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    8178 results match your criteria Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics[Journal]

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    Genetic risk factors for perception of symptoms in GERD: an observational cohort study.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Background: Genetic polymorphisms in G-protein beta-3 subunit (GNβ3) and beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) are associated with pain and gut hypersensitivity, which can overlap with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

    Aim: To evaluate relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GNβ3 and ADRB2 systems, and reflux symptom burden, GERD phenotypes from ambulatory reflux monitoring, and quality of life.

    Methods: Symptomatic adults undergoing ambulatory reflux testing were recruited and phenotyped based on acid burden and symptom reflux association; major oesophageal motor disorders and prior foregut surgery were exclusions. Read More

    Early drug and anti-infliximab antibody levels for prediction of primary nonresponse to infliximab therapy.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Sheba Medical Center Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel.
    Background: Primary nonresponse, defined as lack of clinical benefit during the induction phase, occurs in up to 30% of IBD patients treated with infliximab. The mechanisms underlying primary nonresponse have not yet been clearly defined.

    Aim: To evaluate the association of early (week 2 and week 6) induction infliximab and anti-infliximab antibody levels with primary nonresponse. Read More

    Risk factors for biopsy-proven advanced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Veterans Health Administration.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Durham, NC, USA.
    Background: With its increasing incidence, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is of particular concern in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA).

    Aims: To evaluate risk factors for advanced fibrosis in biopsy-proven NAFLD in the VHA, to identify patients at risk for adverse outcomes.

    Methods: In randomly selected cases from VHA databases (2005-2015), we performed a retrospective case-control study in adults with biopsy-defined NAFLD or normal liver. Read More

    Randomised clinical study: the effects of oral taurine 6g/day vs placebo on portal hypertension.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Background: The amino sulphonic acid taurine reduces oxidative endoplasmatic reticulum stress and inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation, which might lead to reduction of portal pressure in cirrhosis.

    Aim: To assess the haemodynamic effects of taurine supplementation in patients with cirrhosis and varices.

    Methods: Patients with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) ≥12 mm Hg were included in this prospective proof of concept study. Read More

    Proton pump inhibitors are associated with accelerated development of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma in noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C infection: results from ERCHIVES.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Background: Proton pump inhibitors are among the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. Their safety in cirrhosis has recently been questioned, but their overall effect on disease progression in noncirrhotic patients with chronic liver disease remains unclear.

    Aim: To determine the impact of proton pump inhibitors on the progression of liver disease in noncirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Read More

    Angiotensin receptor blocker use and gastro-oesophageal cancer survival: a population-based cohort study.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.
    Background: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs; including candesartan, losartan, olmesartan and valsartan) are widely used to treat hypertension, heart failure and diabetic neuropathy. There is considerable pre-clinical evidence that ARBs can reduce cancer progression, particularly for gastric cancer. Despite this, epidemiological studies have yet to assess the impact of ARB use on gastro-oesophageal cancer survival. Read More

    Review article: the gut microbiome as a therapeutic target in the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic liver disease.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Institute of Liver Studies and Transplantation, King's College London School of Medicine at King's College Hospital, London, UK.
    Background: Mortality from chronic liver disease is rising exponentially. The liver is intimately linked to the gut via the portal vein, and exposure to gut microbiota and their metabolites translocating across the gut lumen may impact upon both the healthy and diseased liver. Modulation of gut microbiota could prove to be a potential therapeutic target. Read More

    Systematic review with meta-analysis: the significance of histological disease severity in lean patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Institute of Medical Research A. Lanari, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Background: Current evidence suggests that lean and obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) share an altered metabolic and cardiovascular profile. However, there is an incomplete understanding of the natural history of "lean-NAFLD." Indeed, an unanswered question is whether lean (BMI ≤ 25 Kg/m(2) ) NAFLD-patients are protected from severe histological outcomes. Read More

    Randomised clinical trial: yoga vs a low-FODMAP diet in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent gastrointestinal disorder. It is assumed that lifestyle interventions might be a rational treatment approach.

    Aim: To examine the effect of a yoga-based intervention vs a low-FODMAP diet on patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Read More

    Colectomy prior to diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with improved prognosis in a nationwide cohort study of 2594 PSC-IBD patients.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Medicine Huddinge, Division of Hepatology, Karolinska Institutet Center for Digestive Disease, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Despite the close relationship between primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the association between colectomy and the prognosis of PSC remains controversial.

    Aim: To explore whether colectomy prior to PSC-diagnosis is associated with transplant-free survival.

    Methods: A nationwide cohort study in Sweden including all patients aged 18 to 69 years in whom both PSC and IBD was diagnosed between 1987 and 2014 was undertaken. Read More

    Genetic polymorphisms associated with smoking behaviour predict the risk of surgery in patients with Crohn's disease.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Zurich (USZ) and Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Smoking is a strong environmental factor leading to adverse outcomes in Crohn's disease, but a more benign course in ulcerative colitis. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with smoking quantity and behaviour.

