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    8440 results match your criteria Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics[Journal]

    1 OF 169

    Outcomes of oesophageal self-dilation for patients with refractory benign oesophageal strictures.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Background: Current management of refractory benign oesophageal strictures with endoscopic dilations and stenting leads to resolution of dysphagia in only 30% of patients. Oesophageal self-dilation may be an alternative.

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oesophageal self-dilation at a tertiary referral centre. Read More

    Proton pump inhibitor and histamine-2 receptor antagonist use and risk of liver cancer in two population-based studies.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Cancer Epidemiology and Health Services Research Group, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.
    Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are commonly used. PPIs have been shown to promote liver cancer in rats; however, only one study has examined the association in humans.

    Aims: To investigate PPIs and H2RAs and risk of primary liver cancer in two large independent study populations. Read More

    Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging/3D-magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: challenging for experts to interpret.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    1st Department of Medicine, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Background: In patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is performed by many centres, particularly for the early detection of biliary malignancies and strictures. Clinically meaningful MRI-based definitions of primary sclerosing cholangitis related complications are, however, lacking.

    Aim: To investigate how primary sclerosing cholangitis experts interpret follow-up MRI/MRCP with a focus on conclusions that may impact clinical decision-making in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Read More

    Post-operative complications in elderly onset inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Epimad Registry, Hôpital Charles Nicolle, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.
    Background: IBD diagnosed after the age of 60 is increasing. Data on post-operative complications in elderly onset IBD are scarce.

    Aim: To describe the incidence of and factors associated with post-operative complications in elderly onset IBD, diagnosed after the age of 60. Read More

    Food knowledge and psychological state predict adherence to a gluten-free diet in a survey of 5310 Australians and New Zealanders with coeliac disease.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Department of Gastroenterology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Vic., Australia.
    Background: A gluten-free diet treats coeliac disease, but its efficacy depends on strict adherence. A variety of patient factors may influence adherence but have not been well described at a population level.

    Aim: To comprehensively assess the patient factors that influence gluten-free diet adherence in patients with coeliac disease. Read More

    Review article: the prevention of hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University, College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Background: Ample evidence indicates an aetiological association of persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several viral, host and external risk factors for the development of HBV-related HCC have been documented.

    Aims: To summarise and discuss the risk stratification and the preventive strategies of HBV-related HCC. Read More

    Systematic review: safety of mesalazine in ulcerative colitis.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Background: Mesalazine is the most commonly prescribed medication for mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. It is generally well tolerated with some reported side effects.

    Aim: To summarise adverse drug events to mesalazine and recommend techniques for management. Read More

    High efficacy of direct-acting anti-viral agents in hepatitis C virus-infected cirrhotic patients with successfully treated hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Rozzano, Italy.
    Background: The efficacy of direct-acting anti-viral (DAA) therapy in patients with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown.

    Aim: We prospectively evaluated whether previously treated HCC affects DAA efficacy in a large real-life cohort of cirrhotic patients.

    Methods: From January to December 2015 all consecutive HCV mono-infected patients with cirrhosis and/or history of HCC attending 10 Italian tertiary liver centres were enrolled. Read More

    Review article: short chain fatty acids as potential therapeutic agents in human gastrointestinal and inflammatory disorders.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Central Clinical School, Monash University and Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
    Background: Butyrate, propionate and acetate are short chain fatty acids (SCFA), important for maintaining a healthy colon and are considered as protective in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, they may also regulate immune responses and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Consequently, their importance in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases is emerging. Read More

    Review article: therapeutic bile acids and the risks for hepatotoxicity.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 27. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Division of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA.
    Background: Bile acids play important roles in cholesterol metabolism and signal through farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled receptors. Given their importance in liver biology, bile acid therapy enables therapeutic applications beyond the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. However, predicting hepatotoxicity of bile acids in humans is obscured due to inconsistent extrapolations of animal data to humans. Read More

    A pilot single arm observational study of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (200 + 45 mg) in 6- to 12- year old children.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Green Clinic Research Center (CRC), Alexandria, Egypt.
    Background: No available data on the use of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir combination in treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children 6- to 12- year old.

