486,235 results match your criteria Allergy asthma and clinical immunology: official journal of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology[Journal]


Peripheral Neuronopathy Associated with Ebola virus infection in Rhesus Macaques: A Possible Cause of Neurological Signs and Symptoms in Human Ebola Patients.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Integrated Research Facility, Division of Clinical Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Research Plaza, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America.

Neurological signs and symptoms are the most common complications of Ebola virus disease. However, the mechanisms underlying the neurologic manifestations in Ebola patients are not known. In this study, peripheral ganglia were collected from 12 rhesus macaques that succumbed to Ebola virus (EBOV) disease from 5 to 8 days post-exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa304DOI Listing

Clinical value of full-length tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase for sepsis detection in critically ill patients-A retrospective clinical assessment.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: The related innate immune system activation and diagnostic factors of sepsis are not fully understood. This study aimed to analyse the clinical value of full-length tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WRS) induced through inflammatory stimuli in the detection of sepsis and mortality prediction in critically ill patients.

Methods: In this retrospective analysis, we prospectively collected blood samples from patients in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) at Yonsei University College of Medicine, from March 2015 to June 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.105DOI Listing

Perspective: Keeping Risk in Context While Rethinking the Setting of Asthma Biologics in Patient-Centered Care.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Section of Allergy and Immunology, Lebanon, NH; Dartmouth Geisel School of Medicine, Hanover, NH.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2020.05.029DOI Listing

What constitutes a severe food allergy reaction?

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2020.05.027DOI Listing

New and Emerging Treatments for Inflammatory Itch.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110; Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110; Center for the Study of Itch and Sensory Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110. Electronic address:

Objective: Chronic pruritus, or itch lasting >6 weeks, is a common symptom and has a profoundly negative impact on quality of life. While many primary dermatologic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and chronic urticaria are characterized by pruritus, numerous other allergic, hepatobiliary, lymphoproliferative, neurologic, and renal disorders are associated with chronic pruritus. Itch involves complex interactions orchestrated by a variety of factors released from and acting on the skin, immune system, and the sensory nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2020.05.028DOI Listing

The Unexpected Risks of COVID-19 on Asthma Control in Children.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Much is being learned about clinical outcomes for adult COVID-19 patients with underlying chronic conditions, however, there is less coverage on how the COVID-19 pandemic impacts the management of chronic medical conditions in children and youth, such as asthma. Asthma is a common chronic medical condition in children that is uniquely susceptible to changes brought upon by COVID-19. Sudden dramatic changes in the environment, medical practice, and medication use have altered the asthma management landscape with potential impacts on asthma outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.05.027DOI Listing

A randomised controlled trial investigating efficacy of a novel toothpaste containing calcium silicate and sodium phosphate in dentine hypersensitivity pain reduction compared to a fluoride control toothpaste.

J Dent 2020 Apr 1:103320. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Clinical Trials Group, Bristol Dental School, University of Bristol, Lower Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS1 2LY, UK. Electronic address:

Objectives: To compare a calcium silicate and sodium phosphate toothpaste (CSSP) with a fluoride negative control toothpaste for dentine hypersensitivity (DH) pain reduction after 14, 28 and 29 days.

Methods: This was a double blind, parallel study in 247 healthy adults with DH (Schiff score >2, tactile 10-20 g) in 2 teeth in different quadrants of the mouth. After acclimatisation, participants were randomised to CSSP or control toothpaste. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2020.103320DOI Listing

Tail-phase safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of long-acting injectable cabotegravir in HIV-uninfected adults: a secondary analysis of the HPTN 077 trial.

Lancet HIV 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Long-acting injectable cabotegravir is a novel integrase inhibitor currently in advanced clinical development for HIV prevention and treatment. We aimed to assess the terminal phase pharmacokinetics and safety of long-acting injectable cabotegravir in participants included in the HPTN 077 trial.

Methods: HPTN 077 was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2a trial done at eight sites in Brazil, Malawi, South Africa, and the USA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30106-5DOI Listing

"We Just Never Have Enough Time": Clinician Views of Lung Cancer Screening Processes and Implementation.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

VA Portland Health Care System, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Portland, Oregon, United States.

