1,405 results match your criteria Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA[Journal]


Ten years of REACH - An animal protection perspective.

Authors:
Katy Taylor

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Dec;46(6):347-373

European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE( and Cruelty Free International Trust, London, UK.

It has now been 11 years since the EU's new chemicals legislation (Regulation No. 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH]) came into force. Two important statements in the REACH Regulation in relation to animal testing and alternatives are: Article 1(1), which states that one of its purposes is to promote alternative methods; and Article 25(1), which states that animal testing should be used as a last resort. Read More

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December 2018

Phase 0, including microdosing approaches: Applying the Three Rs and increasing the efficiency of human drug development.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Dec;46(6):335-346

Independent Consultant, Norwich, UK.

Phase 0 approaches, including microdosing, involve the use of sub-therapeutic exposures to the tested drugs, thus enabling safer, more-relevant, quicker and cheaper first-in-human (FIH) testing. These approaches also have considerable potential to limit the use of animals in human drug development. Recent years have witnessed progress in applications, methodology, operations, and drug development culture. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The application of humane endpoints and humane killing methods in animal research proposals: A retrospective review.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Dec;46(6):317-333

Newcastle University, The Medical School, Comparative Biology Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Refinement refers to the use of methods that help to minimise animal suffering in the laboratory. Research in this area has increased significantly over the past two decades. However, the extent to which refinements are applied in practice is uncertain. Read More

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December 2018

Where to draw the line? Should the age of protection for zebrafish be lowered?

Authors:
Lynne U Sneddon

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Dec;46(6):309-311

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Zebrafish are not protected by legislation in many countries until they reach the first feed stage, typically at five days post-fertilisation. If they exhibit similar responses to adults when responding to pain and other stimuli should they be given more protection? Read More

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December 2018

Does the stress of laboratory life and experimentation on animals adversely affect research data? A critical review.

Authors:
Jarrod Bailey

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Nov;46(5):291-305

Cruelty Free International, London, UK.

Recurrent acute and/or chronic stress can affect all vertebrate species, and can have serious consequences. It is increasingly and widely appreciated that laboratory animals experience significant and repeated stress, which is unavoidable and is caused by many aspects of laboratory life, such as captivity, transport, noise, handling, restraint and other procedures, as well as the experimental procedures applied to them. Such stress is difficult to mitigate, and lack of significant desensitisation/habituation can result in considerable psychological and physiological welfare problems, which are mediated by the activation of various neuroendocrine networks that have numerous and pervasive effects. Read More

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November 2018

Severity classification of surgical procedures and application of health monitoring strategies in animal research proposals: A retrospective review.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Nov;46(5):273-289

Newcastle University, The Medical School, Comparative Biology Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Animal experimentation has been one of the most controversial areas of animal use, mainly due to the intentional harms inflicted upon the animals used. In an effort to reduce these harms, research on refinement has increased significantly over the past 20 years. However, the extent to which these efforts have helped to reduce the severity of the research procedures, and thus animal suffering, is uncertain. Read More

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November 2018

A comparison of pyrogen detection tests in the quality control of meningococcal conjugate vaccines: The applicability of the Monocyte Activation Test.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Nov;46(5):255-272

Departamento de Controle de Qualidade, Instituto de Tecnologia em Imunobiológicos (Bio-Manguinhos), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (MenCC) is an interesting model with which to test the efficacy of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) as an alternative method of pyrogen testing in the quality control of vaccines. The MenCC that has been produced by Bio-Manguinhos in Brazil is in the final development stage, and, as recommended in the guidelines for MenCC production, its pyrogen content must be determined by using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay and the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT). This represents an ideal opportunity to compare LAL and RPT data with data obtained by using a MAT system with cryopreserved whole blood and IL-6/IL-1β as marker readouts. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Electronic cigarettes: can dependable public health policies be developed and applied without relevant and reliable risk assessments?

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Nov;46(5):245-248

Independent Consultant, Norwich, UK.

The use of electronic cigarettes is being encouraged as a way of escaping from the harm resulting from conventional tobacco smoking, while scant attention is being paid to the long-term risks of inhaling electronic cigarette vapour. More information is needed for an acceptable risk assessment, from integrated non-animal testing and sound clinical investigations. Read More

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November 2018

Brazil starts to ban animal use in higher education: A positive and progressive development.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Sep;46(4):235-239

1R Institute of Promotion and Research for the Replacement of Animal Experimentation, Brazil.

