamide, have been used at high altitude for decades to prevent or reduce acute mountain sickness (AMS), a syndrome of symptomatic intolerance to altitude characterized by headache, nausea, fatigue, anorexia and poor sleep. Principally CA inhibitors act to further augment ventilation over and above that stimulated by the hypoxia of high altitude by virtue of renal and endothelial cell CA inhibition which oppose the hypocapnic alkalosis resulting from the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), which acts to limit the full expression of the HVR. The result is even greater arterial oxygenation than that driven by hypoxia alone and greater altitude tolerance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7359-2_18DOI Listing
May 2014
5 Reads

Mountaineering medical events and trauma on Denali, 1992-2011.

High Alt Med Biol 2012 Dec;13(4):275-80

Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA.

Denali (Mt. McKinley) is the tallest mountain in North America and a popular climbing destination for high altitude mountaineering expeditions. National Park Service (NPS) personnel care for and manage medical incidences and traumatic injuries for mountaineers each year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ham.2012.1027DOI Listing
December 2012
3 Reads

Regulation of electrolyte and fluid metabolism in multi-stage ultra-marathoners.

Horm Metab Res 2012 Nov 25;44(12):919-26. Epub 2012 May 25.

Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

The purposes of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in multi-stage ultra-marathoners and (ii) to gain more insight into fluid and electrolyte regulation during a multi-stage race. Body mass, sodium concentration ([Na⁺]), potassium concentration ([K⁺]), creatinine, urea, specific gravity, and osmolality in urine were measured in 25 male ultra-marathoners in the 'Swiss Jura Marathon' 2008 with 11,000 m gain of altitude over 7 stages covering 350 km, before and after each stage. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, creatinine, urea, [Na⁺], [K⁺], and osmolality were measured in plasma before stage 1 and after stages 1, 3, 5, and 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1312647DOI Listing
November 2012
8 Reads

High-altitude retinopathy and optical coherence tomography findings.

Semin Ophthalmol 2010 Jan-Mar;25(1-2):13-5

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Purpose: To report the case and OCT findings of a case of high altitude retinopathy (HAR).

Methods: Case report and review of literature.

Results: HAR is part of the clinical syndrome of high altitude illness, which includes acute mountain sickness and high altitude cerebral edema. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08820538.2010.481560DOI Listing
July 2010
3 Reads

Acute mountain sickness: pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2010 May-Jun;52(6):467-84

Warwick Medical School, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, UK.

Barometric pressure falls with increasing altitude and consequently there is a reduction in the partial pressure of oxygen resulting in a hypoxic challenge to any individual ascending to altitude. A spectrum of high altitude illnesses can occur when the hypoxic stress outstrips the subject's ability to acclimatize. Acute altitude-related problems consist of the common syndrome of acute mountain sickness, which is relatively benign and usually self-limiting, and the rarer, more serious syndromes of high-altitude cerebral edema and high-altitude pulmonary edema. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00330620100003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2010.02.003DOI Listing
May 2010
7 Reads

The athlete and high altitude.

Curr Sports Med Rep 2010 Mar-Apr;9(2):79-85

Tri-Service Military Primary Care Sports Medicine Program, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Expanding athlete participation in high-altitude environments highlights the importance for a sports physician to have a good understanding of the high-altitude illness (HAI) syndromes: acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). All may occur in the setting of acute altitude exposure higher than 2500 m; incidence and severity increases as altitudes or ascent rates increase. Once HAI is recognized, proven therapies should be instituted to alleviate symptoms and avert the possibility of critical illness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181d404acDOI Listing
June 2010
6 Reads

Modulation of Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Leakage in Rats by Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.).

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011 15;2011:574524. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, DRDO, Ministry of Defence, Timarpur, Delhi 110054, India.

Cerebral and pulmonary syndromes may develop in unacclimatized individuals shortly after ascent to high altitude resulting in high altitude illness, which may occur due to extravasation of fluid from intra to extravascular space in the brain, lungs and peripheral tissues. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of seabuckthorn (SBT) (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaf extract (LE) in curtailing hypoxia-induced transvascular permeability in the lungs by measuring lung water content, leakage of fluorescein dye into the lungs and further confirmation by quantitation of albumin and protein in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136682PMC
August 2012
9 Reads

High-altitude illness in children.

Pediatr Ann 2009 Apr;38(4):218-23

The Children's Hospital, Denver, Colorado, USA.

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April 2009
3 Reads

[Gastrointestinal dysfunction in acute severe mountain sickness and its relation with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome].

Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2009 Feb;21(2):95-8

Department of High Altitude Disease, High Altitude Medicine College, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between gastrointestinal dysfunction (GD) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in acute severe mountain sickness (ASMS), including high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), by a retrospective study of medical records and prospective study of hospitalized patients.

Methods: In retrospective study, the clinical data of 3 184 inpatients of General Hospital of Tibetan Military Command suffering from ASMS in the past 50 years (from June, 1958 to June, 2007) were collected. Statistical analysis was performed to study the relationship between GD and MODS in these patients. Read More

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February 2009
5 Reads

Pregabalin-withdrawal encephalopathy and splenial edema: a link to high-altitude illness?

Ann Neurol 2005 Aug;58(2):309-12

Nerve Injury Unit, Department of Anesthesiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

A postherpetic-neuralgia patient abruptly discontinued pregabalin. Thirty hours later, unexplained nausea, headache, and ataxia developed, progressing to delirium 8 days later. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated T2-hyperintense lesions of her splenium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.20583DOI Listing
August 2005
3 Reads

[Criteria suitable for diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome/multiple organ dysfunction syndrome at moderately high altitude area].

Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2005 Apr;17(4):217-22

Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Command, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu, China.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic parameters of acute respiratory distress syndrome/multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (ARDS/MODS) at high altitude (H-ARDS/MODS) with that on plain, and to establish a more practical diagnostic criterion of H-ARDS/MODS.

Methods: Five hundred and five cases fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of ARDS/MODS were divided into three groups according to the altitude of their habitation: control group including inhabitants (<430 m) on plain (CG, n=113), moderate high altitude group 1 inhabitants at the altitude of 1,517 m (H1G, n=314), moderate high altitude group 2 inhabitants at the altitude of 2,261 m to 2,400 m (H2G, n=78). The ARDS/MODS scores of the three groups were made according to the diagnostic criteria of Lushan conference, Marshall(1995) and Lanzhou criteria drafted by the authors respectively to set up three data analyzing models, followed by plotting of receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC curve) and calculation of the Yordon Index and the optimum cutoff points of the parameters,in order to study the accuracy of the three diagnostic criteria in predicting the outcome of the patients suffering from ARDS/MODS. Read More

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April 2005
6 Reads

High-altitude illness.

Emerg Med Clin North Am 2004 May;22(2):329-55, viii

Department of Emergency Medicine, Aspen Valley Hospital, CO 81611, USA.

Travel to a high altitude requires that the human body acclimatize to hypobaric hypoxia. Failure to acclimatize results in three common but preventable maladies known collectively as high-altitude illness: acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Capillary leakage in the brain (AMS/HACE) or lungs (HAPE) accounts for these syndromes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.emc.2004.02.001DOI Listing
May 2004
8 Reads

Cysteinyl leukotriene blockade does not prevent acute mountain sickness.

Aviat Space Environ Med 2004 May;75(5):413-9

Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760-5007, USA.

Background: Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) is a multi-system disorder that is characterized by headache, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, lassitude, and malaise. The syndrome is common in unacclimatized low altitude residents who rapidly ascend to terrestrial elevations exceeding 2,500 m. AMS may be a manifestation of hypoxia-induced cerebral edema resulting, in part, from increased capillary permeability. Read More

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May 2004
5 Reads

Prevention and Treatment of High-altitude Illness in Travelers.

Authors:
David R. Murdoch

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2004 Feb;6(1):43-49

Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, PO Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand.

High-altitude illness is the collective term for acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). These syndromes can affect unacclimatized travelers shortly after ascent to high altitude (especially higher than 2500 m). AMS is relatively common and usually is mild and self-limiting; HACE and HAPE are uncommon but life-threatening. Read More

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February 2004
4 Reads

High-altitude illness.

Lancet 2003 Jun;361(9373):1967-74

Nepal International Clinic, Kathmandu, Nepal; Himalayan Rescue Association, Kathmandu, Nepal.

High-altitude illness is the collective term for acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude cerebral oedema (HACE), and high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE). The pathophysiology of these syndromes is not completely understood, although studies have substantially contributed to the current understanding of several areas. These areas include the role and potential mechanisms of brain swelling in AMS and HACE, mechanisms accounting for exaggerated pulmonary hypertension in HAPE, and the role of inflammation and alveolar-fluid clearance in HAPE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13591-XDOI Listing
June 2003
5 Reads

[Altitude and the autonomic nervous system].

Authors:
G Mazzuero

Ital Heart J Suppl 2001 Aug;2(8):845-9

Divisione di Cardiologia Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS Via per Revislate, 13 28010 Veruno, NO.

Ascent to high altitudes arouses the sympathetic nervous system in non-acclimatized healthy humans. Such activation is provoked by hypobaric hypoxia combined with other stressors. While this is an adaptive response, it also contributes to the general physical deterioration consequent to prolonged exposure to high altitudes, and is even implied in specific syndromes: acute mountain sickness, high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema. Read More

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August 2001
5 Reads

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis - a new diagnosis in travel medicine.

Authors:
Grotta

J Travel Med 1996 Sep;3(3):137

The University of Texas, Houston School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Houston, Texas.

Dr. Pfausler and colleagues report in this issue of Journal of Travel Medicine a series of patients with an interesting and potentially fatal neurovascular disorder; they raise the question, is this condition more frequent in travelers? Over a period of 18 months, Dr. Pfausler and colleagues identified five of fifteen consecutive patients presenting with occlusion of the cerebral veins who had been traveling on long distance flights. Read More

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September 1996
1 Read

Environmental hazards and health.

Br Med Bull 1993 Apr;49(2):305-25

Institute of Naval Medicine, Alverstoke, UK.

Significant health hazards to the traveller arise from altitude, heat, cold and water. Altitude-induced illness encompasses the benign but common syndrome of acute mountain sickness and also life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema; inadequate acclimatization and rapid ascent are important precipitating factors in each case. Prophylaxis and up to date choices of treatment are discussed in the context of underlying physiological changes. Read More

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April 1993
2 Reads

Altitude sickness.

Authors:
L McDonnell

Aust Fam Physician 1990 Feb;19(2):205, 208-10

South Australian Travellers' Medical and Vaccination Centre, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide.

Altitude sickness is a clinical syndrome that occurs with abrupt ascents to altitudes of 3000 metres and above. Symptoms include headache, malaise, fatigue, dizziness, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, and oliguria. At higher altitudes more severe illness resulting from pulmonary oedema or cerebral oedema can occur. Read More

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February 1990
4 Reads
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