Rationale: Despite a known mortality benefit, lung cancer screening (LCS) implementation has been unexpectedly slow. New programs face barriers to implementation, which may include lack of clinician engagement or beliefs that the intervention is not beneficial.

Objective: To evaluate diverse clinician perspectives on their views of LCS and their experience with LCS implementation and processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.202003-262OCDOI Listing

Psychophysical olfactory testing in COVID-19: is smell function really impaired in nearly all patients?

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Unidad de Rinología y Cirugía de Base de Cráneo. Servicio de Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alr.22639DOI Listing

An immediate hypersensitivity reaction induced by PEGylated recombinant factor VIII.

Haemophilia 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Tochigi, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hae.14048DOI Listing

For hazelnut allergy, component testing of Cor a 9 and Cor a 14 is relevant also in birch endemic areas.

Allergy 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

The Skin and Allergy Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14430DOI Listing

Evaluation of the preclinical analgesic efficacy of naturally derived, orally administered oil forms of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and their 1:1 combination.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(6):e0234176. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Pain Research and Care, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Chronic neuropathic pain (NP) is a growing clinical problem for which effective treatments, aside from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids, are lacking. Cannabinoids are emerging as potentially promising agents to manage neuroimmune effects associated with nociception. In particular, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and their combination are being considered as therapeutic alternatives for treatment of NP. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234176PLOS

Untargeted Metabolomics Screen of Mid-pregnancy Maternal Serum and Autism in Offspring.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Clinical Biomarkers Laboratory, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Discovering pathophysiologic networks in a blood-based approach may help to generate valuable tools for early treatment or preventive measures in autism. To date targeted or untargeted metabolomics approaches to identify metabolic features and pathways affecting fetal neurodevelopment have rarely been applied to pregnancy samples, that is, an early period potentially relevant for the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We conducted a population-based study relying on autism diagnoses retrieved from California Department of Developmental Services record. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2311DOI Listing

Reply to: Psychophysical olfactory testing in COVID-19: Is smell function really impaired in nearly all patients?

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Smell & Taste Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck, Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alr.22638DOI Listing

Legends of Allergy and Immunology: Allen Kaplan, M.D.

Authors:
Kusumam Joseph

Allergy 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Scientific Director, BioCryst Pharmaceuticals Inc, United States.

Dr. Allen Kaplan's contributions to our specialty of Allergy and Clinical Immunology span a period of 50 years from his fellowship at The National Institutes of Health beginning in 1967 through his closure of the laboratory at The Medical University of South Carolina in 2017. His research focus has always been on the pathogenesis and treatment of urticaria and angioedema. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14431DOI Listing

Diagnosis and Treatment of Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions to Biologicals: Medical Algorithm.

Allergy 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Institutional Affiliation of Both Authors: Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Monoclonal antibodies havebecome an essential treatment modality for many inflammatory diseases and malignancies. Hypersensitivity reactions to monoclonal antibodies need not prevent their use as first-line therapy. Through the use of rapid desensitization, the patient may be safely re-exposed to the agent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14432DOI Listing

Distribution of ACE2, CD147, CD26 and other SARS-CoV-2 associated molecules in tissues and immune cells in health and in asthma, COPD, obesity, hypertension, and COVID-19 risk factors.

Allergy 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland.

Background: Morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is accelerating worldwide and novel clinical presentations of COVID-19 are often reported. The range of human cells and tissues targeted by SARS-CoV-2, its potential receptors and associated regulating factors are still largely unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the expression of known and potential SARS-CoV-2 receptors and related molecules in the extensive collection of primary human cells and tissues from healthy subjects of different age and from patients with risk factors and known comorbidities of COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14429DOI Listing

T Helper 2 Inhibitors in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

Dermatitis 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Clinical trials are currently underway to evaluate the benefit of dupilumab in treating allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Dupilumab use has been reported to improve ACD reactions in some patients, but not all. Varying clinical responses to T helper 2 (TH2) inhibition challenge the classical view that ACD proceeds through a TH1-dominant pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0000000000000616DOI Listing

Targeted Balsam of Peru Diet for Pediatric Genital Contact Allergy.

Dermatitis 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0000000000000600DOI Listing

Identification of Autophagy-related Proteins in Lungs From Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Patients.