The Brazilian government has published a resolution that bans animal use in some practical classes within undergraduate and high school technical education from April 2019. Resolution No. 38/2018, issued by the National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA), bans the killing of animals for dissection purposes and animal experiments in practical classes that do not involve the acquisition of new skills. Read More

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September 2018
17 Reads

In vitro human tissues via multi-material 3-D bioprinting.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Sep;46(4):209-215

Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

This paper highlights the foundational research on multi-material 3-D bioprinting of human tissues, for which the Lewis Bioprinting team at Harvard University was awarded the 2017 Lush Science Prize. The team's bioprinting platform enables the rapid fabrication of 3-D human tissues that contain all of the essential components found in their in vivo counterparts: cells, vasculature (or other tubular features) and extracellular matrix. The printed 3-D tissues are housed within a customised perfusion system and are subjected to controlled microphysiological environments over long durations (days to months). Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

2017 Lush Science Prize.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Sep;46(4):199-207

TJM Consultancy, Jaén, Spain.

Now in its sixth year, the Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by awarding money prizes of up to £350,000 to the most effective projects and individuals who have been working towards the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. Prizes are awarded for developments in five strategic areas: Science; Lobbying; Training; Public Awareness; and Young Researchers. In the event of a major breakthrough leading to the replacement of animal tests in the area of 21st Century Toxicology, a Black Box Prize (equivalent to the entire annual fund) is awarded. Read More

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September 2018

The 2017 Lush Prize Awards.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Sep;46(4):187-191

Lush Prize, Ethical Consumer Research Association, Manchester, UK.

This year saw eighteen prizewinning projects from eleven countries, and a new award in recognition of the work of Andrew Tyler. Read More

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September 2018

The development of a clinical skills laboratory at Ross University School of Medicine.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 07;46(3):177-183

Centre for Animal Welfare, University of Winchester, UK.

Dedicated clinical skills laboratories (CSLs) that make use of models, mannequins and simulators, are being increasingly established in medical and veterinary schools. These have been commonplace in medical schools for more than two decades, but their incorporation within the teaching of veterinary curricula has occurred much more recently. In 2007, a decision was taken to establish a CSL at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Exploring the use of alternatives to animals in undergraduate education in Australia.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 07;46(3):145-176

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia.

The replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use in education is part of the regulatory legislation in Australia, and requires the use of alternatives to animals where appropriate. The aims of this study were: a) to explore the extent of the replacement of animals when teaching life sciences to Australian undergraduate students; b) to understand which alternative models were being used, and the learning objectives covered; and c) to gain some insight into the circumstances facilitating the use of alternatives to animals in education. An anonymous online survey, consisting of open and closed questions, was conducted among faculty members that used either animal or alternative models in their teaching. Read More

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A survey to understand public opinion regarding animal use in medical training.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 07;46(3):133-143

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; John Dossetor Health Ethics Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

A random survey was performed by ORC International Telephone CARAVAN®, on 24-27 March 2016, by trained interviewers. The aim of this survey was to gain further understanding of public perceptions in the United States of laboratory animal use, specifically for the purposes of medical training. Five statements were read in random order to the participants, who were then asked whether they agreed or disagreed with the statement. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Characterisation of a canine epithelial cell line for modelling the intestinal barrier.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 07;46(3):115-132

WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition, Waltham on the Wolds, Leicestershire, U.

Little is known about how food interacts with the intestinal epithelium during the digestion process. However, it is known that ingredients in food can modulate the intestinal barrier, and have the potential to disrupt homeostasis of the gut. Here, we characterise a conditionally immortalised canine intestinal epithelial cell (cIEC) line for use in in vitro assays, to assess the effect of food ingredients on intestinal barrier function, permeability, cell health, and inflammation. Read More

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July 2018
20 Reads

Replacing animal use in education and training.

Authors:
Michael Balls

Altern Lab Anim 2018 07;46(3):107-108

c/o FRAME, Nottingham, UK.

In the USA, the general public want the use of animals in medical training to cease, but, at least in Australia, some teachers want it to continue, even when effective non-animal alternatives are available. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

The replacement of animal tests.

Authors:
Robert D Combes

Altern Lab Anim 2018 May;46(2):103-104

Independent consultant, Norwich, UK.

Progress toward the acceptance and application of validated alternative test methods as replacements for animal tests, is being frustrated by the unsatisfactory procedures involved in approving new test guidelines and deleting existing ones. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

A review of the contributions of cross-discipline collaborative European IMI/EFPIA research projects to the development of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement strategies.