    Aim: To assess the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir in children 6- to 12- year old with chronic HCV genotype 4 infection.

    Methods: This is a pilot prospective single arm observational open-label multicentre study. Read More

    Safety and efficacy of pasireotide in dumping syndrome-results from a phase 2, multicentre study.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Background: Dumping syndrome is a prevalent complication of oesophageal and gastric surgery characterised by early (postprandial tachycardia) and late (hypoglycaemia) postprandial symptoms.

    Aim: To evaluate efficacy and safety of the somatostatin analogue, pasireotide in patients with dumping syndrome after bariatric or upper gastrointestinal cancer surgery.

    Methods: A single-arm, open-label, multicentre, intrapatient dose-escalation, phase 2 study with 4 phases: screening, 3-month SC (subcutaneous), 3-month IM (intramuscular) and 6-month optional extension IM phase. Read More

    Systematic review with meta-analysis: endoscopic and histologic placebo rates in induction and maintenance trials of ulcerative colitis.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Robarts Clinical Trials, Western University, London, ON, Canada.
    Background: Regulatory requirements for claims of mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis (UC) will require demonstration of both endoscopic and histologic healing. Quantifying these rates is essential for future drug development.

    Aims: To meta-analyse endoscopic and histologic placebo response and remission rates in UC randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and identify factors influencing these rates. Read More

    Randomised clinical trial: a leucine-metformin-sildenafil combination (NS-0200) vs placebo in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    NuSirt Biopharma, Nashville, TN, USA.
    Background: Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is suppressed in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), while its' stimulation or overexpression results in reduced disease severity in pre-clinical NAFLD models. Leucine allosterically activates Sirt1 and synergise with other Sirt/AMPK/NO pathway activators. We developed a triple combination of leucine, metformin and sildenafil (NS-0200), which was effective in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Read More

    Using the chronic kidney disease guidelines to evaluate the renal safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in hepatitis B patients.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Background: Renal dysfunction remains an issue in tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.

    Aim: To evaluate renal safety of TDF according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines.

    Methods: We retrospectively recruited CHB patients who received either TDF or entecavir (ETV) monotherapy from January 2008 to August 2015. Read More

    Review article: novel oral-targeted therapies in inflammatory bowel disease.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    NIHR Biomedical Research Centre in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Background: There is a great unmet clinical need for efficacious, tolerable, economical and orally administrated drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). New therapeutic avenues have become possible including the development of medications that target specific genetic pathways found to be relevant in other immune mediated diseases.

    Aims: To provide an overview of recent clinical trials for new generation oral targeted medications that may have a future role in IBD management. Read More

    Randomised clinical trial: gastrointestinal events in arthritis patients treated with celecoxib, ibuprofen or naproxen in the PRECISION trial.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Background: We evaluated GI safety of celecoxib compared with 2 nonselective (ns) NSAIDs, as a secondary objective of a large trial examining multiorgan safety.

    Methods: This randomised, double-blind controlled trial analysed 24 081 patients. Osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis patients, needing ongoing NSAID treatment, were randomised to receive celecoxib 100-200 mg b. Read More

    Real-world use of elbasvir-grazoprevir in patients with chronic hepatitis C: retrospective analyses from the TRIO network.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Elbasvir-grazoprevir is indicated for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 and 4.

    Aims: To evaluate the utilization and outcomes of chronic HCV patients treated with elbasvir-grazoprevir in the United States.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults treated with elbasvir-grazoprevir with or without ribavirin for chronic HCV genotypes 1 or 4 infection. Read More

    Safety of sofosbuvir-based regimens after liver transplantation: longitudinal assessment of renal function in the prospective ANRS CO23 CUPILT study.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Villejuif, France.
    Background: In liver transplant recipients with hepatitis C virus recurrence, there is concern about renal safety of sofosbuvir-based regimens. Changes in serum creatinine or in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) under treatment are used to look for possible renal toxicity. However, serum creatinine and eGFR are highly variable. Read More

    Generic velpatasvir plus sofosbuvir for hepatitis C virus infection in patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus coinfection.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Background: Data are limited regarding the effectiveness and safety of generic velpatasvir plus sofosbuvir (VEL/SOF) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection.

