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    Elastic Staining in Differentiating Between Follicular Streamers and Follicular Scars in Horizontal Scalp Biopsy Sections.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Departments of *Pathology, and †Dermatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; and ‡Robert H. Lurie Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.
    Background: Accurate identification of follicular streamers versus follicular scars on horizontal scalp biopsy sections is important to differentiate between cicatricial and noncicatricial alopecias. However, distinguishing between them can be difficult especially in nonoptimal specimens. The utility of elastic Verhoeff-Van Gieson (EVG) stain in cicatricial alopecias has been described on vertical sections, but its evaluation on horizontal sections has not been performed. Read More

    Efficacy of fractional lasers in treating alopecia: a literature review.
    Lasers Med Sci 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Hospital, 1475 NW 12th Ave. Suite 2175, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.
    Hair loss stemming from different types of alopecia, such as androgenic alopecia and alopecia areata, negatively affects over half the population and, in many circumstances, causes serious psychosocial distress. Current treatment options for alopecia, such as minoxidil, anthralin, and intralesional corticosteroids, vary efficacy and side effect profiles. It is known that low-level laser/light therapies (LLLT), or photobiomodulations, such as the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, He-Ne laser, and excimer laser, are relatively affordable, user-friendly, safe, and effective forms of treatment for hair loss. Read More

    Evaluation of the Relationship between Alopecia Areata and Viral Antigen Exposure.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Rochester General Hospital Research Institute, 1425 Portland Avenue, Rochester, NY, 14621, USA.
    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring alopecia with T-cell infiltration at the affected hair follicle.

    Objective: Our aim was to study the potential link between hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen exposure and AA.

    Methods: Two pediatric patients with AA following hepatitis B vaccination were identified in a general dermatology clinic. Read More

    Vitamin D Level in Alopecia Areata.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Jul-Aug;62(4):407-410
    Department of Dermatology, STD and Leprosy, Government Medical College, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is an immune-mediated disease in which autoantigens play an important part in activating T-lymphocytes. Vitamin D has been associated with various autoimmune diseases, and Vitamin D receptors are strongly expressed in hair follicles and their expression in keratinocytes is necessary for the maintenance of the normal hair cycle.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to find the association between Vitamin D level and AA. Read More

    A Practical Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Hair Loss in Children and Adolescents.
    Front Med (Lausanne) 2017 24;4:112. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.
    Hair loss or alopecia is a common and distressing clinical complaint in the primary care setting and can arise from heterogeneous etiologies. In the pediatric population, hair loss often presents with patterns that are different from that of their adult counterparts. Given the psychosocial complications that may arise from pediatric alopecia, prompt diagnosis and management is particularly important. Read More

    A Case of Alopecia Areata in a Patient with Turner Syndrome.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Jul 23;5(4):493-496. Epub 2017 Jul 23.
    Universitario di Ruolo, Dipartimento di Scienze Dermatologiche, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Dermatology, Via Vittoria Colonna 11, Rome 00186, Italy.
    The Authors report a case of alopecia areata totalis in a woman with Turner syndrome. Read More

    [Amoxicillin-induced skin rash sparing a plaque of erythema migrans: Renbök phenomenon: Case report and literature review].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Service de dermatologie, centre hospitalier René-Dubos, 6, avenue de l'île-de-France, 95300 Pontoise, France.
    Introduction: Renbök phenomenon describes the inhibition of a lesion when a different one appears. We describe the first case of Renbök phenomenon occurring in a context of erythema migrans (EM) spared by an amoxicillin-induced skin rash and we also present a literature review.

    Case Report: A 60-year-old patient was treated with amoxicillin for EM on the right knee and subsequently developed generalized erythema as a result of an antibiotic-induced skin rash, with sparing of the area previously affected by EM. Read More

    Increased Expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 in Dermal Fibroblasts from Alopecia Areata Mice.
    J Cell Physiol 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1M9, Canada.
    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disorder affecting millions of people worldwide, which manifests as a sudden, non-scarring hair loss. The expression of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interferon-gamma (INF-γ), has been well established to be involved in the development of AA. As IFN-γ and other cytokines are also known to up-regulate programmed cell death ligand 1 and 2 (PD-L1 and PD-L2), which both negatively control immune responses, we asked whether or not a high number of infiltrated T cells, seen in AA lesions, can modulate the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 in skin cells. Read More