Authors:
Sarah Wolfensohn

Altern Lab Anim 2018 May;46(2):91-102

School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

The objective of this review is to report on whether, and if so, how, scientific research projects organised and managed within collaborative consortia across academia and industry are contributing to the Three Rs (i.e. reduction, replacement and refinement of the use of animals in research). Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Murine alveolar epithelial cells and their lentivirus-mediated immortalisation.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 May;46(2):73-89

Department of Drug Delivery (DDEL), Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), Helmholtz-Centre for Infection Research (HZI ), Saarbrücken, Germany; Department of Pharmacy, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany; PharmBioTec GmbH, Saarbrücken, Germany.

In this study, we describe the isolation and immortalisation of primary murine alveolar epithelial cells (mAEpC), as well as their epithelial differentiation and barrier properties when grown on Transwell® inserts. Like human alveolar epithelial cells (hAEpC), mAEpC transdifferentiate in vitro from an alveolar type II (ATII) phenotype to an ATI-like phenotype and exhibit features of the air-blood barrier, such as the establishment of a thin monolayer with functional tight junctions (TJs). This is demonstrated by the expression of TJ proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) and the development of high transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), peaking at 1800Ω ·cm². Read More

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May 2018
5 Reads

Is live-tissue training ethically justified? An evidence-based ethical analysis.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 May;46(2):65-71

Institute of the History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

Trauma training is a crucial element of medical education in the civilian sector, as well as in the military sector. Its aim is to prepare physicians, medics and nurses for stressful and demanding emergency situations. Training methods include live-tissue training (LTT) on animal models and simulation-based trauma education. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Questionable progress in the application of the Three Rs to improve science, human well-being and animal welfare.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 May;46(2):55-57

Independent consultant, Norwich, UK.

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The use of animals in contemporary medical research - if not animals, then who or what?

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Mar;46(1):43-51

Faculty of Medicine University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland.

Contemporary science provides a range of opportunities for improving research methods and for eliminating animals from experiments. Read More

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The myth of Replacement and the legal reality.

Authors:
Edwina Bowles

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Mar;46(1):39-41

Cruelty Free International, London, UK.

Despite EU law being in force, animals are often used where alternative methods already exist and are readily available. Read More

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Applicability of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) in the quality control of the 17DD yellow fever vaccine.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Mar;46(1):23-37

Departamento de Farmacologia e Toxicologia, Instituto Nacional de Controle da Qualidade em Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The need for alternatives to animal use in pyrogen testing has been driven by the Three Rs concept. This has resulted in the inclusion of the monocyte activation test (MAT) in the European Pharmacopoeia, 2010. However, some technical and regulatory obstacles must be overcome to ensure the effective implementation of the MAT by the industry, especially for the testing of biological products. Read More

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March 2018
10 Reads

Animal research for type 2 diabetes mellitus, its limited translation for clinical benefit, and the way forward.

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Mar;46(1):13-22

Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have reached pandemic proportions worldwide, and considerable research efforts have been dedicated to investigating disease pathology and therapeutic options. The two hallmark features of T2DM, insulin resistance and pancreatic dysfunction, have been studied extensively by using various animal models. Despite the knowledge acquired from such models, particularly mechanistic discoveries that sometimes mimic human T2DM mechanisms or pathways, many details of human T2DM pathogenesis remain unknown, therapeutic options remain limited, and a cure has eluded research. Read More

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March 2018
9 Reads

Why are validated alternatives not being used to replace animal tests?

Authors:
Michael Balls

Altern Lab Anim 2018 Mar;46(1):1-3

c/o FRAME, Nottingham, UK.

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Harmonisation of animal testing alternatives in China.

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Dec;45(6):333-338

Guangzhou CHN-ALT Biotech Co., Ltd, Guangzhou, PRC.

More and more countries are lining up to follow the EU's approach and implement a full ban on the sale of cosmetics that have been tested on animals, which has been the case in the EU since 2013. Besides animal welfare considerations, the need for mutual acceptance of data (MAD) and harmonisation of the global market have made the move toward non-animal testing a desirable general trend for countries worldwide. Over the last 10 years, the concept of alternative methods has been gradually developing in China. Read More

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December 2017
12 Reads

Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) - A pain in the dish?

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Dec;45(6):329-332

Division of Physiology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

The use of Fetal Bovine Serum in replacement alternative methods is associated with serious animal welfare concerns, as well as worrying reproducibility issues. Read More

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December 2017

The use of gatekeeping procedures in the statistical planning of animal experiments.

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Dec;45(6):317-328

Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Germany.