    Aims: To assess whether smoking-associated SNPs interact with smoking to influence the clinical course of inflammatory bowel diseases. Read More

    The taxonomic composition of the donor intestinal microbiota is a major factor influencing the efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation in therapy refractory ulcerative colitis.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation is an experimental approach for the treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Although there is growing evidence that faecal microbiota transplantation is effective in this disease, factors affecting its response are unknown.

    Aims: To establish a faecal microbiota transplantation treatment protocol in ulcerative colitis patients, and to investigate which patient or donor factors are responsible for the treatment success. Read More

    Direct medical costs associated with the extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection in France.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Medicine, Center for Liver Diseases, Inova Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church, VA, USA.
    Background: The economic impact of extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains unknown for France.

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations of HCV and the direct medical costs associated with them.

    Methods: Estimates of 13 extrahepatic manifestations prevalence were obtained from (1) a retrospective data analysis of HCV-infected patients in a specialised centre and the baseline prevalence in the general French population and (2) an international systematic review. Read More

    Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg): an emerging marker for chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Background: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cannot be completely eradicated due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes. While quantification of intrahepatic cccDNA requires liver biopsies, serological markers can be non-invasive alternatives to reflect intrahepatic viral replicative activity. Recently, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been advocated as a novel serum marker for disease monitoring and prognostication of CHB. Read More

    Short-term risk of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatitis C virus eradication following direct-acting anti-viral treatment.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Fukuoka, Japan.
    Background: With the development of direct-acting anti-virals (DAAs), almost all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can achieve sustained viral response (SVR).

    Aim: To evaluate the short-term risk of HCC among patients with SVR by DAAs, including those with cirrhosis or previous HCC.

    Methods: This large-scale, multicentre cohort study included 1,675 consecutive patients who achieved SVR by treatment with interferon-free sofosbuvir-based regimens, divided into groups with (n = 152) or without previous HCC (n = 1,523). Read More

    The albumin-bilirubin grade uncovers the prognostic relationship between hepatic reserve and immune dysfunction in HIV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of liver-related mortality in people living with HIV, where co-infection with hepatotropic viruses accelerates the course of chronic liver disease.

    Aim: To evaluate whether the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, a more accurate marker of liver dysfunction in HCC, might identify patients with progressive liver dysfunction in the context of HIV/hepatitis co-infection.

    Methods: Using uni- and multi-variable analyses, we studied the albumin-bilirubin grade as a predictor of overall survival (OS) in a large, multi-center cohort of patients with HIV-associated HCC recruited from 44 centres in 9 countries within the Liver Cancer in HIV study group. Read More

    Review article: the gut microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease-avenues for microbial management.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Background: The concept of an altered collective gut microbiota rather than identification of a single culprit is possibly the most significant development in inflammatory bowel disease research. We have entered the "omics" era, which now allows us to undertake large-scale/high-throughput microbiota analysis which may well define how we approach diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the future, with a strong steer towards personalised therapeutics.

    Aim: To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of the current status of knowledge relating to the gut microbiome, and its role in IBD, with emphasis on reviewing the evidence relating to microbial therapeutics and future microbiome modulating therapeutics. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of golimumab in Crohn's disease: a French national retrospective study.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Dec 13;46(11-12):1077-1084. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Saint Antoine Hospital, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), CHU, Paris, France.
    Background: Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents have improved the care of Crohn's disease (CD). After the first anti-TNF discontinuation, it is possible to switch to another anti-TNF. Three anti-TNF agents are available for ulcerative colitis (infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab), but only the first 2 have been approved for CD because golimumab has not been studied for this indication. Read More

    Review article: consensus statements on therapeutic drug monitoring of anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Dec 13;46(11-12):1037-1053. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents can help optimise outcomes. Consensus statements based on current evidence will help the development of treatment guidelines.

    Aim: To develop evidence-based consensus statements for TDM-guided anti-TNF therapy in IBD. Read More

    Cholangiopathy in critically ill patients surviving beyond the intensive care period: a multicentre survey in liver units.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017 Dec 11;46(11-12):1070-1076. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Rouen, France.
    Background: The outcome of cholangiopathy developing in intensive care unit (ICU) is not known in patients surviving their ICU stay.

    Aim: To perform a survey in liver units, in order to clarify the course of cholangiopathy after surviving ICU stay.

    Methods: The files of the liver units affiliated to the French network for vascular liver disease were screened for cases of ICU cholangiopathy developing in patients with normal liver function tests on ICU admission, and no prior history of liver disease. Read More

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