    A Case Report of Verruca Vulgaris on basis of Alopecia Areata Successfully Treated with Diphenylcyclopropenone.
    Int J Trichology 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):35-37
    Department of Dermatology, Goztepe Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune skin disease which is usually characterized by patchy hair loss in effected regions. Diagnosis usually based on clinical findings and main treatment options include topical, intralesional, systemic corticosteroids, and topical immunotherapy. Verruca vulgaris is an infectious disease caused by human papillomavirus which is usually characterized by well-marginated hyperkeratotic papules or plaques. Read More

    Presence of Mast Cells and Mast Cell Degranulation in Scalp Biopsies of Telogen Effluvium.
    Int J Trichology 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):25-29
    Department of Dermatology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Background: Telogen effluvium (TE) is a type of acquired, diffuse alopecia that occurs due to an abnormal shift of scalp hair follicles from anagen to telogen, leading to premature shedding of hair. Previous studies have suggested the existence of a neuroimmunologic "brain-hair follicle" axis, in which mast cells have been implicated as an important link between the nervous system and immunologic system.

    Objective: The current study sought to investigate the role of mast cell presence and mast cell degranulation in the pathogenesis of TE. Read More

    Brazilian Experience of the Treatment of Alopecia Universalis with the Novel Antirheumatic Therapy Tofacitinib: A Case Series.
    Rheumatol Ther 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    DermatoSineida Clinic Maringa, Paraná, Brazil.
    Introduction: Alopecia universalis is an autoimmune disorder for which there is no known effective therapy. Tofacitinib-a novel antirheumatic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis-has been shown in some reports to induce sustained hair growth in patients with alopecia universalis.

    Case Series: Here, we review the experiences of four different rheumatologists across the country regarding four Brazilian patients with alopecia universalis who were treated with tofacitinib . Read More

    Validation of an Egyptian Arabic Version of Skindex-16 and Quality of Life Measurement in Egyptian Patients with Skin Disease.
    Int J Behav Med 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, 71526, Egypt.
    Purpose: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Skindex-16, a brief skin-disease-specific QoL questionnaire, into Arabic for Egyptians and to evaluate its measurement properties in Egyptian patients with skin disease.

    Method: Translation and cultural adaption were performed following guidelines for cross-cultural adaption of health-related quality of life measures. Subsequently, Skindex-16 was administered to 500 consecutive dermatological patients and 500 healthy persons for verification of its reliability and validity. Read More

    Comorbid autoimmune diseases in patients with pemphigus: a nationwide case-control study in Taiwan.
    Eur J Dermatol 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Dermatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Department of Dermatology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Previous studies have proposed the association between pemphigus and several autoimmune diseases, but no large-scale study has been reported. To delineate the association between pemphigus and autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. A total of 1,998 patients with pemphigus and 7,992 control subjects were enrolled from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from 1997 to 2010. Read More

    Alopecia Areata: a Comprehensive Review of Pathogenesis and Management.
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Dermatology, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Centro de Ciências Médicas, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Alopecia areata is a common hair loss condition that is characterized by acute onset of non-scarring hair loss in usually sharply defined areas ranging from small patches to extensive or less frequently diffuse involvement. Depending on its acuity and extent, hair loss is an important cause of anxiety and disability. The current understanding is that the condition represents an organ-specific autoimmune disease of the hair follicle with a genetic background. Read More

    Establishing and Prioritising Research Questions for the Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Hair Loss (excluding Alopecia Areata): The Hair Loss Priority Setting Partnership.
    Br J Dermatol 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    University of Manchester, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, The Dermatology Centre, Salford, Greater Manchester, UK.
    Background: Hair and scalp problems are common. Unfortunately, many uncertainties exist around the most effective management and treatments strategies for these disorders.

    Objectives: To identify uncertainties in hair loss management, prevention, diagnosis and treatment that are important to both people with hair loss and healthcare professionals. Read More

    Long-Term Prognosis of Alopecia Totalis and Alopecia Universalis: A Longitudinal Study with More than 10 Years of Follow-Up: Better than Reported.
    Dermatology 2017 Jul 14. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Dermatology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea.
    Background: In alopecia totalis (AT) and alopecia universalis (AU), the chance of full hair regrowth is known to be less than 10%. However, this information is based on a few older studies conducted in the 1950s and 1960s.