Statistical sample size calculation is essential when planning animal experiments in basic medical research. Usually, such trials involve the testing of multiple hypotheses, and interpreting them in a confirmative manner would require the appropriate adjustment of the Type 1 error. This has to be taken into account as early as possible during sample size estimation - otherwise, all the results obtained would be exploratory, i. Read More

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December 2017
3 Reads

A comparison of scaffold-free and scaffold-based reconstructed human skin models as alternatives to animal use.

Authors:
Beste Kinikoglu

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Dec;45(6):309-316

Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey, and Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Tissue engineered full-thickness human skin substitutes have various applications in the clinic and in the laboratory, such as in the treatment of burns or deep skin defects, and as reconstructed human skin models in the safety testing of drugs and cosmetics and in the fundamental study of skin biology and pathology. So far, different approaches have been proposed for the generation of reconstructed skin, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Here, the classic tissue engineering approach, based on cell-seeded polymeric scaffolds, is compared with the less-studied cell self-assembly approach, where the cells are coaxed to synthesise their own extracellular matrix (ECM). Read More

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December 2017
5 Reads

Does the stress inherent to laboratory life and experimentation on animals adversely affect research data?

Authors:
Jarrod Bailey

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Dec;45(6):299-301

Cruelty Free International, London, UK.

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December 2017

On the journey toward humane education in Brazil: First request for a total ban of harmful animal use in professional and higher education.

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Nov;45(5):287-293

Department of Surgery-Veterinary Medicine College and Zootechny, São Paulo University, Brazil.

The Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH( is an independent and self-managed group comprised of academics from ten different Brazilian states and a number of international collaborators. In 2016, in a concerted effort to change the educational field in Brazil and propagate humane education, RedEH sent a request to the Brazilian National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA(, asking that harmful animal use in education in professional and undergraduate courses be banned. This was the first formal request for a total replacement of harmful animal use in education in Brazil, and represented a major historic landmark in the advancement of Brazilian science education. Read More

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November 2017
26 Reads

Training and good science are the foundation stones for animal replacement.

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Nov;45(5):281-285

Kirkstall Ltd, Rotherham, UK.

Good science, the training of energetic and enthusiastic young researchers, and the experience of industry veterans, will all be needed to drive the implementation and regulatory approval of animal replacement methods in industry. Read More

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November 2017
5 Reads

New animal-free concepts and test methods for developmental toxicity and peripheral neurotoxicity.

Authors:
Marcel Leist

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Nov;45(5):253-260

In Vitro Toxicology and Biomedicine Laboratory, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany; CAAT-Europe, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany; Konstanz Research School Chemical Biology, Konstanz, Germany; Co-operative Research Training Group on In Vitro Testing of Active Ingredients, Konstanz-Sigmaringen, Germany.

The complex toxicological fields of repeat dose organ toxicity (RDT) and developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) still require new concepts and approaches to achieve a fully animal-free safety assessment of chemicals. One novel approach is the generation of relevant human cell types from pluripotent stem cells, and the use of such cells for the establishment of phenotypic test methods. Due to their broad endpoints, such tests capture multiple types of toxicants, i. Read More

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November 2017

High-throughput prediction of nephrotoxicity in humans.

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Nov;45(5):241-252

Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN), Singapore.

The Lush Science Prize 2016 was awarded to Daniele Zink and Lit-Hsin Loo for the interdisciplinary and collaborative work between their research groups in developing alternative methods for the prediction of nephrotoxicity in humans. The collaboration has led to the establishment of a series of pioneering alternative methods for nephrotoxicity prediction, which includes: predictive gene expression markers based on pro-inflammatory responses; predictive in vitro cellular models based on pluripotent stem cell-derived proximal tubular-like cells; and predictive cellular phenotypic markers based on chromatin and cytoskeletal changes. A high-throughput method was established for chemical testing, which is currently being used to predict the potential human nephrotoxicity of ToxCast compounds in collaboration with the US Environmental Protection Agency. Read More

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November 2017
1 Read

2016 Lush Science Prize.

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Nov;45(5):231-240

TJM Consultancy, Kent, UK.

The Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by awarding monetary prizes totalling £250,000 to the most effective projects and individuals who have been working toward the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. Prizes are awarded for developments in five strategic areas: Science; Lobbying; Training; Public Awareness; and Young Researchers. In the event of a major breakthrough leading to the replacement of animal tests in the area of 21st Century Toxicology, a Black Box Prize (equivalent to the entire annual fund of £250,000) is awarded. Read More

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November 2017
2 Reads

The 2016 Lush Prize Awards.

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Nov;45(5):221-226

Lush Prize, Ethical Consumer Research Association, Manchester, UK.

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November 2017
5 Reads

In vitro models as a platform to investigate traumatic brain injury.