J Histochem Cytochem 2020 Jun;68(6):365-376

Fibrosis Lab, Department of Cell Biology, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.

Autophagy has been involved in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases. However, it is not yet known whether autophagy plays a role in hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). HP is an interstitial lung disease resulting from exposure to a wide variety of antigens that provoke an exaggerated immune response in susceptible individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/0022155420932103DOI Listing

Assessment of IgE- and cell-mediated immunity in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.

Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Firoozabadi Clinical Research Development Unit (FACRDU), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23822/EurAnnACI.1764-1489.154DOI Listing

Omalizumab is effective in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria plus multiple chronic inducible urticaria.

Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University Sechenov University, Division of Immune mediated skin diseases, Moscow, Russian Federation.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23822/EurAnnACI.1764-1489.153DOI Listing

IL17F rs763780 single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with asthma after bronchiolitis in infancy.

Acta Paediatr 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Seinäjoki Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, Finland.

Aim: Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is involved with asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of IL17F polymorphisms with childhood asthma after bronchiolitis in infancy.

Methods: We invited 166 children who were hospitalized for bronchiolitis at younger than 6 months of age to follow-up visits at 5-7 years and 11-13 years of ages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15390DOI Listing

Patient-Reported Outcomes and Blood-Based Parameters Identify Response to Treatment in Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

Dig Dis Sci 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Guldhedsgatan 10A, 413 46, Göteborg, Sweden.

Background: Noninvasive methods to assess treatment response in eosinophilic esophagitis are needed.

Aims: Our aim was to determine whether a blood-based biomarker panel centered on immune parameters could identify histologic response to treatment in eosinophilic esophagitis patients.

Methods: A pilot study involving adult patients with active eosinophilic esophagitis recruited at two Ear, Nose, Throat clinics in Sweden was designed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06368-2DOI Listing

Specialized Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators: Emerging Therapeutic Candidates for Multiple Sclerosis.

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Neurology, Research Division, Education & Research Building, Henry Ford Hospital, Room 4051, 2799 W Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease in which unresolved and uncontrolled inflammation disrupts normal cellular homeostasis and leads to a pathological disease state. It has long been recognized that endogenously derived metabolic by-products of omega fatty acids, known as specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), are instrumental in resolving the pathologic inflammation. However, there is minimal data available on the functional status of SPMs in MS, despite the fact that MS presents a classical model of chronic inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12016-020-08796-4DOI Listing

Hypereosinophilic syndrome-a rare adverse event of anti-cytokine treatment in rheumatoid arthritis resolved after Janus kinase inhibitor therapy.

Clin Rheumatol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

1st Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava and University Hospital Bratislava, Staré Mesto, Mickiewiczova 13, 813 69, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Eosinophilia is uncommon in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The most frequent causes of hypereosinophilia during RA treatment are atopic eczema, allergy, helminth infection, haematological malignancy and drug-associated complications. The pathogenesis of this abnormality associated with anti-cytokine therapy is still unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-020-05134-zDOI Listing

Common Cold and Acute Rhinosinusitis: Up-to-Date Management in 2020.

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2020 Jun 3;20(7):28. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Unitat de Rinologia i Clínica de l'Olfacte, Servei d'Otorinolaringologia, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Purpose Of Review: The purposes of the review are as follows: (1) to define acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) and their phenotypes, (2) to highlight the ARS management according to international guidelines, (3) to compare the physicians' management with the ARS guideline recommendations, and (4) to report ARS socioeconomic burden.

Recent Findings: Bacterial and non-bacterial ARS have similar symptoms, although they can be discriminated by using a combination of specific signs and symptoms. The prescription of antibiotics should be limited to clearly suspected bacterial ARS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11882-020-00917-5DOI Listing

A hexavalent Coxsackievirus B vaccine is highly immunogenic and has a strong protective capacity in mice and nonhuman primates.

Sci Adv 2020 May 6;6(19):eaaz2433. Epub 2020 May 6.

Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Coxsackievirus B (CVB) enteroviruses are common human pathogens known to cause severe diseases including myocarditis, chronic dilated cardiomyopathy, and aseptic meningitis. CVBs are also hypothesized to be a causal factor in type 1 diabetes. Vaccines against CVBs are not currently available, and here we describe the generation and preclinical testing of a novel hexavalent vaccine targeting the six known CVB serotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz2433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202868PMC

CRISPR-based gene editing enables gene repair in IPEX patient cells.

Sci Adv 2020 May 6;6(19):eaaz0571. Epub 2020 May 6.

Division of Stem Cell Transplantation and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

The prototypical genetic autoimmune disease is immune dysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked (IPEX) syndrome, a severe pediatric disease with limited treatment options. IPEX syndrome is caused by mutations in the forkhead box protein 3 () gene, which plays a critical role in immune regulation. As a monogenic disease, IPEX is an ideal candidate for a therapeutic approach in which autologous hematopoietic stem and progenitor (HSPC) cells or T cells are gene edited ex vivo and reinfused. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz0571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202871PMC

STING couples with PI3K to regulate actin reorganization during BCR activation.

Sci Adv 2020 Apr 22;6(17):eaax9455. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Pathogen Biology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The adaptor protein, STING (stimulator of interferon genes), has been rarely studied in adaptive immunity. We used KO mice and a patient's mutated cells to study the effect of STING deficiency on B cell development, differentiation, and BCR signaling. We found that STING deficiency promotes the differentiation of marginal zone B cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax9455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176427PMC

Registries and collaborative studies for primary ciliary dyskinesia in Europe.

ERJ Open Res 2020 Apr 26;6(2). Epub 2020 May 26.

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare inherited disease characterised by malfunctioning cilia leading to a heterogeneous clinical phenotype with many organ systems affected. There is a lack of data on clinical presentation, prognosis and effectiveness of treatments, making it mandatory to improve the scientific evidence base. This article reviews the data resources that are available in Europe for clinical and epidemiological research in PCD, namely established national PCD registries and national cohort studies, plus two large collaborative efforts (the international PCD (iPCD) Cohort and the International PCD Registry), and discusses their strengths, limitations and perspectives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00005-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248350PMC

Acute exacerbation of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias related to chemotherapy for lung cancer: nationwide surveillance in Japan.

ERJ Open Res 2020 Apr 26;6(2). Epub 2020 May 26.

Nerima-Hikarigaoka Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Chemotherapy-induced acute exacerbation (AEx) of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) seriously compromises the success of treatment of Japanese lung cancer patients. Here, we conducted a nationwide surveillance to clarify the risk of AEx and compare it with the survival benefit of chemotherapy for this population.

Methods: Advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with IIPs were retrospectively analysed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00184-2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248335PMC

Ocular Tuberculosis Without a Lung Primary.

Cureus 2020 May 1;12(5):e7920. Epub 2020 May 1.

Infectious Disease, Rosalind Franklin University, North Chicago, USA.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a multisystem infectious disease caused by , which primarily affects the lungs. It is the leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with significant prevalence in the developing countries. However, extrapulmonary manifestations can be seldom seen in a few patients with disseminated TB or with localized disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263713PMC

Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis: An Early Skin Biopsy Makes a Difference.

Cureus 2020 May 1;12(5):e7912. Epub 2020 May 1.

Internal Medicine, University of Connecticut, Farmington, USA.

Leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) is an uncommon condition with a broad differential diagnosis. Although the clinical history, physical examination, and laboratory workup are pivotal when formulating a differential diagnosis of LCV, a skin biopsy is required in most cases to elucidate the cause. The diagnostic yield of a skin biopsy increases within the first 24 to 48 hours of the lesion onset indicating the importance of obtaining a prompt skin sample. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263727PMC

Acute Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Associated With a High Ki-67 Proliferative Index.

Cureus 2020 Apr 30;12(4):e7905. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Advocate Lutheran General Hospital, Park Ridge, USA.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is an interstitial lung disease caused by exposure to a large range of environmental antigens. Inhaling aerosolized particles leads to a heightened immune response. HSP comes in acute, subacute, or chronic forms, all with their own potential clinical and radiographic findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263412PMC

Real-World Adherence and Evidence of Subcutaneous and Sublingual Immunotherapy in Grass and Tree Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2020 13;14:817-827. Epub 2020 May 13.

