326,716 results match your criteria Algorithms for Molecular Biology [Journal]


Potential Role of microRNA-183 as a Tumor Suppressor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 6;51(5):2065-2072. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of General Surgery of East District, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang,

Background/aims: Disseminated tumors, known as metastases, are responsible for ninety-percent of mortality due to cancer. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition, a phenomenon required for morphological conversion of non-motile discoid shaped epithelial cells to highly motile spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells, is thought to be a pre-requisite for metastatic progression. Metastasis-associated 1 (MTA1) protein is a prime inducer of EMT and metastatic progression in all solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

MiR-15b is a key regulator of proliferation and apoptosis of chondrocytes from patients with condylar hyperplasia by targeting IGF1, IGF1R and BCL2.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei province, China. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aimed to explore potential microRNAs (miRNAs), which participate in the pathological process of condylar hyperplasia (CH) through targeting specific proliferation- and apoptosis-related genes of chondrocytes.

Methods: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in CH cartilage were detected by real-time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. MiRanda and TargetScanS algorithms were used to predict certain miRNAs in CH chondrocytes concurrently modulating the above three genes. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Neuroevolution as a Tool for Microarray Gene Expression Pattern Identification in Cancer Research.

J Biomed Inform 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Informatics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Microarrays are still one of the major techniques employed to study cancer biology. However, the identification of expression patterns from microarray datasets is still a significant challenge to overcome. In this work, a new approach using Neuroevolution, a machine learning field that combines neural networks and evolutionary computation, provides aid in this challenge by simultaneously classifying microarray data and selecting the subset of more relevant genes. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A value proposition for trough level-based anti-TNFα drug dosing.

Clin Chim Acta 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Expert Center Clinical Chemistry Eindhoven, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; Clinical Laboratory, Máxima Medical Center, Veldhoven, the Netherlands.

Treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases and rheumatic disorders with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) drugs is expensive, while a significant proportion of patients does not show adequate clinical response. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) enables patient-specific anti-TNFα therapy. The role of laboratory tests in clinical care has recently been described in a value proposition framework. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Intensive versus standard multifactorial cardiovascular risk factor control in screen-detected type 2 diabetes: 5 year and longer-term modelled outcomes of the ADDITION-Leicester study.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2018 Dec 6:e3111. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Leicester Diabetes Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Aims: Diabetes treatment algorithms recommend intensive intervention in those with a shorter duration of disease. Screening provides opportunities for earlier multifactorial cardiovascular risk factor control. Using data from the ADDITION-Leicester study (NCT00318032), we estimated the effects of this approach on modelled risk of diabetes related complications in screen-detected patients. Read More

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December 2018

Computer-assisted diagnosis techniques (dermoscopy and spectroscopy-based) for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013186. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Campus, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) are high-risk skin cancers which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early curable cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benign lesions. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Visual inspection and dermoscopy, alone or in combination, for diagnosing keratinocyte skin cancers in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD011901. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is important to guide appropriate management, to reduce morbidity and to improve survival. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is almost always a localised skin cancer with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue, whereas a minority of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) and invasive melanomas are higher-risk skin cancers with the potential to metastasise and cause death. Dermoscopy has become an important tool to assist specialist clinicians in the diagnosis of melanoma, and is increasingly used in primary-care settings. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Visual inspection for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013194. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. History-taking and visual inspection of a suspicious lesion by a clinician is usually the first in a series of 'tests' to diagnose skin cancer. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Dermoscopy, with and without visual inspection, for diagnosing melanoma in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD011902. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Although history-taking and visual inspection of a suspicious lesion by a clinician are usually the first in a series of 'tests' to diagnose skin cancer, dermoscopy has become an important tool to assist diagnosis by specialist clinicians and is increasingly used in primary care settings. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013190. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Early detection and treatment is key to improving survival; however, anxiety around missing early cases needs to be balanced against appropriate levels of referral and excision of benign lesions. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Optimizing beat synchronized running to music.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208702. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

IPEM, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

The use of music and specifically tempo-matched music has been shown to affect running performance. But can we maximize the synchronization of movements to music and does maximum synchronization influence kinematics and motivation? In this study, we explore the effect of different types of music-to-movement alignment strategies on phase coherence, cadence and motivation. These strategies were compared to a control condition where the music tempo was deliberately not aligned to the running cadence. Read More

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December 2018

Bayesian adaptive dual control of deep brain stimulation in a computational model of Parkinson's disease.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1006606. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America.