    Objective: We investigated the current long-term prognosis of individuals with AT/AU. Read More

    Possible role of Helicobacter pylori in diseases of dermatological interest.
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2017 APR-JUN;31(2 Suppl. 2):57-77
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, flagellate, microaerophilic bacterium identified for the first time about 30 years ago, as a pathogenic factor of gastritis and peptic ulcer. Soon after, it was linked to several gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases (hematological, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary and ocular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, growth retardation and extragastric MALT lymphoma). Association and possible cause-effect correlation with H. Read More

    Ruxolitinib found to cause eyelash growth: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Jul 12;11(1):189. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Center for Oculofacial & Orbital Surgery, 3771 Katella Ave., #209, Los Alamitos, CA, 90720, USA.
    Background: Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a hematologic disorder in which the eosinophils proliferate. Oral Janus kinase inhibitors are known to be effective treating hypereosinophilic syndrome. Janus kinase inhibitors have also demonstrated efficacy in alopecia. Read More

    Association among Thyroid Dysfunction, Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and Eczema in Children with Alopecia Areata.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Jun 11;5(3):305-309. Epub 2017 Jun 11.
    Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
    Background: Alopecia areata is a non-scarring hair loss, which typically starts quickly. Atopy is one of the possible predisposing risk factors for this condition.

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid disease, atopic dermatitis and allergic diseases in children with alopecia areata and compare the results with healthy individuals. Read More

    Oxidative stress management in the hair follicle: Could targeting NRF2 counter age-related hair disorders and beyond?
    Bioessays 2017 Aug 7;39(8). Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Centre for Dermatology Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Widespread expression of the transcription factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2), which maintains redox homeostasis, has recently been identified in the hair follicle (HF). Small molecule activators of NRF2 may therefore be useful in the management of HF pathologies associated with redox imbalance, ranging from HF greying and HF ageing via androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata to chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Indeed, NRF2 activation has been shown to prevent peroxide-induced hair growth inhibition. Read More

    25-hydroxyvitamin D status in patients with alopecia areata.
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2017 Jun 29;34(3):248-252. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that causes inflammation around anagen-phase hair follicles. Insufficient levels of vitamin D have been implicated in a variety of autoimmune diseases.

    Aim: To investigate the status of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in patients with AA, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were compared between AA patients and healthy controls and thus determine if a possible association exists between serum 25(OH)D levels and AA. Read More

    The Changing Landscape of Alopecia Areata: The Therapeutic Paradigm.
    Adv Ther 2017 Jul 23;34(7):1594-1609. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Dermatology and the Laboratory for Inflammatory Skin Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
    Alopecia areata (AA), a prevalent inflammatory cause of hair loss, lacks FDA-approved therapeutics for extensive cases, which are associated with very poor rates of spontaneous hair regrowth and major psychological distress. Current treatments for severe cases include broad immune-suppressants, which are associated with significant adverse effects, precluding long-term use, with rapid hair loss following treatment termination. As a result of the extent of the disease in severe cases, topical contact sensitizers and intralesional treatments are of limited use. Read More

    The Changing Landscape of Alopecia Areata: The Translational Landscape.
    Adv Ther 2017 Jul 23;34(7):1586-1593. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Columbia University Medical Centre, Russ Berrie Medical Pavilion, New York City, NY, USA.
    Recent genetic and preclinical studies have increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of alopecia areata (AA). This has allowed expedited development of targeted therapies for the treatment of AA, and a paradigm shift in our approach and understanding of autoimmunity and the hair follicle. The synergy between preclinical studies, animal models, and translational studies has led to unprecedented advances in the treatment options for AA, ultimately benefiting patients who have had little recourse. Read More

    The Changing Landscape of Alopecia Areata: An Introduction.
    Adv Ther 2017 Jul;34(7):1584-1585
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
    Alopecia areata is an extremely common autoimmune condition affecting hair. Severe forms of alopecia areata exist, with existing treatments consisting of systemic immunosuppressants with numerous side effects. Recently, breakthroughs have been made in both understanding the pathogenesis of alopecia areata and the treatment thereof, which hold the promise of being able to target severe cases of alopecia areata with more efficacy and better tolerability. Read More