All-MED Medical Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT), when continued for 3 years, is the only disease-modifying treatment for AR and asthma. Adherence is a key to ensure effectiveness, and poor adherence is a contraindication for AIT. The objective of this study was to evaluate real-world adherence to AIT with subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) preparations in patients allergic to grass or tree pollen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S242957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231771PMC

Author Correction: Next-generation influenza vaccines: opportunities and challenges.

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2020 Jun;19(6):427

Sanofi Global Research and Development, Cambridge, MA, USA.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41573-020-0066-8DOI Listing

An acid-hydrolyzed wheat protein activates the inflammatory and NF-κB pathways leading to long TSLP transcription in human keratinocytes.

J Toxicol Sci 2020 ;45(6):327-337

Department of Material Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University.

Hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWPs) contained in cosmetics have occasionally caused immediate-type hypersensitivity following repeated skin exposure. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that < 3,500 Da HWP is safe for use in cosmetics, it remains biologically unknown how allergenic HWPs evoke immediate-type allergy percutaneously. Keratinocyte-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) induces type 2 immune responses, which play an essential role in the pathogenesis of immediate-type allergy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2131/jts.45.327DOI Listing
January 2020

Streptococcus pyogenes genes that promote pharyngitis in primates.

JCI Insight 2020 Jun 4;5(11). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Center for Molecular and Translational Human Infectious Diseases Research, Houston Methodist Research Institute, and Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus; GAS) causes 600 million cases of pharyngitis annually worldwide. There is no licensed human GAS vaccine despite a century of research. Although the human oropharynx is the primary site of GAS infection, the pathogenic genes and molecular processes used to colonize, cause disease, and persist in the upper respiratory tract are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.137686DOI Listing

Placental Myeloid Cells Protect against Zika Virus Vertical Transmission in a -Deficient Mouse Model.

J Immunol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840; and

The ability of Zika virus (ZIKV) to cross the placenta and infect the fetus is a key mechanism by which ZIKV causes microcephaly. How the virus crosses the placenta and the role of the immune response in this process remain unclear. In the current study, we examined how ZIKV infection affected innate immune cells within the placenta and fetus and whether these cells influenced virus vertical transmission (VTx). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1901289DOI Listing

Pre-Procedural Surveillance Testing for SARS-CoV-2 in an Asymptomatic Population in the Seattle Region Shows Low Rates of Positivity.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.

Seattle region hospitals have been impacted for several months by community spread of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19).…. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01193-20DOI Listing

The efficacy of the novel zinc-containing desensitizer CAREDYNE Shield on dentin hypersensitivity: a study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 3;21(1):464. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 852-8588, 1-7-1, Sakamoto, Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan.

Background: Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a condition characterized by short and sharp episodes of pain which will arise in response to tactile, chemical, thermal, evaporative or osmotic stimuli. The painful symptoms cause discomfort in patients and reduce their quality of life. Recently, the novel zinc-containing desensitizer CAREDYNE Shield has been developed as a new type of desensitizer that acts by inducing chemical occlusion of dentinal tubules, and releasing zinc ion for root caries prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04426-8DOI Listing

The egg and larval pheromone dodecanoic acid mediates density-dependent oviposition of Phlebotomus papatasi.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Jun 3;13(1):280. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 235 Eberhart Bldg., Greensboro, NC, 27402, USA.

Background: Gravid females assess the conditions of oviposition sites to secure the growth and survival of their offspring. Conspecific-occupied sites may signal suitable oviposition sites but may also impose risk due to competition or cannibalism at high population density or heterogeneous larval stage structure, respectively. Chemicals in the habitat, including chemicals emitted from other organisms, serve as cues for females to assess habitat conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04151-wDOI Listing

Controlled, double-blind, randomized trial to assess the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine chemoprophylaxis in SARS CoV2 infection in healthcare personnel in the hospital setting: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 3;21(1):472. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Av. Valdecilla, 25, 39008, Santander, Cantabria, Spain.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection presents a high transmission in the group of health professionals in Spain (12-15% infected). Currently there is no accepted chemoprophylaxis but hydroxychloroquine (HDQ) is known to inhibit the coronavirus in vitro. Our hypothesis is that oral administration of hydroxychloroquine to healthcare professionals can reduce the incidence and prevalence of infection as well as its severity in this group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04400-4DOI Listing

Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among adults exposed to coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 3;21(1):475. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Global Health,International Clinical Research Center (ICRC), University of Washington, UW Box 359927, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA, 98104, USA.