In this paper, we present a novel Bayesian adaptive dual controller (ADC) for autonomously programming deep brain stimulation devices. We evaluated the Bayesian ADC's performance in the context of reducing beta power in a computational model of Parkinson's disease, in which it was tasked with finding the set of stimulation parameters which optimally reduced beta power as fast as possible. Here, the Bayesian ADC has dual goals: (a) to minimize beta power by exploiting the best parameters found so far, and (b) to explore the space to find better parameters, thus allowing for better control in the future. Read More

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December 2018

Towards Automated Tools for Characterization of Molecular Porosity.

J Chem Theory Comput 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

The emerging advanced porous materials, e.g. extended framework materials and porous molecular materials, offer an unprecedented level of control of their structure and function. Read More

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December 2018

Investigation of the contribution of an underlying platelet defect in women with unexplained heavy menstrual bleeding.

Platelets 2018 Dec 6:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

b Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences , University of Birmingham , Birmingham , UK.

Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is often undiagnosed in women and can cause discomfort and distress. A haemostatic cause for excessive bleeding is often not routinely investigated and can lead to hysterectomy at an early age. A prospective cohort study was carried out to determine whether certain patients with unexplained HMB have an underlying platelet function defect (PFD). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The real-life data of hospitalized patients with heart failure: On behalf of the Journey HF-TR study investigators.

Anatol J Cardiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul University, Institute of Cardiology; İstanbul-Turkey.

Objective: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by rapid onset of heart failure (HF) symptoms and signs and requires urgent therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the overall clinical characteristics, management, and in-hospital outcomes of hospitalized patients with AHF in a large sample of Turkish population.

Methods: The Journey HF-TR study is a cross-sectional, multicenter, non-invasive and observational trial. Read More

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December 2018

Automated segmentation of trabecular and cortical bone from proton density weighted MRI of the knee.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biomechanical Engineering, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7500 AE, Enschede, the Netherlands.

Patient-specific implant design and pre- and intra-operative planning is becoming increasingly important in the orthopaedic field. For clinical feasibility of these techniques, fast and accurate segmentation of bone structures from MRI is essential. However, manual segmentation is time intensive and subject to inter- and intra-observer variation. Read More

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December 2018

Validation of the physiological background correction method for the suppression of the spill-in effect near highly radioactive regions in positron emission tomography.

EJNMMI Phys 2018 Dec 5;5(1):34. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Biomedical Imaging Science Department, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK.

Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has a wide applicability in oncology, cardiology and neurology. However, a major drawback when imaging very active regions such as the bladder is the spill-in effect, leading to inaccurate quantification and obscured visualisation of nearby lesions. Therefore, this study aims at investigating and correcting for the spill-in effect from high-activity regions to the surroundings as a function of activity in the hot region, lesion size and location, system resolution and application of post-filtering using a recently proposed background correction technique. Read More

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December 2018

Predicting Drug Interactions From Chemogenomics Using INDIGO.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1888:219-231

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Designing effective antibiotic combination regimens is critical for countering drug resistance in pathogens. Yet the large combinatorial search-space makes the identification of effective combinations a significant challenge. There is a great need for computational approaches that can rapidly prioritize potential combination regimens based on the antagonistic and synergistic interactions among the constituent antibiotics. Read More

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January 2019

Vertebral body insufficiency fractures: detection of vertebrae at risk on standard CT images using texture analysis and machine learning.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Ramistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of bone texture analysis (TA) combined with machine learning (ML) algorithms in standard CT scans to identify patients with vertebrae at risk for insufficiency fractures.

