Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis 2022 10;15:85-101. Epub 2022 Mar 10.
Division of Nephrology and Endocrinology, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Glomerulopathy, characterized by a dysfunctional glomerular capillary wall, results in proteinuria, leading to end-stage renal failure and poor clinical outcomes, including renal death and increased overall mortality. Conventional glomerulopathy research, including drug discovery, has mostly relied on animal experiments because in-vitro glomerulus models, capable of evaluating functional selective permeability, was unavailable in conventional in-vitro cell culture systems. However, animal experiments have limitations, including time- and cost-consuming, multi-organ effects, unstable reproducibility, inter-species reliability, and the social situation in the EU and US, where animal experiments have been discouraged. Read More