    Association between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Alopecia Areata: A Study in Iranian Population.
    Middle East J Dig Dis 2017 Apr;9(2):107-110
    Dermatology Resident, Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    BACKGROUND Alopecia areata is an immune mediated inflammatory hair loss, which occurs in all ethnic and age groups, and both sexes. However no significant etiology has been known for this disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. Read More

    A Case of Topical Ruxolitinib Treatment Failure in Alopecia Areata.
    J Cutan Med Surg 2017 Jun 1:1203475417716363. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    1 University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune-mediated, nonscarring form of hair loss. Despite its prevalence, current management options are limited, especially when the disease has progressed to alopecia totalis (AT) or alopecia universalis (AU). Recent evidence that janus kinase (JAK) signaling contributes to AA pathogenesis prompted the investigation of JAK inhibitors such as tofacitinib and ruxolitinib as possible oral treatments. Read More

    Management of alopecia areata: Updates and algorithmic approach.
    J Dermatol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Institute of Hair and Cosmetic Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.
    Alopecia areata is a chronic, recurrent and non-scarring alopecia. The prognoses of patients are very diverse. The larger the area of hair loss, the poorer the treatment response and greater the probability of chronic disease progression. Read More

    Excellent response to tofacitinib treatment in a patient with alopecia universalis.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat 2017 06;26(2):47-49
    Department of Dermatology, Gazi University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Alopecia universalis (AU) is generally considered a variant of alopecia areata (AA), in which the treatment options seldom provide satisfactory results. However, successful treatment of several cases of AA and its variants with oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have been reported recently. Here we report a 23-year-old female patient with AU successfully treated with tofacitinib, a selective JAK-3 inhibitor. Read More

    Methotrexate for the treatment of pediatric alopecia areata.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2017 Jun 30:1-4. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    a Department of Dermatology , Wake Forest School of Medicine , Winston-Salem , NC, USA.
    Purpose: Alopecia areata is a form of nonscarring hair loss that occurs in pediatric and adult patients, with presentation varying from round or ovoid patches of alopecia to alopecia totalis or universalis. While frustrating for patients, it can also be frustrating for clinicians to treat, as there is no definitive treatment. Dermatologists are very familiar with the use of methotrexate for psoriasis and other inflammatory skin diseases, and this medication is generally well tolerated in children. Read More

    Histologic features of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus of the scalp using horizontal sectioning: Emphasis on follicular findings.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Aug 16;77(2):349-355. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Section of Dermatopathology, Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
    Background: Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE) often affects the scalp resulting in scarring alopecia. While histopathologic findings of CCLE have been well described, there is little written on the morphologic changes to the hair follicles in this condition.

    Objective: We aim to determine the histopathologic findings of hair follicles in CCLE of the scalp. Read More

    Exacerbation of alopecia areata: A possible complication of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy treatment for varicose veins.
    SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2017 2;5:2050313X17712643. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Absolute Aesthetics, Guildford, UK.
    A 40-year-old woman with a history of alopecia areata related to stress or hormonal changes was treated for bilateral primary symptomatic varicose veins (CEAP clinical score C2S) of pelvic origin, using a staged procedure. Her first procedure entailed pelvic vein embolisation of three pelvic veins using 14 coils and including foam sclerotherapy of the tributaries, using 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Following this procedure, she had an exacerbation of alopecia areata with some moderate shedding of hair. Read More

    Higher concentrations of dithranol appear to induce hair growth even in severe alopecia areata.
    Dermatol Ther 2017 Jul 9;30(4). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Division of Dermatology, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Alopecia areata (AA) is the commonest autoimmune cause of non-scarring alopecia. Topical treatments including corticosteroids and irritants maybe beneficial. Studies report variable hair regrowth with dithranol (anthralin) but all used low concentrations (0. Read More

    Th1/Th2 PB balance and CD200 expression of patients with active severe alopecia areata.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Jun 5;13(6):2883-2887. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027, P.R. China.
    Th1/Th2 peripheral blood balance and CD200 expression in patients with severe alopecia areata (SAA) in the active stage were investigated. Fifty patients with active SAA, 50 patients with stable SAA and 50 healthy controls were continuously selected and expression of Th1/Th2 of peripheral T lymphocytes, and peripheral B lymphocytes was detected by flow cytometry; RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of the PBMC CD200 mRNA and the expression of CD200 in hair follicles of alopecia area was detected by immunohistochemically staining; ELISA was used to detect expression levels of serum LFN-γ and serum interleukin (IL)-10. The expression of CD200 in patients with alopecia areata in active phase on CD3(+) T lymphocytes and CD19(+) B lymphocytes was significantly lower (P<0. Read More

    Low-Dose Systemic Methotrexate Therapy for Recalcitrant Alopecia Areata.
    Ann Dermatol 2017 Jun 11;29(3):263-267. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Dermatology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.
    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune skin disease difficult to manage and treat. The pathogenesis of AA features a T-cell-associated autoimmune process, and systemic immunosuppressive therapy is prescribed widely for AA.