Materials And Methods: Standard CT scans of 58 patients with insufficiency fractures of the spine, performed between 2006 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Every included patient had at least two CT scans. Read More

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December 2018

False-positive rates in screening for trisomies 18 and 13: a comparison between first-trimester combined screening and a cfDNA-based approach.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Women's Health, University Women's Hospital Tuebingen, Calwerstrasse 7, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Purpose: To determine the false-positive rates (FPR) associated with screening for trisomy 18/13 using first-trimester combined screening (FTCS) and an ultrasound plus cfDNA-based approach (US-cfDNA), which includes a detailed ultrasound examination, a cfDNA analysis and a FTCS reflex backup test for cases with uninformative results.

Methods: This is a sub-analysis of a randomized controlled trial, which was performed between 2015 and 2016. Pregnant women with a normal first-trimester ultrasound examination at 11-13 weeks' gestation (NT < 3. Read More

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December 2018

A wavelet-based decomposition method for a robust extraction of pulse rate from video recordings.

PeerJ 2018 27;6:e5859. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) is a promising optical method for non-contact assessment of pulse rate (PR) from video recordings. In order to implement the method in real-time applications, it is necessary for the rPPG algorithms to be capable of eliminating as many distortions from the pulse signal as possible.

Methods: In order to increase the degrees-of-freedom of the distortion elimination, the dimensionality of the RGB video signals is increased by the wavelet transform decomposition using the generalized Morse wavelet. Read More

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November 2018

Superbubbles revisited.

Algorithms Mol Biol 2018 1;13:16. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

1Competence Center for Scalable Data Services and Solutions Dresden/Leipzig, Universität Leipzig, Augustusplatz 12, 04107 Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Superbubbles are distinctive subgraphs in direct graphs that play an important role in assembly algorithms for high-throughput sequencing (HTS) data. Their practical importance derives from the fact they are connected to their host graph by a single entrance and a single exit vertex, thus allowing them to be handled independently. Efficient algorithms for the enumeration of superbubbles are therefore of important for the processing of HTS data. Read More

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December 2018

ABPS: An R Package for Calculating the Abnormal Blood Profile Score.

Front Physiol 2018 21;9:1638. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Bioinformatics Core Facility, SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland.

The Abnormal Blood Profile Score (ABPS) is used to identify blood doping in sport. It combines seven hematological markers, including hemoglobin level, reticulocytes percent, and haematocrit level, using two different machine learning algorithms in order to create a single score that has a better ability to identify doping than each parameter taken alone. The resulting score allows the detection of several types of doping using a single score and is part of the current Athlete Biological Passport program managed by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The plasma peptidome.

Clin Proteomics 2018 1;15:39. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

1Ryerson Analytical Biochemistry Laboratory (RABL), Department of Chemistry and Biology, Faculty of Science, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria St, Toronto, ON Canada.

Background: It may be possible to discover new diagnostic or therapeutic peptides or proteins from blood plasma using LC-ESI-MS/MS to identify, with a linear quadrupole ion trap to identify, quantify and compare the statistical distributions of peptides cleaved ex vivo from plasma samples from different clinical populations.

Methods: A systematic method for the organic fractionation of plasma peptides was applied to identify and quantify the endogenous tryptic peptides from human plasma from multiple institutions by C18 HPLC followed nano electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with a linear quadrupole ion trap. The endogenous tryptic peptides, or tryptic phospho peptides (i. Read More

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December 2018

Rural and urban disparities in the care of Canadian patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 8;10:1613-1626. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background And Aims: Canada's large geographic area and low population density pose challenges in access to specialized health care for remote and rural residents. We compared health services use, surgical rate, and specialist gastroenterologist care in rural and urban inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in Canada.

Methods: We used validated algorithms that were applied to population-based health administrative data to identify all people living with the following three Canadian provinces: Alberta, Manitoba, and Ontario (ON). Read More

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November 2018

Exposure to selected preservatives in personal care products: case study comparison of exposure models and observational biomonitoring data.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Summit Toxicology, LLP, Bozeman, MT, USA.