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of generic VEL/SOF-based therapy for HCV infection in patients with or without HIV coinfection in Taiwan.

    Methods: Sixty-nine HIV/HCV-coinfected and 159 HCV-monoinfected patients receiving 12 weeks of generic VEL/SOF with or without ribavirin (RBV) for HCV were prospectively enrolled. Read More

    High body mass index is associated with increased risk of treatment failure and surgery in biologic-treated patients with ulcerative colitis.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Division of Gastroenterology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Background: Though pharmacokinetic studies suggest accelerated biologic drug clearance with increasing body weight, evidence of obesity's impact on clinical outcomes in biologic-treated patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is inconsistent.

    Aims: To evaluate the impact of obesity on real world response to biological therapy in patients with UC.

    Methods: In a single-centre retrospective cohort study between 2011-2016 of biologic-treated patients with UC, we evaluated treatment response by baseline body mass index (BMI). Read More

    Contribution of Helicobacter pylori infection to the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding in patients on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, corticosteroids and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 14. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University Hospital, Magdeburg, Germany.
    Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, low-dose aspirin, non-aspirin antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and corticosteroids increase the risk of gastroduodenal bleeding.

    Aim: To determine in a retrospective cohort study the contribution of Helicobacter pylori infection to the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding in patients taking these drugs.

    Methods: Among patients with peptic ulcer disease diagnosed by endoscopy from 01/2004 to 12/2014 (N = 1719, 60% males, age 65. Read More

    Impact of HBV genotype and mutations on HBV DNA and qHBsAg levels in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Background: HBV DNA and quantitative (q)HBsAg levels as prognostic markers for HBV-related disease are mostly validated in Asia and their significance in Western populations is uncertain.

    Aim: To analyse the impact of the HBV genotype and frequent mutations in precore (PC), basal core promoter (BCP) and preS on HBV DNA and qHBsAg levels.

    Methods: HBV DNA and qHBsAg serum levels of 465 patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection were correlated with the HBV genotype and mutations in PC, BCP and preS. Read More

    Systematic review with meta-analysis: association between acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and risk of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis exacerbation.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 5. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Unlike acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have generally been thought to be associated with increased risk of IBD exacerbation.

    Aim: To carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis of previous studies examining the association between acetaminophen and NSAIDs including cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors use, and risk of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) exacerbation.

    Methods: We identified published manuscripts and abstracts through 1 March 2017 by systematic search of Medline, Embase, Cochrane and other trial registries. Read More

    Intensity of surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma determines survival in patients at risk in a hepatitis B-endemic area.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 2. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Data are insufficient regarding the survival benefit of surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of HCC surveillance in a hepatitis B-endemic population.

    Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 1402 consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with HCC between 2005 and 2012 at a single tertiary hospital in Korea. Read More

    Stabilisation of acute-on-chronic liver failure patients before liver transplantation predicts post-transplant survival.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Apr 2. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Background: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe complication of liver cirrhosis associated with excess short-term mortality rates. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a potentially life-saving therapeutic modality for acute-on-chronic liver failure patients, but selection of transplant candidates with an acceptable post-transplant outcome is difficult.

    Objective: To assess the risk of liver transplantation in patients with ACLF, and to determine parameters that predict post-transplant survival in this patient cohort. Read More

    Fibrosis-4 index predicts cirrhosis risk and liver-related mortality in 2075 patients with chronic HBV infection.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Background: Fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) is a surrogate marker for hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers.

    Aim: It remains unclear whether FIB-4 index stratifies the risks of adverse liver events.

    Methods: A total of 2075 treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic the patients with chronic HBV infection were included. Read More

    Review article: nonclinical and clinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of etrolizumab, an anti-β7 integrin therapy for inflammatory bowel disease.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Research and Early Development, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Background: Novel treatments with superior benefit-risk profiles are needed to improve the long-term prognosis of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Etrolizumab-a monoclonal antibody that specifically targets β7 integrins-is currently under phase III clinical evaluation in IBD.

    Aim: This review summarises the available pharmacological and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data for etrolizumab to provide a comprehensive understanding of its mechanism of action (MOA) and pharmacological effects. Read More

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