Authors:
Ashwin Kumaria

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Sep;45(4):201-211

Department of Neurosurgery, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK.

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity, affecting individuals of all age groups. Much remains to be learned about its complex pathophysiology, with a view to designing effective neuroprotective strategies to protect sublethally injured brain tissue that would otherwise die in secondary injury processes. Experimental in vivo models offer the potential to study TBI in the laboratory, however, treatments that were neuroprotective in animals have, thus far, largely failed to translate in human clinical studies. Read More

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September 2017
10 Reads

Use of the Bovine Udder Skin model to evaluate the tolerability of Mesem cosmetic cream.

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Sep;45(4):191-200

Institute of Integrative Medicine, Witten-Herdecke University, Herdecke, Germany and Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Witten-Herdecke University, Witten, Germany.

Observational studies of Mesem cream (based on Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. plant extract) found that it had positive effects on skin hydration and smoothing of the skin. However, some patients reported skin irritation effects. Read More

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September 2017
14 Reads

Human aortic endothelial cells respond to shear flow in well-plate microfluidic devices.

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Sep;45(4):177-190

RAI Services Company Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Although chronic progressive cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis are often challenging to fully model in vitro, it has been shown that certain in vitro methods can effectively evaluate some aspects of disease progression. This has been demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo studies of endothelial cells that have illustrated the effects of nitric oxide (NO) production, filamentous actin (F-actin) formation, and cell and actin angle alignment on vascular function and homeostasis. Systems utilising shear flow have been established, in order to create a physiologically relevant environment for cells that require shear flow for homeostasis. Read More

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September 2017
32 Reads

Some personal reminiscences of the long road to acceptance of the Three Rs.

Authors:
Michael Balls

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Sep;45(4):169-170

c/o FRAME, Nottingham, UK.

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September 2017

Letter to the Editor.

Authors:
Jarrod Bailey

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Jul;45(3):165-166

Cruelty Free International, London, UK.

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July 2017
1 Read

Pain in laboratory animals: A possible confounding factor?

Authors:
Lynne U Sneddon

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Jul;45(3):161-164

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Reducing pain in animals is an ethical and sometimes legal requirement, but how do we assess pain and does it confound data collection? Read More

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July 2017
1 Read

Animal 'models': How a mechanistic approach can reduce suffering and improve translatability.

Authors:
Elliot Lilley

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Jul;45(3):159-160

Research Animals Department, Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Horsham, UK.

Poorly predictive animal models of disease cause avoidable suffering and hamper the discovery of new treatments for patients. A focus on mechanistic modelling has the potential to reduce animal suffering as well as improving translation from the bench to the bedside. Read More

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In vitro exposure systems and dosimetry assessment tools for inhaled tobacco products: Workshop proceedings, conclusions and paths forward for in vitro model use.

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Jul;45(3):117-158

Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

In 2009, the passing of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act facilitated the establishment of the FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP), and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed 'modified risk'. On 4-6 April 2016, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) convened a workshop conference entitled, In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products, to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia and industry to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA CTP. Read More

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July 2017
58 Reads

Animal experiments and the right to ask questions about them.

Authors:
Michael Balls

Altern Lab Anim 2017 Jul;45(3):107-109

c/o FRAME, Nottingham, UK.

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White paper and colourful language: Toward a realistic view of animal research.

Altern Lab Anim 2017 May;45(2):101-103

Institute of Biomedical Ethics and History of Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

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May 2017
6 Reads

The use of neurocomputational models as alternatives to animal models in the development of electrical brain stimulation treatments.

Authors:
Anne Beuter

Altern Lab Anim 2017 May;45(2):91-99

Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Recent publications call for more animal models to be used and more experiments to be performed, in order to better understand the mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders, to improve human health, and to develop new brain stimulation treatments. In response to these calls, some limitations of the current animal models are examined by using Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease as an illustrative example. Without focusing on the arguments for or against animal experimentation, or on the history of DBS, the present paper argues that given recent technological and theoretical advances, the time has come to consider bioinspired computational modelling as a valid alternative to animal models, in order to design the next generation of human brain stimulation treatments. Read More

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May 2017
2 Reads

Sample size estimation for pilot animal experiments by using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach.

Altern Lab Anim 2017 May;45(2):83-90

Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Germany.

The statistical determination of sample size is mandatory when planning animal experiments, but it is usually difficult to implement appropriately. The main reason is that prior information is hardly ever available, so the assumptions made cannot be verified reliably. This is especially true for pilot experiments. Read More

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May 2017
2 Reads