Exposure models provide critical information for risk assessment of personal care product ingredients, but there have been limited opportunities to compare exposure model predictions to observational exposure data. Urinary excretion data from a biomonitoring study in eight individuals were used to estimate minimum absorbed doses for triclosan and methyl-, ethyl-, and n-propyl- parabens (TCS, MP, EP, PP). Three screening exposure models (European Commission Scientific Commission on Consumer Safety [SCCS] algorithms, ConsExpo in deterministic mode, and RAIDAR-ICE) and two higher-tier probabilistic models (SHEDS-HT, and Creme Care & Cosmetics) were used to model participant exposures. Read More

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December 2018

Discovery and characterization of recurrent, targetable ALK fusions in leiomyosarcoma.

Mol Cancer Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Pediatrics, OHSU.

Soft tissue sarcomas such as leiomyosarcoma (LMS) pose a clinical challenge because systemic treatment options show only modest therapeutic benefit. Discovery and validation of targetable vulnerabilities is essential. To discover putative kinase fusions, we analyzed existing transcriptomic data from LMS clinical samples. Read More

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December 2018

Can process mining automatically describe care pathways of patients with long-term conditions in UK primary care? A study protocol.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 4;8(12):e019947. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

School of Engineering and Applied Science, System Analytics for Innovation, Aston University, Birmingham, UK.

Introduction: In the UK, primary care is seen as the optimal context for delivering care to an ageing population with a growing number of long-term conditions. However, if it is to meet these demands effectively and efficiently, a more precise understanding of existing care processes is required to ensure their configuration is based on robust evidence. This need to understand and optimise organisational performance is not unique to healthcare, and in industries such as telecommunications or finance, a methodology known as 'process mining' has become an established and successful method to identify how an organisation can best deploy resources to meet the needs of its clients and customers. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

CYP2C9*61, a rare missense variant identified in a Puerto Rican patient with low warfarin dose requirements.

Pharmacogenomics 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936, Puerto Rico.

Warfarin continues to be the mainstay therapy for preventing thrombus formation. Although pharmacogenetic algorithms have shown higher predictability of the optimal warfarin dose and lower occurrence of bleeding episodes, they often do not include ethno-specific genetic variants relevant to non-Europeans. This case report describes a rare missense variant at exon 9 of CYP2C9 (rs202201137; c. Read More

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December 2018

[Bleeding Management under Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOAC)].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2018 Dec 3;143(24):1734-1738. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Klinik für Anästhesie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin und Schmerztherapie, Vivantes Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Berlin.

Despite the widespread use of DOAC and recommendations of regulatory agencies and first consensus meetings on handling of bleeding situation under DOAC uncertainty still exists. In case of mild bleeding, the medical care of these patients and the delay of the next dose is advised. A laboratory analysis is indicated i. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Accelerating single molecule localization microscopy through parallel processing on a high-performance computing cluster.

J Microsc 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Photonics Group, Physics Department, Imperial College London, London, U.K.

Super-resolved microscopy techniques have revolutionized the ability to study biological structures below the diffraction limit. Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) techniques are widely used because they are relatively straightforward to implement and can be realized at relatively low cost, e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Time of flight PET reconstruction using non-uniform update for regional recovery uniformity.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Gordon Center for Medical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 125 Nashua Street 6th floor, Suite 660, Boston, MA, 02114, United States.

Purpose: Time of flight (TOF) PET reconstruction is well known to statistically improve the image quality compared to non-TOF PET. Although TOF PET can improve the overall signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the image compared to non-TOF PET, the SNR disparity between separate regions in the reconstructed image using TOF data becomes higher than that using non-TOF data. Using the conventional ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM) method, the SNR in the low activity regions becomes significantly lower than in the high activity regions due to the different photon statistics of TOF bins. Read More

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December 2018

A Learning-based Material Decomposition Pipeline for Multi-energy X-ray Imaging.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, 100871, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Benefiting from multi-energy X-ray imaging technology, material decomposition facilitates the characterization of different materials in X-ray imaging. However, the performance of material decomposition is limited by the accuracy of the decomposition model. Due to the presenceof non-ideal effects in X-ray imaging systems, it is difficult to explicitly build the imaging system models for material decomposition. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Risk stratification for stroke in atrial fibrillation: a critique.