Objectives: Primary Objective • To test the efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (400 mg orally daily for 3 days then 200 mg orally daily for an additional 11 days, to complete 14 days) to prevent incident SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to ascorbic acid among contacts of persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection Secondary objectives • To determine the safety and tolerability of HCQ as SARS-CoV-2 Post-exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) in adults • To test the efficacy of HCQ (400 mg orally daily for 3 days then 200 mg orally daily for an additional 11 days, to complete 14 days) to prevent incident SARS-CoV-2 infection 2 weeks after completing therapy, compared to ascorbic acid among contacts of persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection • To test the efficacy of HCQ to shorten the duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding among those with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the HCQ PEP group • To test the efficacy of HCQ to prevent incident COVID-19 TRIAL DESIGN: This is a randomized, multi-center, placebo-equivalent (ascorbic acid) controlled, blinded study of HCQ PEP for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults exposed to the virus.

Participants: This study will enroll up to 2000 asymptomatic adults 18 to 80 years of age (inclusive) at baseline who are close contacts of persons with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 or clinically suspected COVID-19 and a pending SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. This multisite trial will be conducted at seven sites in Seattle (UW), Los Angeles (UCLA), New Orleans (Tulane), Baltimore (UMB), New York City (NYU), Syracuse (SUNY-Upstate), and Boston (BMC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04446-4DOI Listing

A randomized multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin in the prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in high-risk contacts (MeCOVID Trial): A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 3;21(1):466. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Clinical Pharmacology Department, Clinical Trial Unit, La Paz University Hospital - IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana, 261, 28046, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: Primary objective: to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin as a prophylactic treatment on prevention of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Secondary objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of melatonin as a prophylactic treatment on prevention of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.To evaluate the efficacy of melatonin to prevent the development of severe COVID-19 in the participants enrolled in this study who develop SARS-CoV-2 infection along the trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04436-6DOI Listing

Effect of hydroxychloroquine on prevention of COVID-19 virus infection among healthcare professionals: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 3;21(1):467. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Comparison of the effect of hydroxychloroquine with placebo to prevent infection from the COVID -19 virus among healthcare professionals TRIAL DESIGN: Single centre, 2-arm, double-blind randomised (ratio 1:1) placebo-controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: Treatment staff who are in contact with patients and have at least 3 shifts a week in Arash hospital affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences, in Iran and who consent to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria include: History of COVID -19 virus infection, clinical symptoms such as fever, nausea, dyspnea and myalgia in the past two months, history of underlying diseases hypersensitivity to hydroxychloroquine and G6PD enzyme deficiency.

Intervention And Comparator: Intervention group: Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg tablet of Amin Pharmaceutical. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04439-3DOI Listing

Late introduction of solids into infants' diets may increase the risk of food allergy development.

BMC Pediatr 2020 Jun 3;20(1):273. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Paediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: This study investigated risk factors associated with food allergy or food intolerance among school children in two Swedish towns.

Methods: Questionnaires were used to collect data on self-reported food allergy or intolerance (SRFA) in children aged 7-8 years from Mölndal in southwestern Sweden and Kiruna in northern Sweden. It included questions about specific food allergy or intolerance to cows' milk, hens' eggs, fish, peanuts, tree nuts, and cereals and also age of onset, type of symptoms and age of cessation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02158-xDOI Listing

Elastic power but not driving power is the key promoter of ventilator-induced lung injury in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Crit Care 2020 Jun 3;24(1):284. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Regions Hospital, MS11203B, 640 Jackson St., St. Paul, MN, 55101, USA.

Background: We dissected total power into its primary components to resolve its relative contributions to tissue damage (VILI). We hypothesized that driving power or elastic (dynamic) power offers more precise VILI risk indicators than raw total power. The relative correlations of these three measures of power with VILI-induced histologic changes and injury biomarkers were determined using a rodent model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03011-4DOI Listing