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of systemic low-dose methotrexate (LD-MTX) therapy in treatment of recalcitrant AA multiplex. Read More

    Alopecia Areata of the Beard: A Review of the Literature.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2017 May 29. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1475 NW 12th Ave., Miami, FL, 33136, USA.
    Alopecia areata (AA) is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disorder in which inflammatory cells attack the hair follicle, resulting in round, well-circumscribed patches of noncicatricial hair loss in normal appearing skin. AA affecting the beard area is well known and is referred to as AA of the beard (BAA) or AA barbae when involvement is limited exclusively to the beard. BAA has been documented in a select number of studies. Read More

    Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors in immune-mediated diseases: mode of action, clinical applications, current and future perspectives.
    Curr Med Chem 2017 May 29. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa. Greece.
    Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 is a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), an intracellular second messenger and regulator of a wide array of genes and proteins. Increased levels of intracellular cAMP lead to activation of genes but also to inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, involved in pro-inflammatory responses. By increasing cAMP levels, PDE4 inhibitors, such as apremilast, reduced production of pro-inflammatory TNFα, IFNγ, and IL-17 and increased production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Read More

    Regulatory T Cells in Skin Facilitate Epithelial Stem Cell Differentiation.
    Cell 2017 Jun 25;169(6):1119-1129.e11. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:
    The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is critically dependent on the function of tissue-resident immune cells and the differentiation capacity of tissue-resident stem cells (SCs). How immune cells influence the function of SCs is largely unknown. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in skin preferentially localize to hair follicles (HFs), which house a major subset of skin SCs (HFSCs). Read More

    Alopecia Areata: An Update on Treatment Options for Children.
    Paediatr Drugs 2017 May 27. Epub 2017 May 27.
    The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and The University of Pennsylvania, Perlman School of Medicine, 3401 Civic Center Blvd, Wood Center Room 3335, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
    Pediatric alopecia areata is a spectrum of autoimmune non-scarring alopecia in which some patients lose small patches of hair from their scalp but others lose more or all of the hair from the scalp and body, including eyebrows and eyelashes. Few studies have looked at therapies for this disorder in children, so much of the data are derived from adult literature and describe off-label use of medication. Generally, topical therapies consisting of topical steroids and topical irritating compounds/contact sensitizers are used. Read More

    Mechanisms of tolerance and potential therapeutic interventions in Alopecia Areata.
    Pharmacol Ther 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Translational Biology, Respiratory, Inflammation & Autoimmunity Innovative Medicines Research Unit, AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:
    This review aims to address the mechanisms of compromised immune tolerance contributing to the development and maintenance of Alopecia Areata (AA). Our goal is to also highlight future treatment opportunities and therapeutics that will safely and efficiently restore hair growth and maintain patients in remission. AA is a presumptive autoimmune disorder that coincides and genetically clusters to several other autoimmune diseases. Read More

    Harefuah 2016 Oct;155(10):622-625
    Dermatology Department, Sheba Medical Center, Sackler Faculty Of Medicine, Tel Aviv University.
    Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ specific autoimmune disease. Similar to other autoimmune diseases, its pathogenesis is believed to be an interaction of genetic, environmental and immune factors. Studies have shown that autoreactive lymphocytes affect anagen hair follicles leading to subsequent shedding of hairs and alopecia. Read More

    Efficacy of topical latanoprost versus minoxidil and betamethasone valerate on the treatment of alopecia areata.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2017 Jun 15:1-10. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    b Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy , Tanta University , Tanta , Egypt.
    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is one of the most common causes of localized hair loss. There is no universally proven therapy that induces and sustains remission of hair growth in AA.

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of topical latanoprost, minoxidil and betamethasone valerate on hair growth in patients with AA. Read More

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