Eur Heart J 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Division of Heart Rhythm Services, Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, USA.

Despite the demonstrable success of oral anticoagulants in reducing the rate of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, they continue to be seriously underutilized. Indications for their use as stated in the guidelines incorporate a number of risk score algorithms, the most widely used being the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Nonetheless there are several limitations to the various scores currently in clinical use and a critique of these is the focus of this review. Read More

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December 2018

A fast iteration approach to undersampled cone-beam CT reconstruction.

J Xray Sci Technol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Medical Imaging, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, China.

Background: Due to large dimensional matrix multiplications, the existing iterative algorithms for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction often face problems of heavy computational workload and large volume of memory usage.

Objective: This study proposes and tests an iterative algorithm of 3DA-TVAL3 for fast reconstruction of CBCT images using undersampled measurement data and the reduced amount of computer memories.

Methods: In order to reduce computational workload and computer memories based on the sparsity of the CBCT measurement matrix, the proposed iterative algorithm applies elementwise scalar multiplications in the iterative computation to search for optimal solution. Read More

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November 2018

Image-based classification of bladder state using electrical impedance tomography.

Physiol Meas 2018 Dec 3;39(12):124001. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Translational Medical Device Lab, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway City, Ireland. Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway City, Ireland.

Objective: In this study, we examine the potential of using machine learning classification to determine the bladder state ('not full', 'full') with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images of the pelvic region. Accurate classification of these states would enable urinary incontinence (UI) monitoring to alert the patient, before involuntary voiding occurs, in a low-cost and discrete manner.

Approach: Using both numerical and experimental data, we form datasets that contain diverse observations with varying clinical parameters such as bladder volume, urine conductivity, and the reference used for time-difference imaging. Read More

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December 2018

Scalable Large-Margin Distance Metric Learning Using Stochastic Gradient Descent.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

The key to success of many machine learning and pattern recognition algorithms is the way of computing distances between the input data. In this paper, we propose a large-margin-based approach, called the large-margin distance metric learning (LMDML), for learning a Mahalanobis distance metric. LMDML employs the principle of margin maximization to learn the distance metric with the goal of improving k-nearest-neighbor classification. Read More

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November 2018

A Novel and Safe Two-Stage Screening Method for Support Vector Machine.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

To make support vector machine (SVM) applicable to large-scale data sets, safe screening rules are developed recently. The main idea is to reduce the scale of SVM by safely discarding the redundant training samples. Among existing safe screening rules, the dual screening method with variational inequalities (DVI) and the dynamic screening rule (DSR) based on duality gap are two representative strategies. Read More

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December 2018

Simulating Liquids on Dynamically Warping Grids.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

We introduce dynamically warping grids for adaptive liquid simulation. Our primary contributions are a strategy for dynamically deforming regular grids over the course of a simulation and a method for efficiently utilizing these deforming grids for liquid simulation. Prior work has shown that unstructured grids are very effective for adaptive fluid simulations. Read More

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November 2018

Evaluation of Reconstruction Parameters for Two-Dimensional Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a noninvasive ultrasound imaging modality used in the assessment of the mechanical properties of tissues such as the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, thyroid and the breast. Among the methods used to perform SWE is the comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE) method. This method uses multiple focused ultrasound beams to generate push beams with acoustic radiation force. Read More

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November 2018

A comprehensive database for benchmarking imaging systems.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Cross-modality face recognition is an emerging topic due to the wide-spread usage of different sensors in day-to-day life applications. The development of face recognition systems relies greatly on existing databases for evaluation and obtaining training examples for data-hungry machine learning algorithms. However, currently, there is no publicly available face database that includes more than two modalities for the same subject. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Data Subset Selection With Imperfect Multiple Labels.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

We study the problem of selecting a subset of weakly labeled data where the labels of each data instance are redundant and imperfect. In real applications, less-than-expert labels are obtained at low cost in order to acquire many labels for each instance and then used for estimating the ground truth. However, on one side, preparing and processing data itself sometimes can be even more expensive than labeling. Read More

