Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease in the US. Understanding the epidemiology of NAFLD, with specific focus on individuals with hepatic fibrosis is important to guide healthcare resource planning.
Aim: To evaluate prevalence and predictors of hepatic fibrosis among US adults with NAFLD. Read More
Background: Leucopenia is a common side effect in patients treated with thiopurines. Variants in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene are the best-known risk factor, but only explain up to 25% of leucopenia cases.
Aim: To identify the clinical risk factors for thiopurine-induced leucopenia in patients without a common TPMT variant, and explore if these patients are at increased risk for infections. Read More
Background: Advances in autoimmune hepatitis that transform current concepts of pathogenesis and management can be anticipated as products of ongoing investigations driven by unmet clinical needs and an evolving biotechnology.
Aim: To describe the advances that are likely to become transformative in autoimmune hepatitis, based on the direction of current investigations.
Methods: Pertinent abstracts were identified in PubMed by multiple search terms. Read More
Background: Breastfeeding is a modifiable factor that may influence development of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, literature on this has been inconsistent and not accounted for heterogeneity in populations and exposure.
Aim: To conduct a meta-analysis to examine the association between breastfeeding in infancy and risk of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Read More
Background: Significance of monitoring adalimumab trough levels and anti-adalimumab antibodies (AAA) for disease outcome in Crohn's disease (CD) patients remained unclear.
Aim: To evaluate the association of adalimumab trough levels and AAA at week 26 with clinical remission at week 52, the effect of azathiopurine on AAA and factors influencing trough levels in CD patients in the DIAMOND trial.
Methods: We performed this study using adalimumab trough levels, AAA at week 26 and 6-thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) in red blood cells at week 12. Read More
Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Limburg, The Netherlands.
Background: Abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains challenging to treat effectively. Researchers have attempted to elucidate visceral nociceptive processes in order to guide treatment development. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been implied in the generation (TRPV1, TRPV4, TRPA1) and inhibition (TRPM8) of visceral pain signals. Read More
Background: In the era of highly effective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, ribavirin (RBV) is still considered beneficial in certain patients.
Aim: To assess the association between RBV steady-state plasma levels and sustained virological response (SVR).
Methods: Consecutive HCV-infected patients treated with DAAs plus RBV from four Dutch academic medical centres were enrolled. Read More
Background: Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)s form a major part of therapy in Crohn's disease and have a primary nonresponse rate of 10%-30% and a secondary loss of response rate of 5% per year. Myopenia is prevalent in Crohn's disease and is measured using body composition analysis tools.
Aim: To test the hypothesis that body composition can predict outcomes of anti-TNF primary nonresponse and secondary loss of response. Read More
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Center for Esophageal Diseases and Swallowing, and Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection appears to be more common than previously thought. HEV seroprevalence in patients on maintenance haemodialysis (HD) is unclear with a range from 0% to 44%. In addition, risk factors of transmission of HEV in patients on haemodialysis are unknown. Read More
Background: The human virome consists of animal-cell viruses causing transient infections, bacteriophage (phage) predators of bacteria and archaea, endogenous retroviruses and viruses causing persistent and latent infections. High-throughput, inexpensive, sensitive sequencing methods and metagenomics now make it possible to study the contribution dsDNA, ssDNA and RNA virus-like particles make to the human virome, and in particular the intestinal virome.
Aim: To review and evaluate the pioneering studies that have attempted to characterise the human virome and generated an increased interest in understanding how the intestinal virome might contribute to maintaining health, and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Read More
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. NAFLD-HCC often occurs in noncirrhotic liver raising important surveillance issues.
Aim: To determine the temporal trends for prevalence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of NAFLD-HCC in patients undergoing liver resection. Read More
Background: Rifaximin might decrease the risk of portal hypertension-related complications by controlling small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.
Aim: To evaluate whether rifaximin was associated with the risk of death and cirrhotic complications.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study that included 1042 patients experiencing hepatic encephalopathy (HE): 421 patients without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; the non-HCC cohort) and 621 patients with HCC (the HCC cohort). Read More
Background: The availability of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has dramatically changed the landscape of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy; however, the cost and budget requirements for DAA treatment have been widely debated.
Aims: To systematically review published studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of DAAs for HCV genotype 2-6 infections, and synthesise and re-evaluate results with updated drug prices.
Methods: We conducted a systematic search of various electronic databases, including Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library and EconLit for cost-effectiveness studies published from 2011 to 2016. Read More
Background: Despite potential adverse-events in a paediatric population, corticosteroids are used to induce remission in paediatric Crohn's disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition also induces remission, but is infrequently used in the USA because corticosteroids are considered the superior therapy. New data have become available since the publication of the most recent meta-analysis in 2007. Read More
Background: Lenalidomide has immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic effects and showed moderate anti-tumour efficacy in patients with. advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) AIM: To explore potential biomarkers of lenalidomide efficacy as second-line therapy for HCC.
Methods: Eligible patients were diagnosed with advanced HCC, documented progression on sorafenib, and Child-Pugh class A liver function. Read More
"A. M. e A. Migliavacca" Center for Liver Disease, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.