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November 2018

Low Cost Edge Sensing for High Quality Demosaicking.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Digital cameras that use Color Filter Arrays (CFA) entail a demosaicking procedure to form full RGB images. To digital camera industry, demosaicking speed is as important as demosaicking accuracy, because camera users have been accustomed to viewing captured photos instantly. Moreover, the cost associated with demosaicking should not go beyond the cost saved by using CFA. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Deep Leaning Based Multi-Modal Fusion for Fast MR Reconstruction.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

T1-weighted image (T1WI) and T2-weighted image (T2WI) are the two routinely acquired magnetic resonance (MR) modalities that can provide complementary information for clinical and research usages. However, the relatively long acquisition time makes the acquired image vulnerable to motion artifacts. To speed up the imaging process, various algorithms have been proposed to reconstruct high-quality images from under-sampled k-space data. Read More

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November 2018

Global, regional, and national burden of meningitis, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

Authors:

Lancet Neurol 2018 Dec 13;17(12):1061-1082. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Background: Acute meningitis has a high case-fatality rate and survivors can have severe lifelong disability. We aimed to provide a comprehensive assessment of the levels and trends of global meningitis burden that could help to guide introduction, continuation, and ongoing development of vaccines and treatment programmes.

Methods: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) 2016 study estimated meningitis burden due to one of four types of cause: pneumococcal, meningococcal, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a residual category of other causes. Read More

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December 2018

Ability to detect endodontic complications using three different CBCT units with and without artefact reduction modes: an ex vivo study.

Int Endod J 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: To assess observer performance in detecting endodontic complications using three different CBCT units with and without the application of artefact reduction modes.

Methodology: The study involved 40 freshly extracted human mandibular teeth (n=10 per group) and divided randomly into four endodontic complication groups. Group 1) Instrument fracture; Group 2) Strip perforation; Group 3) Canal underfilling; Group 4) Canal overfilling. Read More

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December 2018

The effect of CYP4F2, VKORC1 and CYP2C9 in influencing coumarin dose. A single patient data meta-analysis in more than 15,000 individuals.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

General Medicine and Hypertension Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Italy.

The CYP4F2 gene is known to influence mean coumarin dose. The aim of the present study was to undertake a meta-analysis at individual patients' level to capture the possible effect of ethnicity, gene-gene interaction or other drugs on the association and to verify if inclusion of CYP4F2*3 variant into dosing algorithms improves the prediction of mean coumarin dose. We asked the authors of our previous meta-analysis (30 articles) and of 38 new articles retrieved by a systematic review to send us individual patients' data. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Repeatability of F-FDG PET Radiomic Features: a Phantom Study to Explore Sensitivity to Image Reconstruction Settings, Noise, and Delineation Method.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Medical Imaging Center, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose positron emission tomography ( F-FDG PET) radiomics has the potential to guide the clinical decision making in cancer patients, but validation is required before radiomics can be implemented in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to explore how feature space reduction and repeatability of F-FDG PET radiomic features are affected by various sources of variation such as underlying data (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Liver microwave ablation: a systematic review of various FDA-approved systems.

Eur Radiol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of HPB Surgery and Liver Transplantation, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Objectives: The aim of the present study is to analyze preclinical and clinical data on the performance of the currently US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved microwave ablation (MWA) systems.

Methods: A review of the literature, published between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2016, on seven FDA-approved MWA systems, was conducted. Ratio of ablation zone volume to applied energy R(AZ:E) and sphericity indices were calculated for ex vivo and in vivo experiments. Read More

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November 2018

Short-term changes observed in multiparametric liver MRI following therapy with direct-acting antivirals in chronic hepatitis C virus patients.

Eur Radiol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Methods: We applied multiparametric MRI to assess changes in liver composition, perfusion and blood flow in 17 patients before direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy and after treatment completion (within 12 weeks of last DAA tablet swallowed).

Results: We observed changes in hepatic composition indicated by a reduction in both liver longitudinal relaxation time (T1, 35 ± 4 ms), transverse relaxation time (T2, 2.5 ± 0. Read More

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November 2018